Productive Resources (productive + resource)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Best of the Sámi Film Festival 2008

ABSTRACT, In June of 2008, the American-Scandinavian Foundation and the National Museum of the American Indian presented a screening of selections originally shown at the 12th annual Sámi Film Festival held in Norway. This marked the first time that a version of the festival, which features works by and about the indigenous peoples of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia, was presented in New York. Three of the films shown,Last Yoik in Saami Forests?, Herdswoman, and Calmmis Calbmái (From an Eye to an Eye),examined how Sámi communities draw on shared traditions as a productive resource for reimagining Sámi identity in a contemporary context. [Keywords: Sámi, Scandinavia, indigenous media, ethnographic film] [source]

Gerechtigkeit und Marktwirtschaft , das Problem der Arbeitslosigkeit

Malte Faber
Conventionally, it is argued that involuntary unemployment causes a deadweight loss in social welfare, because it involves the under-use of a productive resource. We explore this efficiency argument with a public choice approach, employing the notion of homo oeconomicus. We contrast this with a perspective using the concept of homo politicus, which stresses social justice. We apply our findings to the special case of German social reform, especially Hartz IV, and show that some of its policy recommendations are in accordance with our analysis. [source]

A Bigger Piece of a Very Small Pie: Intrahousehold Resource Allocation and Poverty Reduction in Africa

Bridget O'Laughlin
ABSTRACT Feminist research has convincingly shown that an increase in household income does not necessarily lead to improvement in the well-being of all members of the household. More questionable is the policy conclusion often drawn from this research for rural Africa: redressing gender imbalance in control of productive resources will significantly reduce poverty. This contribution argues that the evidence and analysis presented by two studies repeatedly cited to show that gender inequality is inefficient are problematic. It is mythical to suggest that tinkering with women's market position by exchanging unequal collective rights to productive resources for individual ones will decisively reduce rural poverty in Africa. That will depend on the restructuring of long-term and deeply unequal processes of integration in the market, not on a firmer insertion of women within existing patterns of individualization and commodification of productive resources. [source]

A Development Delivery Institution for the Tribal Communities: Experience of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in India

Pulak Mishra
This article examines the varied impacts of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) as a development delivery institution for the tribal communities vis-à-vis other social groups across the Indian States, using the framework of new institutional economics. A number of State-specific, socio-economic institutional factors seem to be responsible for these variations. The article therefore suggests institutional reforms and convergence of the development initiatives of the Ministry of Tribal Affairs with the NREGS in order to realise the optimal potential of the scheme, and, in particular, to ensure greater livelihood opportunities for these marginalised groups and their entitlement to productive resources with greater socio-economic and political empowerment. [source]

Bargaining power and efficiency,rural households in Ethiopia

Holger Seebens
Abstract It appears to be clear from literature that bargaining power associated with greater control over household resources affects the share of an individual's consumption, that is, higher bargaining power leads to higher levels of consumption. However, it has remained unexplored, if and in which way bargaining power has an impact on household production. By applying different stochastic efficiency models, we try to fill this gap by investigating the role of the distribution of productive resources among 558 couples of rural Ethiopian households in determining the outcome of household production. The results clearly confirm that the more equal the allocation of resources, the higher the household's productivity which could be predominantly due to the incentives to participate efficiently in the production process. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Rent-seeking activities and the ,brain gain' effects of migration

Baochun Peng
Abstract This paper studies migration and rent-seeking activities in a framework of heterogeneous ability. It is shown that, despite the depletion of productive resources known as the ,brain drain,' the possibility of migration could sufficiently reduce participation in rent-seeking activities and increase participation in productive activities such that the net effect of migration is a ,brain gain.' Moreover, the possibility of migration that sufficiently enlarges the relative reward to ability in the productive sector could result in qualitative improvements in the allocation of talent. Ce mémoire étudie la migration et les activités de chasse aux rentes dans un monde où les habiletés sont hétérogènes. On montre que, malgré la perte de ressources productives que constitue la ,perte de cerveaux', il se peut que la migration puisse suffisamment réduire la participation aux activités de chasse aux rentes et accroître la participation aux activités productives, pour que l'effet net de la migration soit un ,gain de cerveaux'. De plus il se peut que la migration augmente suffisamment la récompense des habiletés dans le secteur productif qu'il puisse en résulter des améliorations qualitatives dans l'allocation des talents. [source]

Tradeable Emissions Permits, Emissions Taxes and Growth

Bertrand Crettez
This paper uses a dynamic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations in order to analyse and to compare emissions taxes and tradeable emissions permits. Even in the context of a perfect environment, i.e. with perfect information, perfect competition,, it is shown that privately owned emissions permits have some disadvantages. An equilibrium with emissions permits would certainly be better than a laissez-faire equilibrium since it would entail a lower pollution level. However, it is far from clear that an economy with pollution permits would be preferable over an economy with emissions taxes. While in both cases pollution would be lower, growth would be higher in an economy with emissions taxes. This is because emissions permits divert saving from ,productive' resources and have a negative impact on capital accumulation. This happens whatever the way emissions taxes are redistributed. [source]