Production

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Production

  • EP production
  • ab production
  • above-ground net primary production
  • aboveground production
  • acetate production
  • acetic acid production
  • acid production
  • adenovirus production
  • adiponectin production
  • adult production
  • aflatoxin b1 production
  • aflatoxin production
  • agricultural production
  • albumin production
  • alcohol production
  • aldosterone production
  • alkaloid production
  • alloantibody production
  • amine production
  • ammonia production
  • amp production
  • amylase production
  • animal production
  • anion production
  • annual production
  • antibiotic production
  • antibody production
  • antigen production
  • art production
  • artistic production
  • atp production
  • autoantibody production
  • b1 production
  • bacterial production
  • bacteriocin production
  • bacterioplankton production
  • beef production
  • berry production
  • bile production
  • bilirubin production
  • biodiesel production
  • bioenergy production
  • bioethanol production
  • biofilm production
  • biofuel production
  • bioga production
  • biohydrogen production
  • biological production
  • biomass energy production
  • biomass production
  • biopharmaceutical production
  • biosurfactant production
  • biotechnological production
  • blood cell production
  • brood production
  • cacao production
  • camp production
  • capsule production
  • carbon dioxide production
  • carotenoid production
  • cattle production
  • cell production
  • cellular production
  • cellulose production
  • ceramic production
  • cgmp production
  • ch4 production
  • cheese production
  • chemical production
  • chemokine production
  • citric acid production
  • cla production
  • co2 production
  • coffee production
  • collagen production
  • commercial production
  • commodity production
  • concomitant production
  • continuous production
  • corn production
  • cortisol production
  • cotton production
  • craft production
  • crop production
  • cultural production
  • culture production
  • cyclic amp production
  • cyst production
  • cytokine production
  • cytokine/chemokine production
  • daily egg production
  • dairy production
  • de la production
  • de production
  • decreased no production
  • decreased production
  • defective production
  • differential production
  • dioxide production
  • discursive production
  • domestic production
  • dry matter production
  • e production
  • e2 production
  • early production
  • ecosystem production
  • efficient production
  • egg production
  • eicosanoid production
  • electricity production
  • elevated production
  • embryo production
  • endogenous glucose production
  • endogenous no production
  • endogenous production
  • energy production
  • enhanced production
  • entropy production
  • enzymatic production
  • enzyme production
  • epo production
  • erythropoietin production
  • estrogen production
  • et-1 production
  • ethanol production
  • ethylene production
  • ex vivo cytokine production
  • ex vivo production
  • excess production
  • excessive production
  • exoenzyme production
  • exopolysaccharide production
  • export production
  • extracellular production
  • factor production
  • fatty acid production
  • fed-batch production
  • feed production
  • feedstock production
  • fermentative production
  • fibronectin production
  • fish production
  • fisheries production
  • flower production
  • fodder production
  • food production
  • force production
  • free radical production
  • fruit production
  • fry production
  • fuel ethanol production
  • fuel production
  • gamete production
  • gas production
  • gfp production
  • glass production
  • global production
  • glucose production
  • gm-csf production
  • grain production
  • greater production
  • greater seed production
  • gross primary production
  • growth factor production
  • h2 production
  • h2o2 production
  • ha production
  • hatchery production
  • heat production
  • hepatic glucose production
  • hepatic production
  • hepcidin production
  • herbage production
  • heterologous production
  • heterologous protein production
  • high production
  • high-level production
  • highest production
  • histamine production
  • home production
  • honeydew production
  • hormone production
  • household production
  • hydrogen peroxide production
  • hydrogen production
  • i ifn production
  • i production
  • ifn production
  • ige production
  • igg production
  • il-10 production
  • il-12 production
  • il-12p70 production
  • il-13 production
  • il-17 production
  • il-18 production
  • il-1ra production
  • il-2 production
  • il-4 production
  • il-5 production
  • il-6 production
  • il-8 production
  • immunoglobulin e production
  • immunoglobulin production
  • improved production
  • increase production
  • increased cytokine production
  • increased production
  • increasing production
  • indigo production
  • induced no production
  • induced production
  • industrial mass production
  • industrial production
  • industrial scale production
  • industrial-scale production
  • inflammatory cytokine production
  • information production
  • insulin production
  • interferon production
  • intermediate production
  • intracellular cytokine production
  • intracellular production
  • ion production
  • iron production
  • jet production
  • joint production
  • juice production
  • knowledge production
  • la production
  • laccase production
  • lactamase production
  • lactic acid production
  • language production
  • large production
  • large scale production
  • large-scale production
  • larval production
  • latex production
  • leaf production
  • leptin production
  • leukotriene production
  • lipase production
  • livestock production
  • local production
  • low production
  • lower production
  • ltb4 production
  • mab production
  • male production
  • mass production
  • matrix production
  • matter production
  • maximum production
  • mcp-1 production
  • mda production
  • meat production
  • mediator production
  • melanin production
  • melatonin production
  • melt production
  • message production
  • metabolic heat production
  • metabolite production
  • metalloproteinase production
  • methane production
  • milk production
  • mitochondrial ro production
  • mmp production
  • mmp-9 production
  • monoclonal antibody production
  • monocyte production
  • monophosphate production
  • mrna production
  • mucin production
  • mucus production
  • mycotoxin production
  • narrative production
  • nectar production
  • net ecosystem production
  • net primary production
  • net production
  • neutrophil production
  • nitric oxide production
  • nitrite production
  • no production
  • offspring production
  • oil production
  • olive oil production
  • optimal production
  • organic acid production
  • organic production
  • osteocalcin production
  • oxidant production
  • oxide production
  • oxygen production
  • oxygen radical production
  • oxygen species production
  • particle production
  • peroxide production
  • peroxynitrite production
  • pgd2 production
  • pge2 production
  • pheromone production
  • phosphate production
  • photosynthetic production
  • pig production
  • pigment production
  • plant biomass production
  • plant production
  • platelet production
  • pollen production
  • polymer production
  • polysaccharide production
  • pork production
  • potato production
  • pottery production
  • power production
  • primary production
  • pro-inflammatory cytokine production
  • progeny production
  • progesterone production
  • proinflammatory cytokine production
  • prostaglandin e2 production
  • prostaglandin production
  • prostanoid production
  • protease production
  • protein production
  • queen production
  • radical production
  • rapid production
  • reactive oxygen species production
  • recombinant antibody production
  • recombinant production
  • recombinant protein production
  • red blood cell production
  • reduced production
  • rice production
  • ro production
  • root production
  • runoff production
  • saliva production
  • scale production
  • scent production
  • scientific production
  • secondary metabolite production
  • secondary production
  • sediment production
  • seed production
  • shoot production
  • shrimp production
  • siderophore production
  • significant production
  • singlet oxygen production
  • situ production
  • social production
  • song production
  • sound production
  • specialized production
  • species production
  • speech production
  • sperm production
  • spontaneous production
  • spore production
  • sputum production
  • stage production
  • steroid production
  • stimulated production
  • subsequent production
  • successful production
  • sugar production
  • sulfide production
  • superoxide anion production
  • superoxide production
  • sustainable production
  • synga production
  • taxol production
  • tear production
  • testosterone production
  • textile production
  • th1 cytokine production
  • th2 cytokine production
  • thrombin production
  • tilapia production
  • tiller production
  • timber production
  • tobacco production
  • torque production
  • total production
  • toxin production
  • transient production
  • type i ifn production
  • urea production
  • urine production
  • vaccine production
  • vector production
  • vegetable production
  • vegetation production
  • vegf production
  • viral production
  • virulence factor production
  • virus production
  • vitro embryo production
  • vitro gas production
  • vitro production
  • vivo cytokine production
  • vivo production
  • volatile production
  • waste production
  • water production
  • wheat production
  • wine production
  • wood production
  • world production
  • xylanase production
  • xylitol production

