Production Rate (production + rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Production Rate

  • co2 production rate
  • egg production rate
  • gas production rate
  • high production rate
  • hydrogen production rate
  • methane production rate

  • Selected Abstracts

    Metabolism of high density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-I and cholesteryl ester in insulin resistant dog: a stable isotope study

    F. Briand
    Aims:, In reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), hepatic Scavenger Receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays an important role by mediating the selective uptake of high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl ester (HDL-CE). However, little is known about this antiatherogenic mechanism in insulin resistance. HDL-CE selective uptake represents the main process for HDL-CE turnover in dog, a species lacking cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. We therefore investigate the effects of diet induced insulin resistance on RCT. Methods:, Five beagle dogs, in healthy and insulin resistant states, underwent a primed constant infusion of [1,213C2]acetate and [5,5,5- 2H3]leucine, as labelled precursors of CE and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, respectively. Data were analysed using modelling methods. Results:, HDL-apo A-I concentration did not change in insulin resistant state but apo A-I absolute production rate (APR) and fractional catabolic rate (FCR) were both higher (2.2- and 2.4-fold, respectively, p < 0.05). HDL-CE levels were lower (1.2-fold, p < 0.05). HDL-CE APR and FCR were both lower (2.3- and 2-fold, respectively, p < 0.05), as well as selective uptake (2.6-fold, p < 0.05). Conclusions:, Lower HDL-CE selective uptake suggests that RCT is impaired in obese insulin resistant dog. [source]

    Testing etching hypothesis for the shaping of granite dome structures beneath lateritic weathering landsurfaces using ERT method

    Anicet Beauvais
    Abstract An Erratum has been published for this article in Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 28(13) 2003, 1491. Granite domes, boulders and knobs buried within saprolite have been detected beneath lateritic weathering landsurfaces using 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). This technique provides a valuable means of mapping the bedrock topography and the regolith structures underneath landsurfaces, as it is intrinsically very sensitive to the electrical properties of superimposed pedological, hydrological and geological layers, allowing the determination of their relative geometry and spatial relationships. For instance, 2D inverse electrical resistivity models including topographic data permit the de,nition of lithostratigraphic cross-sections. It shows that resistive layers, such as the more or less hardened ferruginous horizons and/or the bedrock, are generally well differentiated from poorly resistive layers, such as saprolite, including water-saturated lenses, as has been corroborated by past and actual borehole observations. The analysis of the 2D geometrical relations between the weathering front, i.e. the bedrock topography, and the erosion surface, i.e. the landsurface topography, documents the weathering and erosion processes governing the development of the landforms and the underlying structures, thus allowing the etching hypothesis to be tested. The in,ltration waters are diverted by bedrock protrusions, which behave as structural thresholds compartmentalizing the saprolite domain, and also the regolith water table, into distinct perched saturated subdomains. The diverted waters are thus accumulated in bedrock troughs, which behave like underground channels where the saprolite production rate may be enhanced, provided that the water drainage is ef,cient. If the landsurface topography controls the runoff dynamics, the actual bedrock topography as depicted by ERT imaging in,uences the hydrodynamics beneath the landsurface. In some way, this may control the actual weathering rate and the shaping of bedrock protrusions as granite domes and knobs within thick saprolite, before their eventual future exposure. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sediment production in large gullies of the Mediterranean area (NE Spain) from high-resolution digital elevation models and geographical information systems analysis

    J. A. Martínez-Casasnovas
    Abstract Recent studies in the Mediterranean area have shown gully erosion to have a very significant contribution to total soil loss. In the Penedčs vineyard region (NE Spain), between 15 and 27% of the land is affected by large gullies and gully-wall retreat seems to be an ongoing process. Multi-date digital elevation model (DEM) analysis has allowed computation of sediment production by gully erosion, showing that the sediment production rates are very high by the, up-to-date, usual global standards. Here, we present a study carried out using large-scale multi-date (1975 and 1995) aerial photographs (1 : 5000 and 1 : 7000) to monitor sediment yield caused by large gullies in the Penedčs region (NE Spain). High-resolution DEMs (1 m grid) were derived and analysed by means of geographical information systems techniques to determine the gully erosion rates. Rainfall characteristics within the same study period were also analysed in order to correlate with the soil loss produced. Mass movement was the main process contributing to total sediment production. This process could have been favoured by rainfalls recorded during the period: 58% of the events were of an erosive character and showed high kinetic energy and erosivity. A sediment production rate of 846 ± 40 Mg ha,1 year,1, a sediment deposition rate of 270 ± 18 Mg ha,1 year,1 and a sediment delivery ratio of 68·1% were computed for a gully area of 0·10 km2. The average net erosion within the study period (1975,95) was 576 ± 58 Mg ha,1 year,1. In comparison with other methods, the proposed method also includes sediment produced by processes other than only overland flow, i.e. downcutting, headcutting, and mass movements and bank erosion. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Microbial Community Dynamics of a Continuous Mesophilic Anaerobic Biogas Digester Fed with Sugar Beet Silage

