Production Value (production + value)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Production Value

  • lipid production value

  • Selected Abstracts

    Regional socio-economic importance of fisheries in Finland

    J. Virtanen
    The total value of Finnish fisheries production in 1997 was almost FIM 2 billion. The bulk of this sum was from processing and wholesaling, but in terms of value added, somewhat more than half was contributed by the primary sector, i.e. fishing and fish farming. In economic terms, fisheries accounted for 0.1% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 1997 and the relative job creation capacity was 0.15%. This paper examines the structure of Finnish fisheries in terms of production value and employment. It also considers the level of dependency on fisheries and of value added along the production chain. The focus is on concentration of the industry and on input to the economy at the regional level. The concentration of fisheries and regional dependence on fisheries are assessed in absolute and relative terms. Examining employment and value added in these two ways enables the regional nature of fisheries to be shown in greater detail. The input of fisheries to the regional economy is examined by the share of value added and by location quotients. The location quotient compares an area's share of a particular activity with that area's share of some basic or aggregated phenomenon. The location quotient showed that fisheries have importance not only in the coastal area but also inland. [source]

    An overview of the Turkish dairy sector

    The livestock sector and dairy subsector have great importance for Turkey, in terms of both nutrition and economy. The share of the livestock sector in the total agricultural production value has varied between 25% and 30% in the last three decades. Raw milk production is characterized by small-scale farms, with an average of three heads of dairy cattle per farm. Turkey's dairy industry was established and developed by the State with the opening of the Turkish Dairy Industry Institution (TSEK) in 1963 as a state-owned enterprise (SOE). TSEK facilitated modernization of the sector, created a dairy market and played a role in stabilizing the consumer and producer prices. In 1995, a liberalization movement in the agricultural sector started in Turkey and the TSEK enterprises were privatized. After privatization, producer prices decreased between 11.51% and 18.45% and consumer prices of dairy products increased in general. Today, the dairy processing sector has a dual structure that on one hand comprises many small- and medium-sized enterprises, while on the other features seven large holding companies that hold the largest market share (CR4 71). This study aims to show that the restructuring of the agricultural SOEs in the first place resulted in undesirable impacts, and thus that the planning and implementation of the privatization of the state enterprises in the dairy sector should be taken as a strategy in the medium term, using the experiences of other developing countries. [source]

    Tolerance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to dietborne endosulfan assessed by haematology, biochemistry, histology and growth

    Abstract The inclusion of plant-based ingredients in commercial fish feeds may pose a challenge because of the presence of undesirable substances, such as the pesticide endosulfan. Waterborne endosulfan is highly toxic to fish, whereas dietborne exposure has varied toxicity in different species. To investigate the systemic effects of endosulfan exposure, quadruplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed either 0 (control), 0.005 mg kg,1; the European Union's maximum limit, or 10 or 20 times this level (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg,1 respectively) for 95 days. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in liver somatic index, spleen somatic index, condition factor or growth among treatments. There were no indications of liver damage in fish from any of the groups in the biomarkers measured: plasma aspartate aminotransferase, plasma alanine aminotransferase and histopathology. Similarly, there were no apparent treatment-related effects on the haematological parameters Hct, Hb, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and blood sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride levels were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among groups. Lipid digestibility, but not energy, protein, or glycogen digestibility, was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at the highest exposure concentration. However, no significant differences were observed in lipid production value or lipid efficiency ratio. In contrast to previous studies, clinical histological abnormalities were not observed in the intestine, liver or spleen of endosulfan-treated fish. [source]