  • Terms modified by Production

  • production ability
  • production activity
  • production area
  • production capability
  • production capacity
  • production cell line
  • production centre
  • production chain
  • production characteristic
  • production condition
  • production control
  • production cost
  • production cycle
  • production data
  • production decision
  • production decreased
  • production efficiency
  • production environment
  • production externality
  • production facility
  • production factor
  • production frontier
  • production function
  • production function approach
  • production goal
  • production growth
  • production increase
  • production index
  • production industry
  • production instability
  • production kinetics
  • production level
  • production line
  • production loss
  • production management
  • production mechanism
  • production method
  • production methods
  • production model
  • production models
  • production module
  • production network
  • production only
  • production parameter
  • production pathway
  • production pattern
  • production peak
  • production performance
  • production phase
  • production pipeline
  • production plan
  • production planning
  • production plant
  • production platform
  • production pond
  • production potential
  • production practice
  • production price
  • production process
  • production profile
  • production quantity
  • production rate
  • production ratio
  • production region
  • production regions
  • production risk
  • production run
  • production scale
  • production season
  • production sector
  • production sharing
  • production site
  • production strategy
  • production structure
  • production subsidy
  • production system
  • production task
  • production technique
  • production techniques
  • production technology
  • production time
  • production tracking
  • production trait
  • production unit
  • production value
  • production volume
  • production worker
  • production worldwide
  • production yield

  • Selected Abstracts


    SOMATOTYPING, ANTIMODERNISM, AND THE PRODUCTION OF CRIMINOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE,

    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2007
    NICOLE RAFTER
    This study analyzes the work of William H. Sheldon, the psychologist, physician, and advocate of the study of body types. It investigates how he arrived at his much-repeated finding that a correlation exists between mesomorphy (a stocky, muscular body build) and delinquency and how his ideas were validated and perpetuated. It reviews what Sheldon actually said about the causes of crime; identifies his goals in searching for a relationship between body shape and criminality; explains how he found audiences for his biological theory at a time when sociological approaches dominated criminology; and attempts to understand the current criminological ambivalence about the scientific status of Sheldon's work, despite its discreditation decades ago. I argue that the tripartite structure of Sheldon's thought attracted three different audiences,methodologists, social scientists, and supporters,and that it encouraged the supporters to fund his research without reference to the critiques of the social scientists. I also argue that somatotyping was part of a broader antimodernist reaction within international scientific communities against the dislocations of twentieth-century life. To understand the origins, acceptance, and maintenance of criminological ideas, we need a historical perspective on figures of the past. Positivism may inform us about what is true and false, but we also need to know how truth and falsity have been constructed over time and how the ideas of earlier criminologists were shaped by their personal and social contexts. [source]


