Production Traits (production + trait)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Association of a melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) polymorphism with performance traits in Lithuanian White pigs

R. Jokubka
Summary The melanocortin 4 receptor is expressed in virtually all brain regions of mammals and plays an important role in energy homeostasis. Polymorphisms in this gene may thus be related to growth and obesity. In pigs, a non-synonymous polymorphic site was described (Asp298Asn) and demonstrated to affect cAMP production and to alter adenylyl cyclase signalling. Association studies revealed significant linkage of this mutation with production trait in pigs. In this study, 207 Lithuanian White pigs were genotyped at the MC4R locus and analysed on relationships between genotype and breeding values for several performance traits. The observed allele and genotype frequencies did not deviate significantly from Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium (wildtype allele 0.59; mutant allele 0.41) and are comparable with those described in other Large White populations. The mutant Asn298 allele of the MC4R gene was significantly associated with increased test daily gain, higher lean meat percentage and lower backfat thickness. There was a trend towards an improved feed conversion ratio (p = 0.065) in animals with the mutant allele whereas no significant effect was found on lifetime daily gain. These results indicate that the MC4R polymorphism should be integrated in selection programmes in the Lithuanian White to improve carcass composition. [source]

Postnatal transcription profile and polymorphism of the ADIPOR1 gene in five pig breeds

M. Stachowiak
Summary As a result of its role in energy homeostasis regulation, the ADIPOR1 gene is a candidate for fat deposition, an important production trait, in the pig. The aim of the study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the ADIPOR1 postnatal transcript level, in order to establish its promoter and 5,UTR sequences and to search the gene for polymorphisms. The transcription level was examined in longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles collected from 180 pigs at 60,210 days of age, representing five pig breeds: Duroc, Polish Large White, Polish Landrace, Pietrain and Pulawska. We calculated highly significant breed by age by muscle interaction (P < 0.0001) and breed by muscle interactions (P < 0.01). The 5,UTR and promoter region of the porcine ADIPOR1 gene were amplified for the first time and their sequences were deposited in the GenBank database. In total, 21 novel and two previously described polymorphisms were found in the ADIPOR1 promoter, coding, intronic, 5, and 3, untranslated regions. The only SNP detected in the coding region was a synonymous substitution. Two polymorphisms in 3,UTR (c.*129A>C and c.*536A>G) showed no significant effect on the transcript level. Our results showed a high polymorphism of the ADIPOR1 and a complexity in its transcription level in the studied muscles. This complexity indicates that conclusions based on such studies should be carefully gradated. [source]

Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models

J. Jamrozik
Summary Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits. [source]

Genetic correlations among and between wool, growth and reproduction traits in Merino sheep

E. Safari
Summary Data from seven research resource flocks across Australia were combined to provide accurate estimates of genetic correlations among production traits in Merino sheep. The flocks represented contemporary Australian Merino fine, medium and broad wool strains over the past 30 years. Over 110 000 records were available for analysis for each of the major wool traits, and 50 000 records for reproduction and growth traits with over 2700 sires and 25 000 dams. Individual models developed from the single trait analyses were extended to the various combinations of two-trait models to obtain genetic correlations among six wool traits [clean fleece weight (CFW), greasy fleece weight, fibre diameter (FD), yield, coefficient of variation of fibre diameter and standard deviation of fibre diameter], four growth traits [birth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight (YWT), and hogget weight] and four reproduction traits [fertility, litter size, lambs born per ewe joined, lambs weaned per ewe joined (LW/EJ)]. This study has provided for the first time a comprehensive matrix of genetic correlations among these 14 wool, growth and reproduction traits. The large size of the data set has also provided estimates with very low standard errors. A moderate positive genetic correlation was observed between CFW and FD (0.29 ± 0.02). YWT was positively correlated with CFW (0.23 ± 0.04), FD (0.17 ± 0.04) and LWEJ (0.58 ± 0.06), while LW/EJ was negatively correlated with CFW (,0.26 ± 0.05) and positively correlated with FD (0.06 ± 0.04) and LS (0.68 ± 0.04). These genetic correlations, together with the estimates of heritability and other parameters provide the basis for more accurate prediction of outcomes in complex sheep-breeding programmes designed to improve several traits. [source]