    Effect of dietary carbohydrate-to-lipid ratios on growth performance, body composition, nutrient utilization and hepatic enzymes activities of herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    W. GAO
    Abstract Six isonitrogenous (390 g kg,1) and isoenergetic (16.2 kJ g,1) diets with varying carbohydrate : lipid (CHO : L) ratios (202.5,1.74), were fed to triplicate groups of 25 fish in indoor recirculation system. Over 8-week-growth trial, best weight gain (WG), specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein production value (P < 0.05) were observed in fish-fed diets with CHO : L ratio of 7.5. Fish fed either the lowest (1.7) or highest (202.5) CHO : L ratio tended to produce lower (P < 0.05) growth and feed conversion efficiencies. The values of viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat ratio increased as dietary CHO : L ratios decreased. There were no significant differences in whole body and liver crude protein among dietary treatments. Whole body and liver lipid increased as CHO : L ratios decreased. Plasma cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels increased linearly as dietary CHO : L ratios decreased. Activities of glucokinase and pyruvate kinase were stimulated by elevated levels of dietary carbohydrate; however, activities of lipase (LPS) and alkaline phosphatase were stimulated by elevated levels of dietary lipid. Based on a second-order polynomial regression analysis of WG against dietary carbohydrate and lipid levels, 275 g kg,1 of carbohydrate and 59 g kg,1 of lipid, corresponding to a CHO : L ratio of 4.7, in a diet holding 390 g kg,1 of crude protein and 16.3 kJ g,1 of gross energy, proved to be optimal for grass carp. These results indicated that utilization of dietary lipid and carbohydrate was moderate in grass carp, but the fish were a little more capable of utilizing lipid compared with carbohydrate. [source]

    Effect of dietary riboflavin on growth, feed utilization, body composition and intestinal enzyme activities of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    W. LI
    Abstract A total of 1050 Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian (23.39 ± 0.06 g) were randomly divided into seven groups of each three replicates, which were fed respectively with seven semi-purified diets contained 1.25, 2.71, 4.22, 5.78, 7.23, 8.83 and 11.44 mg riboflavin kg,1 diet for 6 weeks. The results showed that riboflavin significantly improved percent weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio at the level of 4.22 mg kg,1 diet. Gross protein retention efficiency and lipid production value improved with increasing dietary riboflavin levels from 1.25 to 5.78 mg kg,1. Activities of trypsin, lipase, ,-amylase, Na+,K+ -ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestinal tract were significantly improved with increasing riboflavin levels. Weight and protein content of hepatopancreas, intestine protein and intestine length index were also significantly improved. [source]

    Effect of dietary pantothenic acid supplement on growth, body composition and intestinal enzyme activities of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    Z.-P. WEN
    Abstract A 9-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile Jian carp to study the effect of dietary pantothenic acid (PA) on growth, body composition and intestinal enzyme activities. Semi-purified diets with seven levels (4.0, 15.5, 25.6, 36.1, 45.9, 56.1 and 65.9 mg PA kg,1) of supplemental calcium d -pantothenate were fed to Jian carp (13.0 ± 0.0 g). PA improved specific growth rate (SGR), protein productive value (PPV), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and lipid production value (LPV) (P < 0.05). Fish fed the control diet had significantly lower feed efficiency (FE) than that in any other group (P < 0.05). Body protein content increased with increasing PA levels (P < 0.05), but moisture, lipid and ash of fish carcasses were negatively related to the graded PA levels (P < 0.05). Intestine protein content (IPC), hepatopancreas protein content (HPC) and activity of ,-amylase, lipase, trypsin, Na+,K+ -ATPase, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (,-GT) were all positively affected by the dietary PA levels (P < 0.05), while intestine index (ISI) and hepatopancreas index (HSI) decreased with the increment of supplemental levels of PA (P < 0.05). These results suggested that PA could enhance fish growth and intestinal enzyme activities. The dietary PA requirement of juvenile Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian (13.0,73.0 g), for optimal growth estimated by the broken-line analysis was 23.0 mg PA kg,1 diet. [source]

    Testing options for the commercialization of abalone selective breeding using bioeconomic simulation modelling

    Nick Robinson
    Abstract The genetic response and economic benefit from alternative breeding programme designs for blacklip and greenlip abalone (Haliotis rubra and Haliotis laevigata, respectively) were evaluated using a computer simulation model. Two selection criteria were investigated, one used family breeding values for liability to disease challenge test infection and the other used a direct selection of the best performing individuals across families for growth rate. Five scales of breeding programme were tested and the model predicted that if growth rate is the only selection criterion, breeding programmes of a scale using 150 families of each species each generation would result in 12,13% genetic improvement in initial generations and have the greatest beneficial economic impact on the Australian abalone industry of the options tested. The model predicts an average discounted benefit,cost ratio of 48:1, total added discounted benefit of AU$4.90 for each kilogram of abalone produced and nominal economic effect on operating income of over AU$16 million per year after 10 years. If disease resistance is the only selective breeding criterion, 100 families of each species would result in the highest benefit,cost ratio of the options tested, although some genetic gain would need to be sacrificed to reduce inbreeding to acceptable levels in this scenario. A strategy for a stand-alone abalone selective breeding cooperative was also modelled. For a farm of current tank area yielding 100 t year,1, participation is expected to yield over AU$0.7 million in discounted total added production value and annual discounted returns of over AU$0.4 million per annum by year 10. [source]

    Growth, digestive capacity and intestinal microflora of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) fed graded levels of dietary inositol

    Wei-Dan Jiang
    Abstract A 60-day feeding trial was carried out with juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) to study the effects of myo -inositol (MI) on the growth, digestive enzyme and intestinal microbial population. Diets with seven levels of inositol (163.5, 232.7, 384.2, 535.8, 687.3, 838.8 and 990.3 mg MI kg,1 diet) were fed to Jian carp (initial weight 22.28±0.07 g). Per cent weight gain (PWG) was improved with increasing inositol levels up to 535.8 mg MI kg,1 diet (P<0.05), and plateaued (P>0.05). The protein production value, lipid production value and ash production value were increased with increasing dietary inositol levels up to 384.2, 838.8 and 838.8 mg MI kg,1 diet respectively (P<0.05). Although intestinal protein content and trypsin activity were not affected by inositol levels (P>0.05), chymotrypsin, lipase and amylase activities in intestine were the lowest for fish fed the MI-unsupplemented diet (P<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase, Na+, K+ -ATPase, ,-glutamyl transpeptidase and creatinkinase activities in the intestine were increased with an increase in the inositol levels up to 384.2,687.3 mg MI kg,1 diet (P<0.05). Intestinal Aeromonas hydrophila and Escherichia coli decreased with an increase in the levels of dietary inositol up to 232.7 and 687.3 mg MI kg,1 diet respectively (P<0.05), while Lactobacillus in the intestine increased with an increase in inositol levels up to 990.3 mg MI kg,1 diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, inositol improved growth, digestive capacity and intestinal microbial population of juvenile Jian carp, and the dietary inositol requirement for PWG of juvenile Jian carp is 518.0 mg MI kg,1 diet. [source]

    Importance of the Straits of Florida spawning ground to Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans)

    Abstract Much of the uncertainty in managing highly migratory pelagic species results from the scarcity of fisheries-independent data relevant to determining long-term trends in abundance, migratory movements, and the relative importance of different spawning grounds. To address these issues, we used an ichthyoplankton-based method to quantify the overall level of spawning of sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Straits of Florida (SF). We estimated that during the 2 years (2003,2004) of the study, 4.60 × 1011 sailfish eggs and 4.49 × 1011 blue marlin eggs were produced on an annual basis in this region. These egg production values, when combined with estimates of annual fecundity for each species and the most recent stock assessment estimate of total biomass, indicate that about 2.1% of Western Atlantic sailfish spawning and 1.6% of Atlantic-wide blue marlin spawning occurs in the SF. Additionally, pop-up satellite tags deployed on sailfish at the start of the spawning season revealed their short residency times in the SF, suggesting that a large (,13%) transient portion of the sailfish population is responsible for the SF egg production. Overall, this study provides a critically needed fisheries-independent method of quantifying spatial and temporal trends in the abundance of highly migratory species. The application of this methodology in the SF indicated that above-average levels of sailfish and blue marlin spawning occur in this area and, possibly more importantly, that the SF is a migratory bottleneck for these species. [source]

    Dissecting components of population-level variation in seed production and the evolution of masting behavior

    OIKOS, Issue 3 2003
    Walter D. Koenig
    Mast-fruiting or masting behavior is the cumulative result of the reproductive patterns of individuals within a population and thus involves components of individual variability, between-individual synchrony, and endogenous cycles of temporal autocorrelation. Extending prior work by Herrera, we explore the interrelationships of these components using data on individual seed production in 59 populations of plants from 24 species spanning a large range of annual variability, from species exhibiting strong masting to others with little annual variability in seed production. Estimates of population and individual variability were not biased by sample size or average overall seed production when based on untransformed seed production values, but these values declined as log-transformed seed production increased. Population variability was more strongly correlated with individual variability (r=0.86) than individual synchrony (r=0.73). These latter two components were also significantly correlated (r=0.45), but randomizations confirm that they need not covary closely. Thus, selection can act separately on inter-annual variability and between-individual synchrony. We illustrate the potential for such fine-tuned selection on seed production patterns by discussing several examples and by demonstrating significant differences in components of population-level variation in seed production among species related to their life-history. [source]