Productive System (productive + system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Dry matter production, nutritive value and efficiency of nutrient utilization of a complementary forage rotation compared to a grass pasture system

S. C. Garcia
Abstract In pasture-based dairy farming, new sustainable systems that involve the annual dry matter (DM) production of grazed and conserved forage beyond the potential of grazed pasture alone are being sought. The objective of this experiment conducted in Australia was to compare a complementary forage rotation (CFR) for conservation and grazing, comprising an annual sequence of three crops, namely maize (Zea mays L), forage rape (Brassica napus L) and a legume (Persian clover, Trifolium repesinatum L or maple pea, Pisum sativum L), with a pasture [kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) over-sown with short-rotation ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L)] as a pasture control treatment. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with four replicates (,07 ha each). Annual dry-matter (DM) yield over the 3 years averaged >42 t ha,1 year,1 for the CFR treatment and >17 t ha,1 year,1 for the pasture treatment. The high DM yield of the CFR treatment resulted from >27 t ha,1 year,1 from maize harvested for silage and >15 t DM ha,1 year,1 utilized by grazing the forage rape and legumes. Total input of nitrogen (N) and water were similar for both treatments, resulting in higher N- and water-use efficiency for the CFR treatment, which was more than twice that for the pasture treatment. Overall, the nutritive value of the pasture treatment was slightly higher than the mean for that of the CFR treatment. The implications of these results are that a highly productive system based on the CFR treatment in conjunction with the use of pasture is achievable. Such a dairy production system in Australia could increase the total supply of feed resources grown on-farm and the efficiency of use of key resources such as N and water. [source]

Triphase Hydrogenation Reactions Utilizing Palladium-Immobilized Capillary Column Reactors and a Demonstration of Suitability for Large Scale Synthesis

Juta Kobayashi
Abstract We have developed a practical and highly productive system for hydrogenation reactions utilizing capillary column reactors, which occupy less space than ordinary batch systems, are low cost and easy to handle, and show feasibility toward large-scale chemical synthesis. Palladium-containing micelles were immobilized onto the inner surface of the capillaries. Nine palladium-immobilized capillaries were assembled and connected to a T-shaped connector, and hydrogen and a substrate solution were fed to capillaries via the connector. Hydrogenation of 1-phenyl-1-cyclohexene (1) proceeded smoothly to give phenylcyclohexane in quantitative yield. The capillaries themselves occupy only ca. 0.4,mL and a high space-time yield has been achieved (124.3,mg/17,min/0.4,mL). In addition, leaching of palladium was not detected by ICP analysis after reactions. [source]

Rising starlet: the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis

BIOESSAYS, Issue 2 2005
John A. Darling
In recent years, a handful of model systems from the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria have emerged to challenge long-held views on the evolution of animal complexity. The most-recent, and in many ways most-promising addition to this group is the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis. The remarkable amenability of this species to laboratory manipulation has already made it a productive system for exploring cnidarian development, and a proliferation of molecular and genomic tools, including the currently ongoing Nematostella genome project, further enhances the promise of this species. In addition, the facility with which Nematostella populations can be investigated within their natural ecological context suggests that this model may be profitably expanded to address important questions in molecular and evolutionary ecology. In this review, we explore the traits that make Nematostella exceptionally attractive as a model organism, summarize recent research demonstrating the utility of Nematostella in several different contexts, and highlight a number of developments likely to further increase that utility in the near future. BioEssays 27:211,221, 2005. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Quality Characteristics of Sea Bass Intensively Reared and from Lagoon as Affected by Growth Conditions and the Aquatic Environment

E. Orban
ABSTRACT: Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) of commercial size free-living in the lagoon of Orbetello (Tuscany, Italy) and from intensive rearing were compared for proximate composition, essential and toxic metals, unsaponifiable lipids, and for the fatty acid profile of total, neutral, and polar lipids. Farmed sea bass had a total lipid content (10.57 0.17g/100g) significantly higher (P , 0.001) than fish in the wild (1.78 0.01 g/100g). Fish from either productive systems showed comparably high total polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and n-3/n-6 ratio values. Differences in the mineral content occurred among fish, particularly in the levels of mercury and selenium, significantly higher in those from the lagoon. [source]