Estimates of genetic parameters for Boran, Friesian, and crosses of Friesian and Jersey with the Boran cattle in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia: milk production traits and cow weight

S. Demeke
Summary Breed additive and non-additive effects plus heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk yield per lactation (LMY), milk yield per day (DMY), lactation length (LL), annual milk yield (AMY), annual milk yield per metabolic body weight (AMYBW) and cow weight at calving (BW) were estimated for 5464 lactation records collected from purebred Boran (B), Friesian (F), and crosses of Friesian and Jersey (J) breeds with the Boran breed raised in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. Single trait analysis was carried out by using two equivalent repeatability animal models. In the first model the genotype was fitted as a fixed group effect, while in the second model the genotype was substituted by breed additive, heterotic and recombination effects fitted as fixed covariates. Both the F and J breed additive effects, measured as a deviation from the B breed were significant (p < 0.01) for all traits, except for BW of the J. The F and J additive contributions were 2774 ± 81 and 1473 ± 362 kg for LMY, 7.1 ± 0.2 and 4.8 ± 0.8 kg for DMY, 152 ± 7 and 146 ± 31 days for LL, 2345 ± 71 and 1238 ± 319 kg for AMY, 20.6 ± 0.9 and 18.9 ± 4.3 kg for AMYBW, and 140 ± 4 and ,21 ± 22 kg (p > 0.05) for BW. The heterotic contributions to the crossbred performance were also positive and significant (p < 0.01) for all traits. The F1 heterosis expressed as a deviation from the mid-parent values were 22 and 66% for LMY, 11 and 20% for DMY, 29 and 29% for LL, 21 and 64% for AMY, 42 and 42% for AMYBW, and 2% (p < 0.05) and 11% for BW for the F × B and J × B crosses, respectively. The recombination effect estimated for the F × B crosses was negative and significant for LMY (,526 ± 192 kg, p < 0.01), DMY (,3.0 ± 0.4 kg, p < 0.001), AMY (,349 ± 174 kg, p < 0.05) and BW (,68 ± 11 kg, p < 0.001). For the J × B crosses the recombination loss was significant and negative only for DMY (,2.2 ± 0.7 kg, p < 0.05) and BW (,33 ± 17 kg, p < 0.05). The direct heritabilities (h2) estimated for LMY, DMY, LL, AMY and AMYBW were 0.24 ± 0.04, 0.19 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.03, 0.23 ± 0.04 and 0.17 ± 0.05, respectively. Based on the genetic parameters estimated, the best breeding strategy to increased milk production under highland Ethiopian conditions is to apply selection on purebred base populations (Boran and Friesian) and then crossing them to produce F1 dairy cows. However, for breeding decision based on total dairy merit, further investigations