    B. Demirel
    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term fermentation of an extremely sour substrate without any addition of manure. In the future, the limitation of manure and therefore the anaerobic digestion of silage with a very low buffering capacity will be an increasing general bottleneck for energy production from renewable biomass. During the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sugar beet silage (without top and leaves) as the sole substrate (without any addition of manure), which had an extreme low pH of around 3.3, the highest specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) of 0.72,L/g volatile solids (VS),d was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25,days compared to an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.97,g VS/L,d at a pH of around 6.80. The methane (CH4) content of the digester ranged between 58 and 67,%, with an average of 63,%. The use of a new charge of substrate (a new harvest of the same substrate) with higher phosphate content improved the performance of the biogas digester significantly. The change of the substrate charge also seemed to affect the methanogenic population dynamics positively, thus improving the reactor performance. Using a new substrate charge, a further decrease in the HRT from 25 to 15,days did not influence the digester performance and did not seem to affect the structure of the methanogenic population significantly. However, a decrease in the HRT affected the size of the methanogenic population adversely. The lower spec. GPR of 0.54,L/g,VS,d attained on day,15 of the HRT could be attributed to a lower size of methanogenic population present in the anaerobic digester during this stage of the process. Furthermore, since sugar beet silage is a relatively poor substrate, in terms of the buffering capacity and the availability of nutrients, an external supply of buffering agents and nutrients is a prerequisite for a safe and stable digester operation. [source]

    Acclimation Strategy of a Biohydrogen Producing Population in a Continuous-Flow Reactor with Carbohydrate Fermentation

    Q. Ren
    Abstract Poor startup of biological hydrogen production systems can cause an ineffective hydrogen production rate and poor biomass growth at a high hydraulic retention time (HRT), or cause a prolonged period of acclimation. In this paper a new startup strategy was developed in order to improve the enrichment of the hydrogen-producing population and the efficiency of hydrogen production. A continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and molasses were used to evaluate the hydrogen productivity of the sewage sludge microflora at a temperature of 35,°C. The experimental results indicated that the feed to microorganism ratio (F/M ratio) was a key parameter for the enrichment of hydrogen producing sludge in a continuous-flow reactor. When the initial biomass was inoculated with 6.24,g of volatile suspended solids (VSS)/L, an HRT of 6,h, an initial organic loading rate (OLR) of 7.0,kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m3,×,d) and an feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) ratio of about 2,3,g COD/(g of volatile suspended solids (VSS) per day) were maintained during startup. Under these conditions, a hydrogen producing population at an equilibrium state could be established within 30,days. The main liquid fermentation products were acetate and ethanol. Biogas was composed of H2 and CO2. The hydrogen content in the biogas amounted to 47.5,%. The average hydrogen yield was 2.01,mol/mol hexose consumed. It was also observed that a special hydrogen producing population was formed when this startup strategy was used. It is supposed that the population may have had some special metabolic pathways to produce hydrogen along with ethanol as the main fermentation products. [source]

    Cultivation of the Dible Mushroom Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) in Pasteurized Wheat Straw , Alternative Use of Georthermal Energy in Mexico

    G. Mata
    Abstract Five edible Lentinula edodes strains were evaluated. The mushrooms were cultivated on a wheat straw substrate that was previously pasteurized by immersion in water heated by residual geothermal vapor, which was also used to warm incubation and production rooms. Finely chopped wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.) was pasteurized and then spawned with supplemented spawn capable of supplying nutrients and enriching the substrate, with the expectation of yield improvement. The samples were incubated for 60,days before the production started and thus, the mushrooms produced had pileus diameters ranging from 5 to 20,cm. The yields fluctuated from 6.2 to 13.9,% (fresh weight of mushrooms/fresh weight of substrate). Biological efficiency ranged from 24.8 to 55.6,% (fresh weight of mushrooms/dry weight of substrate), while the production rate reached varied from 0.19 to 0.55,% (biological efficiency/production time starting from inoculation). The cultivation system evaluated here offers the possibility of lowering production costs by cultivating the mushroom on easily obtainable substrate and shortening the culture cycle. The efficiency of this use of geothermal energy and supplemented spawn for shiitake mushroom cultivation on non-sterilized substrates was proven. [source]