    GOVERNMENTALITY, LANGUAGE IDEOLOGY, AND THE PRODUCTION OF NEEDS IN MALAGASY CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    PAUL W. HANSON
    Integrated conservation and development program planning pivots on a critical exchange. In establishing protected areas, part of the subsistence base of resident people is enclosed. Residents are then offered assistance in meeting needs emerging from the enclosure. The elicitation and interpretation of need in such programs forms a technology of governance. This article analyzes differing linguistic ideologies underpinning needs production in Madagascar's Ranomafana National Park Project, arguing that the technology of needs production is part of a green neoliberal rationality through which the Malagasy state and its citizens are being transformed, and from which an increasingly sophisticated countergovernmentality grows. [source]


    CLAIMING PLACE: THE PRODUCTION OF YOUNG MEN'S STREET MEETING PLACES IN ACCRA, GHANA

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2008
    Thilde Langevang
    ABSTRACT This article discusses the social significance of the street to young men through a case study of their street meeting places, ,the bases' in Accra, Ghana. Drawing on field research in a suburb of Accra, the paper explores how such meeting places are produced, claimed and defended. The aim is to contribute to discussions of the relationship between the marginalization of young men in Africa, the appropriation of street space and the production of youth identities. The article illuminates how bases are produced in an urban landscape characterized by rapid change, in which young men are excluded from meaningful work and influence, and tend to be represented as a problem. Describing how these meeting places are interpreted both from the outside and from within, the article illustrates the heterogeneous character of such places and the multiple meanings ascribed to them. While hordes of young men hanging out on the street tend to be viewed by the surrounding world as either potentially dangerous or as a sign of marginalization and immobility, the paper stresses that for the young men themselves, these places are also full of motion and serve to orient their lives socially and materially. [source]


    UNDERSTANDING TRADITIONALIST OPPOSITION TO MODERNIZATION: NARRATIVE PRODUCTION IN A NORWEGIAN MOUNTAIN CONFLICT

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2008
    Tor A. Benjaminsen
    ABSTRACT. In Gausdal, a mountainous community in southern Norway, a conflict involving dogsledding has dominated local politics during the past two decades. In order to understand local protests against this activity, in this article we apply discourse analysis within the evolving approach of political ecology. In this way, we also aim at contributing to the emerging trend of bringing political ecology "home". To many people, dogsledding appears as an environmentally friendly outdoor recreation activity as well as a type of adventure tourism that may provide new income opportunities to marginal agricultural communities. Hence, at a first glance, the protests against this activity may be puzzling. Looking for explanations for these protests, this empirical study demonstrates how the opposition to dogsledding may be understood as grounded in four elements of a narrative: (1) environmental values are threatened; (2) traditional economic activities are threatened; (3) outsiders take over the mountain; and (4) local people are powerless. Furthermore, we argue that the narrative is part of what we see as a broader Norwegian "rural traditionalist discourse". This discourse is related to a continued marginalization of rural communities caused by increasing pressure on agriculture to improve its efficiency as well as an "environmentalization" of rural affairs. Thus, the empirical study shows how opposition to dogsledding in a local community is articulated as a narrative that fits into a more general pattern of opposition to rural modernization in Norway as well as internationally. [source]


    DECOLONIZING THE PRODUCTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGES?

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2006
    REFLECTIONS ON RESEARCH WITH INDIGENOUS MUSICIANS
    ABSTRACT. This paper contributes to debates on decolonizing geography, by reflecting on the ethical and political considerations involved in research on indigenous music in Australia. The research collaboration involved two non-indigenous researchers,an academic geographer and a music educator,engaging with indigenous music and musicians in a number of ways. The paper reflects on these engagements, and draws attention to a series of key binaries and boundaries that were highlighted and unsettled: ,outsider/insider'; ,traditional/contemporary'; ,authenticity/inauthenticity'. It also discusses the politics of publishing and draws attention to the ways in which the objects of our work,in this case a book,influence decisions about representation, subject matter, and interpretations of speaking positions. Rather than seeking validation for attempts to ,speak for' or ,speak to' indigenous musical perspectives, contemporary Aboriginality was understood as a field of intersubjective relations where multiple voices, representations and interventions are made. I discuss some ways in which the authors sought to situate their own musical, and geographical, knowledges in this problematic, and inherently political, research context. [source]