are needed for traits such as milk quality, reproduction, longevity and survival. Zusammenfassung Additive Rasseneffekte, nicht additive Effekte, Heritabilitäten und Wiederholbarkeiten für Milchmenge pro Laktation (LMY), Milchmenge pro Tag (DMY), Laktationsdauer (LL), jährliche Milchmenge (AMY), jährliche Milchmenge pro metabolischem Körpergewicht (AMYBW) und Kuhgewichte zur Kalbung (BW) wurden anhand von 5464 Laktationsdatensätzen von reinrassigen Boran (B), Friesian (F) und Kreuzungen der Rassen Friesian und Jersey (J) mit der Rasse Boran, die im tropischen Hochland von Äthiopien groß gezogen wurden, geschätzt. Einmerkmalsmodelle wurden mit zwei äquivalenten Wiederholbarkeits-Tiermodellen durchgeführt. Im ersten Modell wurde der Genotyp als fixer Gruppeneffekt berücksichtigt, während im zweiten Modell der Genotyp durch additive Rasseneffekte, Heterosis und Rekombinationseffekte als Kovariable ersetzt wurde. Die additiven Rasseneffekte von F und J, gemessen als Abweichung von der Rasse B, waren für alle Merkmale signifikant (p < 0,01), ausgenommen BW für die Rasse J. Die additiven Rasseneffekte von F und J betrugen 2774 ± 81 und 1473 ± 362 kg für LMY, 7,1 ± 0,2 und 4,8 ± 0,8 kg für DMY, 152 ± 7 und 146 ± 31 Tage für LL, 2345 ± 71 und 1238 ± 319 kg für AMY, 20,6 ± 0,9 und 18,9 ± 4,3 kg für AMYBW und 140 ± 4 und ,21 ± 22 kg (p > 0,05) für BW. Die Heterosis bei den Kreuzungstieren war positiv und signifikant für alle Merkmale (p < 0,01). Die Heterosis der F1 -Tiere, ausgedrückt als Abweichung vom Mittel der beiden Eltern, betrug 22 und 66% für LMY, 11 und 20% für DMY, 29 und 29% für LL, 21 und 64% für AMY, 42% und 42% für AMYBW und 2% (p < 0,05) und 11% für BW für die F × B und J × B Kreuzungen. Der geschätzte Rekombinationseffekt für die F × B Kreuzungen war negativ und signifikant für LMY (,526 ± 192 kg, p < 0,01), DMY (,3,0 ± 0,4 kg, p < 0,001), AMY (,349 ± 174, p < 0,05) und BW (,68 ± 11 kg, p < 0,001). Für die J × B Kreuzungen war der Rekombinationsverlust signifikant und negativ nur für DMY (,2,2 ± 0,7 kg, p < 0,05) und BW (,33 ± 17, p < 0,05). Die geschätzten Heritabilitäten (h2) betrugen für LMY, DMY, LL, AMY und AMYBW 0,24 ± 0,04, 0,19 ± 0,03, 0,13 ± 0,03, 0,23 ± 0,04 und 0,17 ± 0,05. Basierend auf den geschätzten genetischen Parametern erscheint Selektion in den Reinzuchtpopulationen B und F und anschließ end Kreuzung dieser Tiere zur Erstellung von F1 -Milchkühen als günstigste Zuchtstrategie, um die Milchproduktion unter äthiopischen Hochlandbedingungen zu steigern. Für Zuchtentscheidungen, die die gesamte Milchproduktion berücksichtigen, sind weitere Untersuchungen notwendig für Merkmale wie Milchqualität, Reproduktion, Persistenz und Langlebigkeit. [source]