    Effects of contaminated sediment on the epidermis of mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus

    Laurent C. Mézin
    Abstract Secretion of mucus by epidermal goblet cells protects fish against many biological, physical, and chemical insults encountered in the environment. This study monitored changes in hemoglobin concentration in epidermal mucus and in the density, diameter, and mucus quality of epidermal goblet cells in the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, following exposure to creosote-contaminated sediment from the Elizabeth River, Virginia, USA. Fish were exposed for 13 d in flow-through aquaria to either uncontaminated (US) or contaminated (CS) sediments and were sampled periodically. The condition index was lower and the mortality rate and the occurrence of epidermal lesions were higher in CS-exposed fish than in US-exposed fish. Hemoglobin contents in epidermal mucus from the former group were significantly higher than from the latter. Significant reductions in both size and density of goblet cells in CS-exposed fish suggested a mucus secretion rate exceeding its production rate. Significant changes in mucin types between treatments did not occur until day 13 and are not believed to be directly related to the creosote present in the contaminated sediment. These results all indicate that exposure to creosote-contaminated sediment had a profound and deleterious effect on fish health. [source]

    The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

    T. He
    ABSTRACT Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic,active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance. [source]

    Anaerobic homolactate fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in depletion of ATP and impaired metabolic activity

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
    Derek A. Abbott
    Abstract Conversion of glucose to lactic acid is stoichiometrically equivalent to ethanol formation with respect to ATP formation from substrate-level phosphorylation, redox equivalents and product yield. However, anaerobic growth cannot be sustained in homolactate fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ATP-dependent export of the lactate anion and/or proton, resulting in net zero ATP formation, is suspected as the underlying cause. In an effort to understand the mechanisms behind the decreased lactic acid production rate in anaerobic homolactate cultures of S. cerevisiae, aerobic carbon-limited chemostats were performed and subjected to anaerobic perturbations in the presence of high glucose concentrations. Intracellular measurements of adenosine phosphates confirmed ATP depletion and decreased energy charge immediately upon anaerobicity. Unexpectedly, readily available sources of carbon and energy, trehalose and glycogen, were not activated in homolactate strains as they were in reference strains that produce ethanol. Finally, the anticipated increase in maximal velocity (Vmax) of glycolytic enzymes was not observed in homolactate fermentation suggesting the absence of protein synthesis that may be attributed to decreased energy availability. Essentially, anaerobic homolactate fermentation results in energy depletion, which, in turn, hinders protein synthesis, central carbon metabolism and subsequent energy generation. [source]

    Single QTL mapping and nucleotide-level resolution of a physiologic trait in wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 6 2007
    Philippe Marullo
    Abstract Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains exhibit very large genotypic and phenotypic diversity. However, the link between phenotype variation and genetic determinism is still difficult to identify, especially in wild populations. Using genome hybridization on DNA microarrays, it is now possible to identify single-feature polymorphisms among divergent yeast strains. This tool offers the possibility of applying quantitative genetics to wild yeast strains. In this instance, we studied the genetic basis for variations in acetic acid production using progeny derived from two strains from grape must isolates. The trait was quantified during alcoholic fermentation of the two strains and 108 segregants derived from their crossing. A genetic map of 2212 markers was generated using oligonucleotide microarrays, and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) was mapped with high significance. Further investigations showed that this QTL was due to a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism that targeted the catalytic core of asparaginase type I (ASP1) and abolished its activity. This QTL was only effective when asparagine was used as a major nitrogen source. Our results link nitrogen assimilation and CO2 production rate to acetic acid production, as well as, on a broader scale, illustrating the specific problem of quantitative genetics when working with nonlaboratory microorganisms. [source]

    Physiological behaviour of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii in aerobic glucose-limited continuous cultures

    FEMS YEAST RESEARCH, Issue 2 2003
    Helena Albergaria
    Abstract The physiology of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii was studied under aerobic glucose-limited conditions using the accelerostat procedure (continuous acceleration of dilution rate) and classical chemostat cultures. By both cultivation techniques this yeast was found to be Crabtree-positive. Up to a dilution rate of 0.25 h,1, glucose was completely metabolised into biomass, glycerol and carbon dioxide. Above this value, an increase in the dilution rate was accompanied by the production of other metabolites like ethanol, acetic and malic acids. Biomass yield during the purely oxidative growth was 0.49 g g,1 and decreased to 0.26 g g,1 for D=0.34 h,1. A maximal specific ethanol production rate of 1.36 mmol g,1 h,1 and a maximal ethanol yield of 0.05 g g,1 were achieved at D=0.34 h,1. [source]

    Freshwater and marine virioplankton: a brief overview of commonalities and differences

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
    Summary 1. Viruses are a pervasive component of microbial food webs in both marine and freshwater systems. The abundance of viruses in individual aquatic systems appears to be independent of salinity but related to the biomass of primary and secondary producers as well as seasonal effects. Burst size, virus production rate and the percentage of microbial cells carrying a viral burden also appear to be more closely correlated to trophic status than to salinity. 2. In marine environments, the roles of planktonic viruses as regulators of carbon and nutrient cycling as well as microbial community structure have been a focus of numerous studies, yet the roles of freshwater virioplankton remain much less studied. Nevertheless, a survey of published freshwater studies demonstrates that virioplankton recycle important quantities of growth-limiting nutrients from hosts via generation of dead particulate and dissolved organic matter during cell lysis, and suggests that both the chemical speciation and concentration of these organic compounds and nutrients may have important influences on the microbial community. 3. Parallel observations on the spatial patterns and dynamics of microbial mortality due to viruses or grazing are more advanced in freshwaters than in marine environments. However, the constraints that determine whether virus- or grazer-mediated mortality dominates are not yet understood in either environment. 4. Application of molecular approaches has facilitated the examination of the diversity and ecological dynamics of specific viral populations and entire communities. The depth of detail achieved in marine environments towards characterizing these populations and communities is just beginning to be matched in freshwater systems. The few available data suggest that viruses targeting-related hosts in freshwater and marine systems may be genetically distinct. 5. Although the role of viruses in aquatic systems is complex and remains insufficiently studied, our survey of the literature indicates that, despite some differences, many of the controls on virioplankton activity and diversity are similar in marine and freshwater environments. [source]

    Wing wear, aerodynamics and flight energetics in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): an experimental study

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    A. Hedenström
    Summary 1,Previous work has shown that wing wear increases mortality rate in bumblebees. Two proximate explanations have been suggested to account for this: increased energy flight costs and increased predation risk due to reduced manoeuvrability. 2,Wing wear was mimicked by experimentally clipping the forewing distal trailing edge, causing a 10% wing area reduction. Experimental and sham control bumblebees were induced to hover in a flight respirometry chamber for measuring metabolic rate of hovering. Simultaneous video and sound recordings were taken for wingbeat kinematic data required for an aerodynamic analysis. 3,In the experimental group with reduced wing area we measured increased wingbeat frequency, lift coefficient and induced power, but a reduced profile power. The mechanical power output, assuming perfect elastic storage in the flight system, remained largely unchanged after the wing-trimming treatment. 4,Metabolic flight costs (CO2 production rate) did not increase significantly in the reduced wing area group, which is in line with the aerodynamic power output. 5,Our results indicate that an increase of flight cost due to wing wear is not a likely explanation for increased mortality rate in bumblebees. Wing wear may, however, affect escape performance from predators. [source]

    DNA methylation variation in cloned mice

    Jun Ohgane
    Abstract Summary: Mammalian cloning has been accomplished in several mammalian species by nuclear transfer. However, the production rate of cloned animals is quite low, and many cloned offspring die or show abnormal symptoms. A possible cause of the low success rate of cloning and abnormal symptoms in many cloned animals is the incomplete reestablishment of DNA methylation after nuclear transfer. We first analyzed tissue-specific methylation patterns in the placenta, skin, and kidney of normal B6D2F1 mice. There were seven spots/CpG islands (0.5% of the total CpG islands detected) methylated differently in the three different tissues examined. In the placenta and skin of two cloned fetuses, a total of four CpG islands were aberrantly methylated or unmethylated. Interestingly, three of these four loci corresponded to the tissue-specific loci in the normal control fetuses. The extent of aberrant methylation of genomic DNA varied between the cloned animals. In cloned animals, aberrant methylation occurred mainly at tissue-specific methylated loci. Individual cloned animals have different methylation aberrations. In other words, cloned animals are by no means perfect copies of the original animals as far as the methylation status of genomic DNA is concerned. genesis 30:45,50, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Biological energy requirements as quantitative boundary conditions for life in the subsurface

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    ABSTRACT All life requires energy, which must be extracted from the environment. For all known life, free energy must be available at finite minimum levels in order to be usefully harnessed and must be delivered at finite minimum rates in order to support basic biochemical integrity and function. While seldom tested in the high energy light- and oxygen-based metabolisms of the surface biosphere, the magnitude of these requirements , the biological energy quantum (BEQ) and maintenance energy (ME) requirements, respectively , is considerable with respect to the potential metabolisms and energy sources that characterize the deep subsurface realm. As such, they constitute a fundamental constraint on the possible nature, distribution, and activity of microbial life in that environment. Because the energy released in a chemical transformation can be equated to the concentrations of substrates and products, both the BEQ and ME requirements define the minimum substrate concentration and minimum substrate production rate that must be sustained by a given environment for it to be capable of supporting life. The magnitudes of the BEQ and ME requirements are sensitive to a range of environmental parameters that may vary significantly in the subsurface. Temperature exerts a particularly strong control and is among the most important parameters to be considered in evaluating the energetic habitability of subsurface environments. [source]

    Hydraulic observations from a 1 year fluid production test in the 4000 m deep KTB pilot borehole

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2006
    Abstract A long-term pump test was conducted in the KTB pilot borehole (KTB-VB), located in the Oberpfalz area, Germany. It produced 22 300 m3 of formation fluid. Initially, fluid production rate was 29 l min,1 for 4 months, but was then raised to an average of 57 l min,1 for eight more months. The aim of this study was to examine the fluid parameters and hydraulic properties of fractured, crystalline crusts as part of the new KTB programme ,Energy and Fluid Transport in Continental Fault Systems'. KTB-VB has an open-hole section from 3850 to 4000 m depth that is in hydraulic contact with a prominent continental fault system in the area, called SE2. Salinity and temperature of the fluid inside the borehole, and consequently hydrostatic pressure, changed significantly throughout the test. Influence of these quantities on variations in fluid density had to be taken into account for interpretation of the pump test. Modelling of the pressure response related to the pumping was achieved assuming the validity of linear Darcy flow and permeability to be independent of the flow rate. Following the principle ,minimum in model dimension', we first examined whether the pressure response can be explained by an equivalent model where rock properties around the borehole are axially symmetric. Calculations show that the observed pressure data in KTB-VB can in fact be reproduced through such a configuration. For the period of high pumping rate (57 l min,1) and the following recovery phase, the resulting parameters are 2.4 × 10,13 m3 in hydraulic transmissivity and 3.7 × 10,9 m Pa,1 in storativity for radial distances up to 187 m, and 4.7 × 10,14 m3 and 6.0 × 10,9 m Pa,1, respectively, for radial distances between 187 and 1200 m. The former pair of values mainly reflect the hydraulic properties of the fault zone SE2. For a more realistic hydraulic study on a greater scale, program FEFLOW was used. Parameter values were obtained by matching the calculated induced pressure signal to fluid-level variations observed in the KTB main hole (KTB-HB) located at 200 m radial distance from KTB-VB. KTB-HB is uncased from 9031 to 9100 m and shows indications of leakage in the casing at depths 5200,5600 m. Analysis of the pressure record and hydraulic modelling suggest the existence of a weak hydraulic communication between the two boreholes, probably at depths around the leakage. Hydraulic modelling of a major slug-test in KTB-HB that was run during the pumping in KTB-VB reveals the effective transmissivity of the connected formation to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than the one determined for the SE2 fault zone. [source]

    Plasma Nanoparticle Synthesis: Luminescent Colloidal Dispersion of Silicon Quantum Dots from Microwave Plasma Synthesis: Exploring the Photoluminescence Behavior Across the Visible Spectrum (Adv. Funct.

    The cover picture shows a view into the plasma zone of a microwave plasma reactor, which is used to synthesize macroscopic quantities of single crystalline silicon nanoparticles with a very high production rate. These nanoparticles exhibit bright luminescence across the visible spectrum. On page 696, the authors report that the emission of such silicon nanoparticles can be tuned by changing their size and surface chemistry. [source]

    Enhanced litter input rather than changes in litter chemistry drive soil carbon and nitrogen cycles under elevated CO2: a microcosm study

    Abstract Elevated CO2 has been shown to stimulate plant productivity and change litter chemistry. These changes in substrate availability may then alter soil microbial processes and possibly lead to feedback effects on N availability. However, the strength of this feedback, and even its direction, remains unknown. Further, uncertainty remains whether sustained increases in net primary productivity will lead to increased long-term C storage in soil. To examine how changes in litter chemistry and productivity under elevated CO2 influence microbial activity and soil C formation, we conducted a 230-day microcosm incubation with five levels of litter addition rate that represented 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.4 and 1.8 × litterfall rates observed in the field for aspen stand growing under control treatments at the Aspen FACE experiment in Rhinelander, WI, USA. Litter and soil samples were collected from the corresponding field control and elevated CO2 treatment after trees were exposed to elevated CO2 (560 ppm) for 7 years. We found that small decreases in litter [N] under elevated CO2 had minor effects on microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Increasing litter addition rates resulted in linear increase in total C and new C (C from added litter) that accumulated in whole soil as well as in the high density soil fraction (HDF), despite higher cumulative C loss by respiration. Total N retained in whole soil and in HDF also increased with litter addition rate as did accumulation of new C per unit of accumulated N. Based on our microcosm comparisons and regression models, we expected that enhanced C inputs rather than changes in litter chemistry would be the dominant factor controlling soil C levels and turnover at the current level of litter production rate (230 g C m,2 yr,1 under ambient CO2). However, our analysis also suggests that the effects of changes in biochemistry caused by elevated CO2 could become significant at a higher level of litter production rate, with a trend of decreasing total C in HDF, new C in whole soil, as well as total N in whole soil and HDF. [source]

    A study on membrane distillation by a solar thermal-driven system

    Tsung-Ching Chen
    Abstract Membrane distillation (MD) is a membrane separation process that has long been investigated in small scale laboratory studies and has the potential to become a viable tool for water desalination. MD is a separation process that combines simultaneous mass and heat transfer through a hydrophobic microporous membrane. A solar collector is used in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) to heat seawater as a temperature driving force in heat transfer to establish seawater desalting systems. The effect of the temperature difference makes the brine vaporize in the hot fluid side and condense in the cold fluid side. The optimal operating parameters on the pure water production rate will also be examined in this study. The purposes of this study are to develop the theoretical heat and mass transfer formulations, simulate heat transfer rate of solar collector with internal fins in membrane distillation, and investigate the mass-transfer efficiency improvement in membrane distillation with the brine flow rate, solar collector efficiency, and temperature difference between both sides of membrane as parameters. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Heat Trans Asian Res, 36(7): 417,428, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/htj.20172 [source]

    Bio-hydrogen production from acetic acid steam-exploded corn straws by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with Ethanoligenens harbinense B49

    Ji-Fei Xu
    Abstract Bio-hydrogen produced from acetic acid steam-exploded corn straw (ASCS) by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Ethanoligenes harbinense 49. The effects of acetic acid concentration and enzyme loading were investigated with respect to the maximum specific hydrogen production rate and hydrogen productivity. The hydrogen yield increased with increasing of acetic acid concentration, increased and then decreased with increasing of enzyme loading. The effect of enzyme loading for hydrogen production was more crucial than that of the acetic acid concentration. At acetic acid concentration of 16% and enzyme loading of 120 and 180,U/g, the maximum hydrogen yield and maximum specific hydrogen production rate was 72,ml/g ASCS and 103,ml/g VSS·d, respectively. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A novel process for continuous thermal embossing of large-area nanopatterns onto polymer films

    Matthew D. Fagan
    Abstract Hot embossing and nanoimprinting processes are being widely practiced in industry. Fast and reliable production of micro/nanofeatured patterns on large-area polymer films is of a great importance. In this study, a novel roll-to-roll thermal imprinting process was developed, capable of providing a mold-heating rate of 125°C/s with sufficient temperature control to produce large-area patterns continuously at a rapid production rate. With this new process, selected micro/nano patterns were produced on a polyethylene terephthalate film at a production rate exceeding 1 m/min. The roller mold temperature played a profound role in affecting the replication quality. To achieve good feature transfer properties, an elevated roller mold temperature approaching the melting temperature of the polymer was found to be critical. Microcavity filling time calculation further revealed that the elevated roller mold temperature is also necessary for achieving a rapid film feed rate as desired in the continuous roll-to-roll process. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:246,256, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/adv.20167 [source]

    Effect of inhibitory compounds on the anaerobic digestion performance of diluted wastewaters from the alimentary industry

    Rafael Camarillo
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Up to now the effect of inhibitory compounds on the anaerobic digestion performance of urban and industrial wastewaters has been mostly studied in fluidized bed and upflowing anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactors but not in upflow packed-bed biodigesters. RESULTS: In this paper, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to quantify the effect of various inhibitory compounds (olive oil, ethanol and phenol) on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and biogas production rate from synthetic solutions and real industrial wastewaters by anaerobic digestion. The synthetic solutions possessed the same composition in these inhibitory compounds as diluted effluents from olive oil mill and winery industries. The process was performed in a laboratory scale digester containing anaerobic sludge from the Urban Reclamation Station of Toledo (Spain). The comparison of both individual factors and interactions between factors showed that the addition of olive oil at moderate concentrations (up to 0.5% w/w) did not change the performance of the process in comparison with that observed when feeding to the system a model solution (51.5% COD removal, 0.65 L biogas day,1). However, low concentrations of ethanol or phenol (250 and 150 mg L,1, respectively) almost completely inhibited the methanogenic phase. Moreover, a strong interaction between ethanol and phenol concentrations on COD removal was observed. CONCLUSION: The experimental results showed quantitatively the importance of some inhibitory compounds on anaerobic treatment of both synthetic solutions and real wastewaters from olive oil mill and winery industries. Inhibitory effects are closely related to both the organic loads and the anaerobic bioreactor used. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Experimental determination of Anammox decay coefficient

    D. Scaglione
    Abstract This paper describes an experimental method used to evaluate the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) decay coefficient by means of a batch test. The test was carried out using an experimental procedure based on manometric measurements of the dinitrogen gas that is produced by the Anammox process. The accuracy of the procedure had previously been assessed, and the method was used to determine the specific Anammox activity (SAA mg N2 -N g VSS,1 d,1,) and the maximum nitrogen production rate (MNPR, NmL N2 L,1 d,1) under several different conditions. A specific batch test, which lasted for 148 days, was performed to assess the decay coefficient. The activity decrease was monitored and the estimated value of the decay coefficient was found to be 0.0048 d,1 at 35 °C, for which the corresponding half-life time of the Anammox biomass was 145 days. This value is higher than other values reported in the literature, but in accordance with the slow growth rate of the Anammox bacteria. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Inhibition of sulfide on the simultaneous removal of nitrate and p -cresol by a denitrifying sludge

    Edna R Meza-Escalante
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Many industrial discharges, such as those generated from petrochemical refineries, contain large amounts of sulfurous, nitrogenous and organic contaminants. Denitrification has emerged as a suitable technology for the simultaneous removal of these pollutants in a single reactor unit; however, more evidence is demanded to clarify the limitations of denitrification on the simultaneous removal of sulfide and phenolic contaminants and to optimize the biological process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a denitrifying sludge to simultaneously convert sulfide and p -cresol via denitrification. RESULTS: Sulfide was the preferred electron donor over p -cresol, imposing a 5 h lag phase (required for complete sulfide removal) on organotrophic denitrification. Addition of sulfide (20 mg S2, L,1) to p -cresol-amended denitrifying cultures also decreased the reduction rate of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the production rate of nitrogen gas. Nitrite reduction rate was the most affected step by sulfide, decreasing from 35 to 21 mg N (g VSS d),1. A synergistic inhibitory effect of nitrate and sulfide was also observed on nitrite reduction. Despite the effects of sulfide on the respiratory rates monitored, complete removal of nitrate, sulfide and p -cresol could be achieved after 48 h of incubation. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that simultaneous removal of sulfide and p -cresol could be achieved in denitrifying reactors, but a large hydraulic residence time may be required to sustain an efficient process due to inhibitory effects of sulfide. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Enhanced production of lovastatin in a bubble column by Aspergillus terreus using a two-stage feeding strategy

    EM Rodríguez Porcel
    Abstract A two-stage feeding strategy is shown to improve the rate of production of lovastatin by Aspergillus terreus when compared with conventional batch fermentation. The feeding strategy consisted of an initial batch/fed-batch phase and a semi-continuous culture dilution phase with retention of pelleted biomass in a slurry bubble column reactor. The batch phase served only to build up the biomass for producing lovastatin, a secondary metabolite that inhibits its own synthesis in the producing microfungus. The semi-continuous dilution phase provided nutrients to sustain the fungus, but prevented biomass growth by limiting the supply of essential nitrogen. (Synthesis of lovastatin does not require nitrogen.) The preferred pelleted growth morphology that favors lovastatin synthesis was readily obtained and maintained in the 20 L bubble column used. In contrast, a stirred tank fermentation had a substantially lower production of lovastatin because mechanical agitation damaged the fungal pellets. The two-stage feeding method increased lovastatin production rate by more than 50% in comparison with the conventional batch operation. Rheological data for the fungal broth are presented. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen removal in an SBR controlled at low dissolved oxygen concentration

    Peng Dangcong
    Abstract Simultaneous organic carbon and nitrogen removal was studied in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with synthetic municipal wastewater and controlled at a low dissolved oxygen (DO) level (0.8,mg,dm,3). Experimental results over a long time (120 days) showed that the reactor achieved high treatment capacities (organic and nitrogen loading rates reached as high as 2.4,kg COD m,3 d,1 and 0.24,kg NH3 -N m3 d,1) and efficiencies (COD, NH3 -N and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were 95%, 99% and 75%). No filamentous bacteria were found in the sludge even though the reactor had been seeded with filamentous bulking sludge. Instead, granular sludge, which possessed high activity and good settleability, was formed. Furthermore, the sludge production rate under low DO was less than that under high DO. Significant benefits, such as low investment and less operating cost, will be obtained from the new process. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Experimentation of a new mode of batch culture for lactic acid bacteria: cell reuse with an initial period of cell reactivation at acidic pH

    Abdeltif Amrane
    Abstract Cell reuse was compared with conventional batch culture for lactic acid fermentation, the objective was to simplify the batch process and to alleviate the need for added nitrogen. At high levels of nitrogen supplementation to the culture medium (20,g,dm,3 yeast extract and 5,g,dm,3 each of tryptic and pancreatic casein peptones), similar mean production rates were obtained with partial cell reuse and the conventional batch process, without any additional gain when cells were initially reactivated at acidic pH. On the other hand, cell reuse with an initial period without pH control appeared particularly effective for low levels of nitrogen supplementation (5,g,dm,3 yeast extract): a 57% increase in the mean production rate with regard to the conventional batch process was obtained. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Statistical analysis of catalyst degradation in a semi-continuous chemical production process

    Eleftherios Kaskavelis
    Abstract The effect of decaying catalyst efficacy in a commercial-scale, semi-continuous petrochemical process was investigated. The objective was to gain a better understanding of process behaviour and its effect on production rate. The process includes a three-stage reaction performed in fixed bed reactors. Each of the three reaction stages consists of a number of catalyst beds that are changed periodically to regenerate the catalyst. Product separation and reactant recycling are then performed in a series of distillation columns. In the absence of specific measurements of the catalyst properties, process operational data are used to assess catalyst decay. A number of statistical techniques were used to model production rate as a function of process operation, including information on short- and long-term catalyst decay. It was found that ridge regression, partial least squares and stepwise selection multiple linear regression yielded similar predictive models. No additional benefit was found from the application of non-linear partial least squares or Curds and Whey. Finally, through time series profiles of total daily production volume, corresponding to individual in-service cycles of the different reaction stages, short-term catalyst degradation was assessed. It was shown that by successively modelling the process as a sequence of batches corresponding to cycles of each reaction stage, considerable economic benefit could be realized by reducing the maximum cycle length in the third reaction stage. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Low complex I content explains the low hydrogen peroxide production rate of heart mitochondria from the long-lived pigeon, Columba livia

    AGING CELL, Issue 1 2010
    Adrian J. Lambert
    Summary Across a range of vertebrate species, it is known that there is a negative association between maximum lifespan and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production. In this report, we investigate the underlying biochemical basis of the low hydrogen peroxide production rate of heart mitochondria from a long-lived species (pigeon) compared with a short-lived species with similar body mass (rat). The difference in hydrogen peroxide efflux rate was not explained by differences in either superoxide dismutase activity or hydrogen peroxide removal capacity. During succinate oxidation, the difference in hydrogen peroxide production rate between the species was localized to the ,pH-sensitive superoxide producing site within complex I. Mitochondrial ,pH was significantly lower in pigeon mitochondria compared with rat, but this difference in ,pH was not great enough to explain the lower hydrogen peroxide production rate. As judged by mitochondrial flavin mononucleotide content and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pigeon mitochondria contained less complex I than rat mitochondria. Recalculation revealed that the rates of hydrogen peroxide production per molecule of complex I were the same in rat and pigeon. We conclude that mitochondria from the long-lived pigeon display low rates of hydrogen peroxide production because they have low levels of complex I. [source]

    Optimization of Medium Composition for Nisin Fermentation with Response Surface Methodology

    X.-X. Zhou
    ABSTRACT:, Nisin is an effective food biopreservative widely used in food industry. However, 1 problem of concern is limited production rate and final nisin concentration. A nisin-producing strain, L. lactis Lac2, a mutant strain with high yield of nisin, was obtained in our laboratory recently. In the present study, a fractional factorial design was applied to investigate the main factors that affect the yield of L. lactis Lac2. Central composite experimental design and response surface methodology were adopted to derive a statistical model for optimizing the composition of the medium. The results showed that the optimum medium for nisin production of L. lactis Lac2 was composed of 2.68% sucrose (w/v), 0.5% tryptone (w/v), 1% yeast extract (w/v), 0.3% Tween-80 (w/v), 0.02% MgSO4·7H2O (w/v), 0.81% NaCl (w/v), 1.91% K2HPO4 (w/v), 0.05% ascorbic acid (w/v), and 2% agar (w/v) (if necessary) at pH 6.5. When cultured in the optimum medium, the nisin yield is an average of 3381.81 IU/mL, which nearly doubled the yield when incubated in the initial medium. Also, the concentration of tryptone was decreased while that of the sucrose was increased when compared with CM broth, which means a reduction of the fermentation cost. [source]