    (ANTI)SOCIAL CAPITAL IN THE PRODUCTION OF AN (UN)CIVIL SOCIETY IN PAKISTAN,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2005
    DAANISH MUSTAFA
    ABSTRACT. Pakistan is home to some of the most widely admired examples of civil-society-based service-delivery and advocacy groups. Pakistan has also spawned some much-maligned nongovernmental actors with violent agendas. This article uses the social capital / civil society conceptual lens to view the modes of (anti)social capital mobilization that contribute to the civil and uncivil spaces of Pakistani society. The case examples of Jamaat-e-Islami, an Islamic revivalist organization, and the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan are used to understand the geography of social and antisocial forces in Pakistan. It is argued that the processes that mobilize social capital-whether positive or perverse-are multiscalar and that, in the Pakistani context, no compelling cultural or religious reason exists for the ascendance of one type of social capital over the other. Positive social capital can be mobilized to contribute to a more civil social discourse in Pakistan, given the right policy choices. [source]


    RUNOFF PRODUCTION AND EROSION PROCESSES ON A DEHESA IN WESTERN SPAIN,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2002
    ANTONIO CEBALLOS
    ABSTRACT. Runoff generation and soil erosion were investigated at the Guadalperalón experimental watershed (western Spain), within the land-use system known as dehesa, or open, managed evergreen forests. Season and type of surface were found to control runoff and soil-loss rates. Five soil units were selected as representative of surface types found in the study area: hillslope grass, bottom grass, tree cover, sheep trails, and shrub cover. Measurements were made in various conditions with simulated rainfall to gain an idea of the annual variation in runoff and soil loss. Important seasonal differences were noted due to surface cover and moisture content of soil, but erosion rates were determined primarily by runoff. Surfaces covered with grass and shrubs always showed less erosion; surfaces covered with holm oaks showed higher runoff rates, due to the hydrophobic character of the soils. Concentrations of runoff sediment during the simulations confirmed that erosion rates at the study site depended directly on the sediment available on the soil surface. [source]


    OPTIMIZATION OF ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF ISOMALTO-OLIGOSACCHARIDES PRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2009
    M.C. RABELO
    ABSTRACT Glucosyltransferases can be applied in the synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Enzymatic synthesis using acceptors can be used to obtain these carbohydrates. When maltose is the acceptor, oligosaccharides containing one maltose moiety and up to eight glucose units linked by ,-1,6-glycosidic bonds are obtained as the product of dextransucrase acceptor reaction. In this work, the enzymatic synthesis of isomalto-oligosaccharides using dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512F was optimized by response surface methodology. The effect of maltose and sucrose concentrations on the acceptor reaction was evaluated in a batch reactor system. Partially purified enzyme was used to reduce the enzyme purification cost. The results showed that high sucrose concentrations in conjunction with high maltose levels enhanced the isomalto-oligosaccharide synthesis. A productivity of 42.95 mmol/L.h of isomalto-oligosaccharides was obtained at the optimal operating condition (100 mmol/L of sucrose and 200 mmol/L of maltose). PRATICAL APPLICATIONS Oligosaccharides as prebiotic have a large application in food formulations, and their beneficial role in human health have been extensively studied. Although the acceptor mechanism of dextransucrase has already been extensively studied, an industrial process has not been developed yet for enzyme synthesis of isomalto-oligosaccharide. The process studied in this work allows the large-scale preparation of isomalto-oligosaccharide using partially purified enzyme. [source]


    ROLE OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN LIPASE PRODUCTION , USING PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 6 2007
    A.N. SARAVANAN
    ABSTRACT Complex substrates always induce substantial amount of enzyme production during hydrolysis by microorganisms. In this study, ghee was taken for its saturated fatty acid content and analyzed as an inducer for the production of lipase. With ghee emulsion, the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at optimal condition produced 60 units/min/L at 72 h. With olive oil emulsion, this organism produced only 41 units/min/L as maximum at 96 h. The saturated fatty acids present in ghee make it a hard substance for hydrolysis, which is the reason for the increased enzyme production. This was evaluated by the iodine number experiment. Ghee can also reduce the production cost whereas the costlier olive oil constitutes 25,50% of the total production cost for a commercial scale. The experimental results showed that the saturated fatty acids play an important role in lipase enzyme induction by P. aeruginosa. The use of ghee is cost-effective; hence, it can be used as a potential inducer for lipase production. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Lipases are industrially very important enzymes. They are used in pharmaceutical, food, soap and other industries. In lipase production, olive oil is the main constituent. Comparatively, olive oil is costlier; hence, it increases the production cost of lipase. So, this study was done to replace olive oil with a much cheaper ghee using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ghee-containing medium gave a very good result because of the presence of complex saturated fatty acids. The ghee-containing medium produced 60 units/min/L at 72 h. The olive oil medium, which contains mainly unsaturated fatty acids, produced only 41 units/min/L as maximum at 96 h. Hence, in the commercial scale, ghee can reduce raw material cost as well as operation time cost significantly when it is used as substrate. [source]


    ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FERMENTED BERRY JUICES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON NITRIC OXIDE AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA PRODUCTION IN MACROPHAGES 264.7 GAMMA NO(,) CELL LINE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2006
    TRI VUONG
    ABSTRACT Serratia vaccinii, a novel bacterium isolated from blueberry microflora, increased the phenolic content of berry juices, and thus increased antioxidant activities. The fermentation capacity of Serratia was investigated with Saskatoon berries, cranberries, strawberries and grapes in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. It was shown to be compatible with wine yeast in anaerobic fermentations, producing wine with high antioxidant activity. The effects of fermented berry juices were tested on lipopolysaccharide/inferon-gamma-activated macrophages 264.7 NO(,). Data indicated that fermented berry juices strongly inhibited activated-macrophage NO production but induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. [source]


    DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY PULVERIZER FOR CASSAVA CAKE IN GARI PRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2008
    L.A. SANNI
    ABSTRACT The use of a raffia sieve for pulverizing and sifting cassava cake during gari processing is slow, unhygienic and hazardous. A rotary brush and screen mechanism was developed for the pulverization of cassava cake with a view to eliminate the above-mentioned limitations of the existing methods. Machine performance was measured by comparing the product from the raffia sieve with that from a rotary sifter. The 5-mm screen aperture gave a gari of about the same bulk density with that of the raffia sieve. Although the throughput of the rotary sifter using a 5-mm sieve (227.71 kg/h) was lower than that of a 7-mm sieve (350 kg/h), the uniformity coefficient of 1.72 using the 5-mm sieve compared favorably with that of the raffia sieve. The pulverizing efficiency was higher (81.2%), with the 5-mm sieve than with the 7-mm sieve. The higher pulverizing efficiency of the machine reduces the drudgery associated with the pulverization of pressed cassava cake and improves productivity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This research reduces the drudgery and hazard associated with the pulverization and sifting of cassava cake during gari processing in rural West Africa, where the bulk of the world's gari is being processed manually. [source]


    A NEW METHOD FOR ELLAGIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM POMEGRANATE HUSK

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 4 2008
    JINGJING LU
    ABSTRACT Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) husk, a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry, is an inexpensive and abundant source of ellagic acid. Ellagic acid is widely used as functional food for its physiological functions. It is the breakdown product of ellagitannins. To date, the preparation of ellagic acid from pomegranate husk has not been reported. This article reports a new process for ellagic acid production from pomegranate husk by extraction of tannins followed by acid hydrolysis and purification by extraction and recrystallization. Several tests were conducted to obtain optimum conditions including extraction of tannins by varying solvents, acid concentration and reaction time for acid hydrolysis and the volume of methanol used for purification. Ellagic acid (3.5 g) with 90% purity from 100 g pomegranate husk was obtained. This new method is easy to scale up. All equipment used in this production process is widely used in food processing industry. The cost of production is low. It is suitable for industrial applications. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The production of ellagic acid is easier and the yield and purity of ellagic acid produced this way are higher than before. This method can be used not only for experiment in laboratory but also for industrial applications. The material , pomegranate husk , is a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry, so it is very cheap and easy to get. High-purity ellagic acid produced this way is sold to many companies back home and abroad. It is used as food additive and cosmetic material because of its antioxidant activity and whiteningfunction. The toxicity of pomegranate husk is lower than that of gallnut, which has been the main material of ellagic acid production in the past. Reagents are common and inexpensive; some of them are reusable. [source]


    CARBON SOURCES AND THEIR EFFECT ON GROWTH, ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY BRETTANOMYCES BRUXELLENSIS IN BATCH CULTURE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2007
    M.G. AGUILAR USCANGA
    ABSTRACT The influence of available low-cost carbohydrates as carbon sources on Brettanomyces bruxellensis growth, acetic acid and ethanol production was studied in order to ascertain the viability of this yeast to eventually become an industrial acetic acid producer. Six different raw materials were included as carbon sources (glucose, sugarcane molasses, refined cane sugar, pineapple, sugarcane and beet juices). B. bruxellensis develops in a complex culture medium like plant juices and sugarcane molasses better than in a medium with a simple carbohydrate such as glucose. The maximum acid acetic yield (0.24 g/g) and productivity (0.14 g/L/h) were attained in tests carried out with sugarcane molasses containing 60 g/L sucrose. The strain produced low levels of ethanol in a refined sugarcane medium, but was able to produce a substantial quantity of acetic acid (13 g/L). [source]


    THERMAL DEGRADATION KINETICS OF SUCROSE, GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE IN SUGARCANE MUST FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2006
    J. NOLASCO JR.
    ABSTRACT Thermal degradation of sugars contained in sugarcane must (21.5°Brix, pH 6.14) was evaluated at temperatures of 110, 120, 130 and 140C, using the thermal-death-time tube method, determining remaining sugars by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The study analyzed thermal degradation kinetics of both the total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose and fructose individually. All curves of remaining sugars presented strong nonlinearity, with initial shoulder and final tail adjusted by an extended logistic model that was adapted for two species for TRS, and a simple logistic model for the monosaccharides. It was shown that rate constants are influenced by temperature according to two irreconcilable methods: the Arrhenius and the Bigelow methods. Obtained activation energies for fructose and glucose were quite coincident, 140.37 and 140.23 kJ/mol, respectively. Thermal resistance parameters were 21.59 and 21.61C, respectively. Comparison of the rate constants revealed that fructose degraded approximately 9,10 times faster than glucose. [source]


    EFFECT OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON ACETIC ACID PRODUCTION IN BRETTANOMYCES STRAINS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2005
    C. CASTRO-MARTINEZ
    ABSTRACT Four species of Brettanomyces (intermedius, bruxellensis, custersianus, clausenii) were examined to ascertain their acetic acid production capacity. The results showed that B. bruxellensis was the strain with the best volumetric productivity ,and ,specific ,production ,rate ,(P = 0.065 gL,1 h,1; ,Vp = 0.43 gg,1h,1). The best kinetic parameters were reached (P = 0.133 gL,1 h,1; Yp/s = 0.23; Pmax = 11.64 gL,1) ,at ,an ,airflow ,of ,288 Lh,1,(0.6 vvm, ,OTR = 124 mgO2L,1,h,1), and substrate inhibition was not observed. The influence of temperature and agitation on acetic acid production by B. bruxellensis in a glucose medium was investigated at different levels, 26, 30, 34C and 250, 350, 450 rpm, respectively. Temperature and agitation were shown to be deci-sive factors (P < 0.05) in acetic acid production at 288 Lh,1(0.6 vvm, OTR = 124 mgO2L,1 h). The optimal conditions for a high volumetric productivity were 30C and 250 rpm, respectively. [source]


    FRUIT BRANDY PRODUCTION BY BATCH COLUMN DISTILLATION WITH REFLUX

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2005
    MICHAEL J. CLAUS
    ABSTRACT The relationship between the operating parameters of batch fruit spirits column stills with reflux and the congener (trace compounds that provide flavors and aromas) concentrations in resulting fruit spirits has not been widely studied. Congener concentrations were determined in three different collection fractions, or "cuts," during batch distillation. Acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate were found in higher concentrations in the head cut, first overhead fraction, of the distillation and have lower boiling points relative to ethanol. 1-Propanol and isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol) were present in higher concentrations in the tail cut, third or final fraction, of the distillation and have boiling points that are higher than ethanol. Methanol has a unique concentration profile as it has higher concentrations in both the head and tail cuts, but a lower concentration in the heart cut, the middle fraction which is the desired product of the distillation. Methanol was of particular interest because the distillate must adhere to governmental regulations that limit its concentration in the product. Operating-condition parameters that were studied include the number of trays used in the distillation as well as the use of a "catalytic converter," a high surface, copper-packing material thought to catalyze formation of cyanide-containing compounds allowing them to be separated from the distillate. The effect of the number of trays used in a distillation on the concentration of ethanol and the congeners, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, 1-propanol and isoamyl alcohol in the final distilled spirits product is presented. An additional result of acetaldehyde production at the copper surface of the catalytic converter was also discovered in the analysis of the data. [source]


    WATER ABSORPTION, LEACHING and COLOR CHANGES DURING the SOAKING FOR PRODUCTION of SOY-BULGUR

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 2 2004
    MUSTAFA BAYRAM
    ABSTRACT In this study, the soaking process, which is the first step of soy-bulgur production to develop a new type food product, was investigated. the soaking operation was conducted at 30, 50 and 70C for 120 min and samples were taken from the soybean and soaking water at 10 min intervals. Moisture content and color (L, a, b and YI values) of soybean were measured, as well as soluble solids content and color (L, a, b and YI values) of soaking water during the soaking process. the results were analyzed by using ANOVA and Duncan test. Soaking time and temperature were significantly effective (P < 0.05) on all variables, except the time effect on the YI-value. During the soaking, moisture content, lightness (L) and yellowness (b) increased and, redness (a) and yellowness index (YI) of soybean decreased. Soluble solids content, yellowness and yellowness index increased in contrast to a decrease in the lightness and greenness of the soaking water. As a result, soluble solids content in the soaking water increased, which illustrated the leaching of soluble solids from soybean to water. Color of soybean turned to lights, in contrast to darkening and opaqueness of water during soaking. Results showed that the moisture content, soluble solid content, L, a, b and YI values can be successfully modeled using polynomial equations, which can be used to estimate their changes during the soaking operation. [source]


    OPTIMAL CONDITIONS FOR THE GROWTH AND POLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION BY HYPSIZIGUS MARMOREUS IN SUBMERGED CULTURE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 4 2009
    PING WANG
    ABSTRACTS In submerged cultivation, many nutrient variables and environmental conditions have great influence on the growth and polysaccharide production by Hypsizigus marmoreus. Plackett,Burman design was used to determine the important nutrient factors. A central composite experimental design and surface response methodology were employed to optimize the factor levels. Prediction models for dry cell weight (DCW), polysaccharide outside cells (EPS) and polysaccharide inside cells (IPS) under important nutrient conditions were developed by multiple regression analysis and verified. By solving the equations, the optimal nutrient conditions for highest EPS production (9.62 g/L) were obtained at 6.77 g cornstarch/L, 36.57 g glucose/L, 3.5 g MgSO4/L and 6.14 g bean cake powder/L, under which DCW and IPS were 16.2 g/L and 1.46 g/L, close to the highest value under their corresponding optimal conditions. Optimal environmental conditions were obtained at 10% inoculation dose, 45 mL medium in a 250 mL flask, pH 6.5, 25C and 200 rpm according to the results of single-factor experiment design. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Hypsizigus marmoreus polysaccharides have many functional properties, including antitumor, antifungal and antiproliferative activities, and free-radical scavenging. Liquid cultivation could produce a higher yield of polysaccharides and more flexible sequential processing methods of H. marmoreus, compared with traditional solid-state cultivation. However, the cell growth and production of polysaccharides would be influenced by many factors, including nutrient conditions and environmental conditions in the liquid cultivation of H. marmoreus. Keeping the conditions at optimal levels can maximize the yield of polysaccharides. The study not only found out the optimal nutrient conditions and environmental conditions for highest cell growth and yield of polysaccharides, but also developed prediction models for these parameters with important nutrient variables. Yield of polysaccharide inside of cells was also studied as well as polysaccharides outside of cells and cell growth. The results provide essential information for production of H. marmoreus polysaccharides by liquid culture. [source]


    ALCOHOLIC BANANA BEVERAGE , ASPECTS IN FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 3 2009
    SUNITA SINGH
    ABSTRACT This study quantified fermentative changes in processing alcoholic banana beverage as a result of two factors, namely, sorghum as an ingredient in mix and time period of fermentation, affecting the process in two scales (375 g and 2,900 g) of ingredients mix used. Diluted pulp (with water) from overripe bananas (Musa robusta) mixed with sprouted sorghum grains as ingredients were compared with ingredients without sorghum. The total sugars (reducing and total carbohydrates) were higher when sorghum was not added as an ingredient in initial mix to be fermented. Nevertheless, there was higher utilization of fermentable sugars and carbohydrates in the mix when sorghum was present in both scales of mix studied. The fermentative activities of inoculate as a result of interactive effect of sorghum and time period in the process was attributed to these utilizations. The time factor in fermentation allowed for significant increase in alcohol in the beverage (48 h with 375 g and 68 h with 2,900 g). The beverage obtained with sorghum contained 9.8 g% alcohol at 48 h from 375 g mix and 24.3 g% alcohol at 68 h from the 2,900 g mix of ingredients. These contents were higher as compared to beverage prepared without sorghum: 18.3 g% alcohol at 48 h from 375 g mix and 13.1 g% at 68 h from 2,900 g ingredient mix. The average yields of beverage (with added sorghum) were 54.6% and 57.9%, from 375 g mix batch and 2,900 g mix larger scales, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Banana has a short shelf life after it enters the retail market. The domestic supply in India in 2002 accounted for 20% wastage of bananas as a postharvest loss. The total losses in banana transactions were of the order 13,18% in a single wholesale market of the local city. It was possible to add value of ~48% if these overripe bananas processed into alcoholic beverage. The wasted bananas in domestic supply chain may be source of raw material present in the cycle of marketing itself. Using overripe bananas as the raw material in this study, we could ascertain the product characteristics so obtained after fermentation. These wasted bananas can thus be utilized using modified process detailed herein, if such a technology is readily available. This can replace spurious/illicit drinks in local pockets by using these cheap raw materials available in local abundance. [source]


    CORRELATION BETWEEN CITRIC ACID, THYMUS VULGARIS EXTRACT AND NaCl, AND HEAT SENSITIVITY AND CASEINASE PRODUCTION BY AEROMONAS CAVIAE AND A. SOBRIA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 6 2008
    BAYAN M. ABU-GHAZALEH
    ABSTRACT The effects of citric acid, Thymus vulgaris extract and NaCl on the heat sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. were examined in three different situations in this study. First, the effects of pretreatment with nutrient broth plus 0.03% citric acid, nutrient broth plus 0.3% T. vulgaris extract, nutrient broth plus 2.5% NaCl or nutrient broth plus 3% NaCl on the survival and caseinase production by heated A. caviae 166 and A. sobria 74 were investigated. Pretreatment of Aeromonas spp. with these preservatives for 1 or 6 days significantly increased their resistance to subsequent heating at 54C. However, pretreatment of Aeromonas strains with nutrient broth plus 2.5% NaCl or nutrient broth plus 3% NaCl before heating at 54C significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the production of caseinase by the heated cells. Second, the effect of post-treatment with preservatives after heating of Aeromonas strains was examined. Post-treatment of Aeromonas strains with the tested preservatives for 7 days after heating at 54C for 20 min prevented a complete recovery of cells and decreased the caseinase production compared with Aeromonas cells that were incubated in nutrient broth alone for 7 days after heating at 54C. Third, the effect of the type of the heating menstruum on the heat sensitivity of Aeromonas strains was investigated in this study. Heating in NaCl (0.85%) containing citric acid (0.03%) was the most effective treatment in killing Aeromonas spp. Heating in NaCl (0.85%) containing T. vulgaris extract (0.3%) or in NaCl (3.85%) slightly increased the resistance of cells to heat. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The results obtained in this study can be applied in the food industry, where combination of mild heat treatment and addition of low doses of chemical preservatives to food is nowadays frequently used. This study determined the heat sensitivity and caseinase production by A. caviae and A. sobria at three different conditions that may be encountered during processing of food industrially or at home. Firstly, the effect of pretreatment with some preservatives on the heat sensitivity and caseinase production by the tested Aeromonas. spp. was studied. Secondly, the effect of post-treatment with preservatives on growth and caseinase production by the heated (54C) Aeromonas cells was investigated. Thirdly, effect of presence of preservatives in the heating menstruum on the heat sensitivity of Aeromonas spp. was studied. [source]


    OPTIMIZATION OF GUAVA JUICE AND POWDER PRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 6 2001
    CHETAN A. CHOPDA
    Enzyme treatment of guava puree was optimized for yield and clarity by first determining the most effective concentration, then varying both incubation time and temperature. Application of Pectinex Ultra SP-L® was optimal using 700 ppm enzyme for 1.5 h at 50C. Clarified guava juice was clearer (89.6%) when prepared using ultrafiltration (MW cut-off 40,60 kDa) rather than plate and frame filtration (82.8%); however, the latter was higher in both soluble solids and ascorbic acid. Clarified guava juice powders were made using freeze-drying, spray drying and tunnel drying. The freeze-dried product had superior quality; however, the spray-dried product was stable and may be more economical. Sensory panelists ranked the cloudy juice prepared from aseptic guava puree highest, and there were no significant differences between the juices from pasteurized, clear nectar, freeze-dried puree powder or juice powder. [source]


    QUALITY LOSS DURING TOMATO PASTE PRODUCTION VERSUS SAUCE STORAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 4 2001
    RADHIKA K. APAIAH
    Two studies were conducted to assess the extent of quality changes in tomato processing versus storage. For the processing study, tomato juice was vacuum concentrated into paste at 68C for 300 min (LT) or 85C for 34 min (ST) and samples taken at 5,26 Brix. Reduced ascorbic acid (RAA) degraded sooner during LT than ST, but reached equivalent final concentrations. The particle size decreased and hue angle increased during LT, but not ST. The viscosity decreased more during LT than ST. There was no formation of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF.) For the storage study, commercial tomato sauce was stored at 4 to 55C for 6 months. RAA degradation and HMF formation during storage were first order with activation energies of 77 and 70 KJ/mole, respectively. The particle size decreased at all storage temperatures, viscosity decreased at 45 to 55C and hue angle increased at 37 to 55C. In general, quality loss of tomato sauce during processing was greater than during storage. [source]


    OPTIMIZATION OF SPRAY DRYING CONDITIONS FOR PRODUCTION OF BIFIDUS MILK POWDER FROM COW MILK

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 4 2006
    M. SELVAMUTHUKUMARAN
    ABSTRACT Bifidus milk powder was prepared by supplementing cow's milk with predetermined level of additives to obtain slurry of desired concentration. The slurry was sterilized, cooled and inoculated with 24-h-old bulk culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum at 10% and incubated at 37C for 24 h, cooled and dried in SM Scientech Lab model spray dryer with predetermined spray drying conditions. The bifidus milk powder contains bifidobacteria counts from 1.88 × 109 to 15.80 × 109 cells/g dry weight and their percent survival was 4.17,35.11%. Maximum survival was obtained by using the following spray drying conditions: inlet temperature of 164.02C, slurry concentration of 25.62% total soluble solids and air pressure of 2.5 kg/cm2. The high temperature and air pressure of spray drying markedly influenced the color and appearance of final product. The inlet temperature and air pressure showed a significant effect on survival of bifidobacteria in the final product. [source]


    PRODUCTION OF LIQUID AND WHITE SOLID PEKMEZ IN TURKEY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 5-6 2005
    ALI BATU
    ABSTRACT The research was carried out to evaluate gelling and bleaching agents for white solid pekmez production. Grape juice with 26% total soluble solids as °Brix was used for the production of pekmez. Acidity was reduced with the application of sterile white soil containing 70.4% CaCO3, followed by tannin,gelatin clarification and filtration. The grape juice was concentrated to 76% total soluble solids by vacuum. Gelling treatments were designed to produce a solid pekmez by adding high or low methoxyl pectins or carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). It was found that sufficient gelling could be achieved using less than 0.5% CMC and 1% for either pectin. Also, a desirable white color was obtained with 1.5% soapwort juice and 3% egg white with the combination of 1% pectins. [source]


    GENERATION OF BIOLUMINESCENT MORGANELLA MORGANII AND ITS POTENTIAL USAGE IN DETERMINATION OF GROWTH LIMITS AND HISTAMINE PRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2009
    MEHDI ZAREI
    ABSTRACT A mini-Tn5 promoter probe carrying the intact lux operon of Photorhabdus luminescens (pUT mini-Tn5 luxCDABE) which allowed measurement of light output without the addition of exogenous substrate was constructed. It was used to create a pool of chromosomally lux -marked strains of Morganella morganii. