Production Techniques (production + techniques)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Corporate social responsibility in Asian supply chains

Richard Welford
Abstract This research provides an overview of CSR practices in Asia, evaluates the usefulness of codes of conduct, reviews the benefits of CSR in supply chains and reviews obstacles for companies wishing to adopt good CSR practices. In order to achieve this, interviews were undertaken with CSR managers, factory managers and other experts, conducted in confidence and anonymously. Codes of conduct and associated inspections and audits are common practice but in most cases flawed. Labour issues and the rights of workers are generally seen as the most important aspect of CSR in the region. Benefits of CSR include risk reduction, staff recruitment and retention, cost savings and building good relationships with stakeholders. Obstacles include a lack of resources and skills, a lack of awareness of stakeholders' demands and inefficient production techniques. It is noted that larger firms are more able to overcome such obstacles, with clear adverse implications for smaller companies. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Discrimination of dynamical system models for biological and chemical processes

Sönke Lorenz
Abstract In technical chemistry, systems biology and biotechnology, the construction of predictive models has become an essential step in process design and product optimization. Accurate modelling of the reactions requires detailed knowledge about the processes involved. However, when concerned with the development of new products and production techniques for example, this knowledge often is not available due to the lack of experimental data. Thus, when one has to work with a selection of proposed models, the main tasks of early development is to discriminate these models. In this article, a new statistical approach to model discrimination is described that ranks models wrt. the probability with which they reproduce the given data. The article introduces the new approach, discusses its statistical background, presents numerical techniques for its implementation and illustrates the application to examples from biokinetics. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2007 [source]

Direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques to study organic coatings on archaeological amphorae

Maria Perla Colombini
Abstract Two different analytical approaches, direct exposure electron ionization mass spectrometry (DE-MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were compared in a study of archaeological resinous materials. DE-MS was found to be an efficient fingerprinting tool for the fast screening of organic archaeological samples and for providing information on the major components. GC/MS appeared to be more efficient in unravelling the sample composition at a molecular level, despite the long analysis time and the need for a wet chemical pretreatment. Both procedures were applied to characterize the organic material present as coatings in Roman and Egyptian amphorae. DE-MS successfully identified abietanic compounds, hence a diterpenic resinous material could be identified and its degree of oxidation assessed. GC/MS enabled us to identify dehydroabietic acid, 7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid, 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid, retene, tetrahydroretene, norabietatriene, norabietatetraene and methyl dehydroabietate. These oxidized and aromatized abietanes provided evidence that the amphorae examined were waterproofed with a pitch produced from resinous wood of plants from the Pinaceae family. The chemometric evaluation of the GC/MS data highlighted significant chemical differences between the pitches found in the two archaeological sites, basically related to differences in the production techniques of the materials and in their degradation pathways. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Impact of in vitro production techniques on the expression of X-linked genes in bovine (bos taurus) oocytes and pre-attachment embryos

Maria I. Nino-Soto
Abstract Our previous studies showed that expression patterns of X-linked genes in cultured cells are different from those of their tissues of origin. This investigation analyses the transcription pattern of the X-linked genes BIRC4, GAB3, MECP2, RPS4X, SLC25A6, and XIST in bovine in vitro matured oocytes and in vitro fertilized embryos, and their in vivo counterparts. In vitro-derived pools of mature oocytes and pre-attachment embryos were obtained by: (a) TCM-199/serum with bovine oviductal epithelial cells as co-culture, and (b) synthetic oviductal fluid/BSA. Pools of in vivo-derived morulae and blastocysts were provided by a commercial embryo transfer operation. Total RNA was extracted for quantification of gene-specific transcript levels using real-time quantitative PCR. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed model factorial ANOVA with ,,=,0.05. The effect of the in vitro environmental conditions on X-linked gene transcription was most evident during the fourth cell cycle, at the period of activation of the embryonic genome, and seemed to be less pronounced at later developmental stages, with the exception of BIRC4. The levels of X-linked genes transcripts in in vivo-derived embryos were lower relative to their in vitro counterparts for all genes tested. Finally, the pattern of expression of XIST in bovine oocytes and embryos was similar to that reported in humans. These results highlight the possibility that X-linked gene expression analysis is a useful tool to monitor the impact of reproductive biotechnologies on the developmental potential of embryos and aid in their improvement. Mol. Reprod. Dev. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Southern French Neolithic populations: Isotopic evidence for regional specificities in environment and diet