Stability of genetic parameter estimates for production traits in pigs

J. Wolf
Changes in variance component estimates in growing sets of performance data in two pig breeds were investigated. Data was used from the field and station test of Czech Landrace (LA: 75 099 observations) and the Slovakian breed, White Meaty swine (WM: 32 203 observations). In LA the traits analysed were estimated lean meat content (LM) and average daily gain (ADGF) on field test and average daily gain (ADGS) and weight of valuable cuts (VCW) on station test. In WM the traits analysed were backfat thickness on field and station test (BFF, BFS, respectively), proportion of valuable cuts (VCP) on station test, ADGF and ADGS. Covariance components were estimated from four- and five-trait animal models using the VCE software. Omitting data from factor levels with a low number of records led to 4.2% of LA records and 21.7% of WM records being deleted. Changes in genetic and residual variance estimates were less than 5% for all traits in LA and less than 12% for all traits except ADGS in WM. The changes in estimated genetic variances caused by 18 months (LA) or 24 months (WM) of new data were 2,25% and the changes in estimated residual variances were less than 5% in LA and less than 20% in WM. In both breeds, changes in heritability estimates did not exceed 0.06 in absolute value. In LA, it is reasonable to use genetic parameter estimates for 3 years before re-estimation. In WM the time interval should be shorter because of changes in the estimates caused by their lower accuracy arising from the smaller size of the data-set and smaller frequency of station testing. Stabilität der Schätzwerte genetischer Parameter für Produktionsmarkmale beim Schwein Für zwei Schweinerassen wurden Änderungen der Varianzkomponentenschätzwerte in wachsenden Leistungsprüfungsdatensätzen untersucht. Die beiden Ausgangsdatensätze bestanden aus Feld- und Stationsprüfdaten der Tschechischen Landrasse (LA , 75 099 Beobachtungen) bzw. der Slowakischen Rasse White Meaty (WM , 32 203 Beobachtungen). Folgende Merkmale wurden ausgewertet: Magerfleischanteil (LM) und Lebenstagszunahme (ADGF) aus der Feldprüfung sowie Prüftagszunahme (ADGS) und Gewicht wertvoller Teilstücke (VCW) aus der Stationsprüfung bei der LA; Rückenspeckdicke aus der Feld- und Stationsprüfung (BFF bzw. BFS), Anteil wertvoller Teilstücke (VCP) aus der Stationsprüfung sowie ADGF und ADGS bei der Rasse WM. Die Kovarianzkomponenten wurden für Vier- bzw. Fünf-Merkmals-Tiermodelle mit dem Programm VCE berechnet. Das Auslassen von Daten von Klassen mit geringer Besetzung führte dazu, daß in der LA 4,2% und in WM 21,7% der Daten gelöscht wurden. Die Änderungen in den genetischen und den Rest-Varianzen waren in der LA bei allen Merkmalen kleiner als 5% und in WM bei allen Merkmalen mit Ausnahme von ADGS kleiner als 12%. Durch Hinzufügen von Daten aus einem Zeitraum von 18 (LA) bzw. 24 (WM) Monaten änderten sich die genetischen Varianzen um 2 bis 25%. Die Änderungen in den Restvarianzen lagen unter 5% bei der LA und unter 20% bei WM. Die maximale Änderung der Heritabilitätskoeffizienten überstieg in beiden Rassen nicht 0,06. Bei der LA sollte ein Zeitintervall von drei Jahren zu einer Neuschätzung der genetischen Parameter ausreichen, bei WM sollte wegen der beobachteten Änderungen der Schätzwerte, der kleineren Datenmenge und des geringeren Anteils stationsgeprüfter Tiere das Zeitintervall kürzer sein. [source]

Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci for milk production in sheep

R. G. Mateescu
Summary A backcross pedigree using dairy East Friesian rams and non-dairy Dorset ewes was established specifically to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk production in sheep. Ninety nine microsatellite markers of an initial set of 120 were successfully genotyped and informative on 188 animals of this backcross pedigree. Test-day milk records on individual ewes were used to estimate several milk yield related traits, including peak milk yield and cumulative milk yield to 50 (MY50), 100 (MY100) and 250 days (MY250). These traits, as well as estimated breeding value of backcross ewes extracted from the genetic evaluation file of the entire flock, were used in interval mapping. Ovine chromosomes 2, 12, 18, 20 and 24 were identified to harbour putative QTL for different measures of milk production. The QTL on Ovis aries chromosomes (OAR) 2 and 20 mapped to locations where similar trait QTL have already been mapped in other studies, whereas QTL on OAR 12, 18 and 24 were unique to our backcross pedigree and have not been reported previously. In addition, all identified QTL regions were syntenic with bovine chromosomal segments revealed to harbour QTL affecting milk production traits, providing supporting evidence for the QTL identified here. [source]

The identification of QTL that affect the fatty acid composition of milk on sheep chromosome 11

M. García-Fernández
Summary In this work, we analysed 11 genetic markers localized on OAR11 in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to detect QTL that underlie milk fatty acid (FA) composition traits. Following a daughter design, we analysed 799 ewes distributed in 15 half-sib families. Eight microsatellite markers and three novel SNPs identified in two genes related to fatty acid metabolism, acetyl-CoA carboxylase , (ACACA) and fatty acid synthase (FASN), were genotyped in the whole population under study. The phenotypic traits considered in the study included 22 measurements related to the FA composition of the milk and three other milk production traits (milk protein percentage, milk fat percentage and milk yield). Across-family regression analysis revealed four significant QTL at the 5% chromosome-wise level influencing contents of capric acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), linoleic conjugated acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) respectively. The peaks of the QTL affecting C10:0 and PUFA contents in milk map close to the FASN gene, which has been evaluated as a putative positional candidate for these QTL. The QTL influencing C12:0 content reaches its maximum significance at 58 cM, close to the gene coding for the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. We were not able to find any candidate genes related to fat metabolism at the QTL influencing CLA content, which is located at the proximal end of the chromosome. Further research efforts will be needed to confirm and refine the QTL locations reported here. [source]

Confirmation and refinement of a QTL on BTA5 affecting milk production traits in the Fleckvieh dual purpose cattle breed

A. Awad
Summary We analysed a QTL affecting milk yield (MY), milk protein yield (PY) and milk fat yield (FY) in the dual purpose cattle breed Fleckvieh on BTA5. Twenty-six microsatellite markers covering 135 cM were selected to analyse nine half-sib families containing 605 sons in a granddaughter design. We thereby assigned two new markers to the public linkage map using the CRI-MAP program. Phenotypic records were daughter yield deviations (DYD) originating from the routinely performed genetic evaluations of breeding animals. To determine the position of the QTL, three different approaches were applied: interval mapping (IM), linkage analysis by variance component analysis (LAVC), and combined linkage disequilibrium (LD) and linkage (LDL) analysis. All three methods mapped the QTL in the same marker interval (BM2830-ETH152) with the greatest test-statistic value at 118, 119.33 and 119.33 cM respectively. The positive QTL allele simultaneously increases DYD in the first lactation by 272 kg milk, 7.1 kg milk protein and 7.0 kg milk fat. Although the mapping accuracy and the significance of a QTL effect increased from IM over LAVC to LDL, the confidence interval was large (13, 20 and 24 cM for FY, MY and PY respectively) for the positional cloning of the causal gene. The estimated averages of pair wise marker LD with a distance <5 cM were low (0.107) and reflect the large effective population size of the Fleckvieh subpopulation analysed. This low level of LD suggests a need for increase in marker density in following fine mapping steps. [source]

Polymorphisms in the STAT6 gene and their association with carcass traits in feedlot cattle

G. Rincon
Summary Identification of the genes and polymorphisms underlying quantitative traits, and understanding how these genes and polymorphisms affect economic traits, are important for successful marker-assisted selection and more efficient management strategies in commercial cattle populations. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) gene is tightly connected to IL-4 and IL-13 signalling and plays a key role in TH2 polarization of the immune system. In addition, STAT6 acts as a mediator of leptin signalling and has been associated with body weight regulation. The objective of this study was to determine if SNPs within the bovine STAT6 gene are associated with economically important traits in feedlot cattle. The approach consisted of resequencing STAT6 using a panel of DNA from unrelated animals of different beef breeds. Specifically, 16 kb of STAT6 was resequenced in 47 animals and the process revealed 39 SNPs. From the 39 SNPs, a panel of 15 tag SNPs was genotyped in 1500 beef cattle samples with phenotypes to perform a marker-trait association analysis. Among the 15 tag SNPs, five and six were polymorphic in Bos taurus and Bos indicus respectively. An association analysis was performed between the 15 tag SNPs and 14 performance and production traits. SNP ss115492459:C > A, ss115492461:A > G and ss115492458:G > C were significantly associated with back fat, calculated yield grade, cutability, hot carcass weight, dry matter intake, days on feed, back fat rate and average daily gain. These three SNPs were present in all Bos taurus beef breeds examined. Our results provide evidence that polymorphisms in STAT6 are associated with carcass and growth efficiency traits, and may be used for marker-assisted selection and management in feedlot cattle. [source]

Effect of polymorphisms in the FASN, OLR1, PPARGC1A, PRL and STAT5A genes on bovine milk-fat composition

A. Schennink
Summary The aim of our study was to estimate effects of polymorphisms in the ATP-binding cassette G2 (ABCG2), fatty acid synthase (FASN), oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-, coactivator-1, (PPARGC1A), prolactin (PRL) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) genes on milk production traits and detailed milk-fat composition. Milk-fat composition phenotypes were available for 1905 Dutch Holstein,Friesian cows. First, the presence of each SNP in the Dutch Holstein,Friesian population was evaluated by direct sequencing of the PCR product surrounding the SNP in 22 proven Dutch Holstein,Friesian bulls. The ABCG2 SNP did not segregate in the bull population. Second, we genotyped the cows for the FASNg.16024G>A, FASNg.17924A>G, OLR1g.8232C>A, PPARGC1Ac.1790+514G>A, PPARGC1Ac.1892+19G>A, PRLg.8398G>A and STAT5Ag.9501G>A polymorphisms, and estimated genotype effects on milk production traits and milk-fat composition. FASNg.17924A>G and OLRg.8232C>A had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on milk-fat percentage. However, we were not able to confirm results reported in the literature that showed effects of all evaluated polymorphisms on milk-fat percentage or milk-fat yield. All polymorphisms showed significant effects (P < 0.05) on milk-fat composition. The polymorphisms in FASN and STAT5A, which had an effect on C14:0 and were located on chromosome 19, could not fully explain the quantitative trait locus for C14:0 that was previously detected on chromosome 19 in a genome-wide scan using linkage analysis. [source]

Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep

B. Gutiérrez-Gil
Summary Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits. [source]

A functional genomics approach to evaluate candidate genes located in a QTL interval for milk production traits on BTA6

P. A. Sheehy
Summary The potential genetic and economic advantage of marker-assisted selection for enhanced production in dairy cattle has provided an impetus to conduct numerous genome scans in order to identify associations between DNA markers and future productive potential. One area of focus has been a quantitative trait locus on bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6) found to be associated with milk yield, milk protein and fat percentage, which has been subsequently fine-mapped to six positional candidate genes. Subsequent investigations have yet to resolve which of the potential positional candidate genes is responsible for the observed associations with productive performance. In this study, we analysed candidate gene expression and the effects of gene knockdown on expression of ,- and ,-casein mRNA in a small interfering RNA transfected bovine in vitro mammosphere model. From our expression studies in vivo, we observed that four of the six candidates (ABCG2, SPP1, PKD2 and LAP3) exhibited differential expression in bovine mammary tissue over the lactation cycle, but in vitro functional studies indicate that inhibition of only one gene, SPP1, had a significant impact on milk protein gene expression. These data suggest that the gene product of SPP1 (also known as osteopontin) has a significant role in the modulation of milk protein gene expression. While these findings do not exclude other positional candidates from influencing lactation, they support the hypothesis that the gene product of SPP1 is a significant lactational regulatory molecule. [source]

A genome map of divergent artificial selection between Bos taurus dairy cattle and Bos taurus beef cattle

B. J. Hayes
Summary A number of cattle breeds have become highly specialized for milk or beef production, following strong artificial selection for these traits. In this paper, we compare allele frequencies from 9323 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers genotyped in dairy and beef cattle breeds averaged in sliding windows across the genome, with the aim of identifying divergently selected regions of the genome between the production types. The value of the method for identifying selection signatures was validated by four sources of evidence. First, differences in allele frequencies between dairy and beef cattle at individual SNPs were correlated with the effects of those SNPs on production traits. Secondly, large differences in allele frequencies generally occurred in the same location for two independent data sets (correlation 0.45) between sliding window averages. Thirdly, the largest differences in sliding window average difference in allele frequencies were found on chromosome 20 in the region of the growth hormone receptor gene, which carries a mutation known to have an effect on milk production traits in a number of dairy populations. Finally, for the chromosome tested, the location of selection signatures between dairy and beef cattle was correlated with the location of selection signatures within dairy cattle. [source]

The origin of selection signatures on bovine chromosome 6

B. J. Hayes
Summary The extent and pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between closely spaced markers contain information about population history, including past population size and selection history. Selection signatures can be identified by comparing the LD surrounding a putative selected allele at a locus to the putative non-selected allele. In livestock populations, locations of selection signatures identified in this way should be correlated with QTL affecting production traits, as the populations have been under strong artificial selection for these traits. We used a dense SNP map of bovine chromosome 6 to characterize the pattern of LD on this chromosome in Norwegian Red cattle, a breed which has been strongly selected for milk production. The pattern of LD was generally consistent with strong selection in regions containing QTL affecting milk production traits, including a strong selection signature in a region containing a mutation known to affect milk production. The results demonstrate that in livestock populations, the origin of selection signatures will often be QTL for livestock production traits, and illustrate the value of selection signatures in uncovering new mutations with potential effects on quantitative traits. [source]

Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine CCL2, IL8, CCR2 and IL8RA genes and their association with health and production in Canadian Holsteins

I. Leyva-Baca
Summary The aim of this study was to identify the presence of SNPs in the chemokine genes CCL2 and IL8 and the chemokine receptor genes IL8RA and CCR2, and assess their potential contribution to variation in estimated breeding values (EBVs) for somatic cell score (SCS) and four other traits in Canadian Holstein bulls. Pools of DNA for bulls with high (H) and low (L) EBVs for SCS were used for identification of 11 SNPs. Two unreported SNPs were found in the CCL2 gene and one SNP was found in the CCR2 gene. Previously reported SNPs (three in the IL8 gene and five in the IL8RA chemokine receptor) were also identified. Two SNPs in CCL2, three in IL8, one in IL8RA and one in CCR2 were genotyped in Canadian Holstein bulls (n = 338) using tetra primer ARMS-PCR. We investigated associations of these seven polymorphisms with three production traits (milk yield, fat yield and protein yield) and one conformation trait related to mastitis (udder depth). The allele substitution effect for the CCL2 rs41255713:T>C SNP was significant at an experimental-wise level for milk yield (247.5 ± 79.9 kg) and protein yield (7.4 ± 2.3 kg) EBVs (P , 0.05). The associations of the SNPs with SCS EBVs were not significant at an experimental-wise level. However, the allele substitution effect of the CCR2 rs41257559:C>T SNP on SCS was significant at the comparison-wise level (,0.04 ± 0.02, P = 0.05), which might indicate a possible association in support of other published studies. Lastly, we assigned CCR2 to BTA22q24, where a previously QTL for SCS was identified. [source]

Isolation of porcine expressed sequence tags for the construction of a first genomic transcript map of the skeletal muscle in pig

R. Davoli
To identify genes with effects on meat quality and production traits we developed an adult porcine skeletal muscle cDNA library. After pre-screening this library with seven genes highly expressed in skeletal muscle, 385 non-hybridizing clones were sequenced from both ends to yield 510 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Together with those ESTs previously generated from this library, we have produced 701 porcine skeletal muscle ESTs. These ESTs were grouped into 306 different cDNA species and compared with the human skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles obtained from different databases. Furthermore we mapped 107 of these cDNAs using a somatic cell hybrid panel with genes mapping over all the autosomes (except on chromosome 11) and on chromosome X. The mapping of these cDNAs contributed to the construction of a first genomic transcript map of the skeletal muscle tissue in pig. [source]

An insertion/deletion variant of a thymine base in exon 2 of the porcine beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene associated with loin eye muscle area

Kensuke HIROSE
ABSTRACT An insertion/deletion variant of a thymine base (T5 and T6) in exon 2 of porcine beta 3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) gene has been described. In the current study, we made an association study between the ADRB3 polymorphisms and production traits in 735 Duroc pigs. The allele frequencies for the T5 and T6 alleles in our study population were 0.433 and 0.567, respectively. Any associations between ADRB3 genotype and average daily weight gain during test period, or backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content were not detected in either sex. However the size of the loin eye muscle area (EMA) was significantly associated with ADRB3 genotypes in gilts. T6-homozygous gilts had a higher mean of EMA (40.6 ± 0.6 cm2) than T5-homozygous (38.1 ± 0.4 cm2, P = 0.002) and heterozygous (38.8 ± 0.3 cm2, P = 0.034) gilts. This association was not detected in males. In addition, a multiple traits animal model best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) analysis revealed that the T6-homozygous genotype had positive effects on breeding value of EMA. Accordingly, we suggest that ADRB3 polymorphism has the potential to be an important genetic marker for prediction of EMA in Duroc pigs. [source]

Selective breeding for the hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops, Rafinesque ×M. saxatilis, Walbaum) industry: status and perspectives

Amber F. Garber
Abstract The hybrid striped bass (HSB) farming industry has considerable potential for growth into domestic retail markets, but expansion of this industry is limited by high production costs that dictate high prices for HSB. It is widely recognized within the industry that selective breeding of an improved HSB will be required to increase production efficiency and reduce market prices. A National Program of Genetic Improvement and Selective Breeding for the HSB Industry has been initiated and some progress has been made toward domestication of the parent species of the hybrid. However, uncertainty remains as to which breeding procedures will most rapidly yield sustainable genetic gains in key production traits. This paper consolidates and reviews general information on the biology of temperate basses (genus Morone) relevant to selective breeding of improved HSB. The topics covered include control of reproduction, geographic distribution of stocks and population genetic variation. This is followed by a brief review of the current application of selective breeding techniques, including those based on molecular markers. Finally, we discuss potential avenues for genetic improvement of HSB in a selective breeding program. [source]

Genetic covariation in production traits of sub-adult black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri after grow-out

Robert G Doupé
Abstract Predicting the suitability and reliability of traits associated with juvenile growth as indirect selection criteria for choosing future broodstock requires accurate and repeatable estimates of genetic (co)variation for growth traits at different ages. We compared juvenile wet weight of black bream Acanthopagrus butcheri (Munro) at 6 months of age with wet weight, dressed weight, fillet yield and gonad weight in tagged individuals at 18 months of age, following 12 months of farm grow-out. Fish survival and tag retention was high, and there was significant among-family variation for all traits. The phenotypic correlations among wet weight, dressed weight and fillet yield at 18 months of age were very high (0.93,0.97) and similar to their genetic correlations (0.96). Importantly, the phenotypic correlations between wet weight at 6 months and wet weight, dressed weight and fillet yield at 18 months were high (0.63,0.65), and so too were their genetic correlations (0.66,0.73), indicating the potential for using wet weight in the hatchery as a selection criterion for improved weight and meat yield of fish at harvest. Gonad weight shared little or no phenotypic or genetic correlation with these other traits, suggesting that selection for faster growing fish will not affect fecundity or sexual maturation rate. It appears, however, that cultured black bream do become sexually mature more rapidly than wild fish, as 78% of all fish harvested in this study had developing or mature gonads, whereas less than 50% of fish in wild populations are reproductively mature by the same age. Precocious sexual development may lead to uncontrolled spawning in grow-out ponds and a potential loss of selection gains. [source]