Estelle Herrscher
Abstract The Middle Neolithic of the Northwestern Mediterranean area (,4500,3500 BC cal) is characterized by the development of food production techniques as well as by increasing social complexity. These characteristics could have had an impact on human dietary patterns. To evaluate human dietary practices and lifeways of the Middle Neolithic populations from the South of France, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis was carried out on 57 human and 53 faunal bones from seven archaeological sites located in the Languedoc and Garonne regions between 20 and 100 km from the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Results show regional differences in carbon isotope values. Animal and human bones from the Languedoc region are significantly enriched in 13C relative to the Garonne. Conversely, human and dog bones from the Garonne region are significantly enriched in 15N compared to human and dog bones from the Languedoc region. These results highlight the importance of the local ecosystem in human and animal diet as well as a regional differentiation of palaeodietary behavior, which probably relates to economic and social factors. The comparison of stable isotope data with archaeological and biological evidence does not show any significant intra- or interpopulation differences. However, the presence of human outliers suggests that migration probably occurred, perhaps in relation to the trade of animals and/or materials. This study also highlights the importance of investigating local animal stable isotope values for the interpretation of human palaeodiet. Am J Phys Anthropol 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Does Employment Protection Reduce Productivity?

Evidence From US States
Theory predicts that mandated employment protection may reduce productivity by distorting production choices. We use the adoption of wrongful-discharge protection by state courts in the US from 1970 to 1999 to evaluate the empirical link between dismissal costs and productivity. Drawing on establishment-level data from the Census Bureau, our estimates suggest that wrongful-discharge protection reduces employment flows and firm entry rates. Moreover, plants engage in capital deepening and experience a decline in total factor productivity, indicative of altered production techniques. Evidence of strong contemporaneous growth in employment, however, leads us to view our findings as suggestive but tentative. [source]

Use of flubendazole as a therapeutic agent against rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in intensive cultures of the harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae

Svend J Steenfeldt
Abstract Copepods are well known to be the optimal live feed for most species of marine fish larvae. Still copepods are rarely used in marine hatcheries worldwide. Lack of efficient production techniques are among the reasons for this. Consequently, Artemia and rotifers are utilized in commercial settings. One problem in intensive production of copepods is contamination with rotifers. Rotifers have higher growth rates than copepods and consequently will compete out the copepods when accidentally introduced to the copepod production systems. Once contamination has occurred, the only cure has been to shut down production and subsequently use a therapeutic agent to eliminate all zooplankton in the system before restart with a stock culture free of rotifers. We tested flubendazole as a mean of controlling rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in intensive laboratory cultures of the harpacticoid copepod (Tisbe holothuria). Flubendazole was lethal to rotifers in concentrations as low as 0.05 mg L,1. There was no significant effect on the concentration of copepods, even at the highest concentration tested, i.e. 5.0 mg L,1 flubendazole. We conclude that flubendazole is an effective drug for control of B. plicatilis in T. holothuriae batch cultures. [source]

Parental Guidance in Preschoolers' Understanding of Spatial-Graphic Representations

Lisa E. Szechter
This research was designed to observe whether parents guide their children's understanding of spatial-graphic representations and, if so, to describe the quality of the strategies they use. Parents read a picture book to their preschoolers (3 or 5 years, N=31) and children completed spatial-graphic comprehension tasks. Observational data revealed a range of creative behaviors used to address the book's spatial-graphic challenges. The incidence and quality of parental spatial-graphic behaviors were significantly related to 5-year-old children's performance on spatial-graphic measures. These findings, as well as the paucity of parent attention to aesthetics or graphic production techniques, are discussed in relation to representational development and educational practice. [source]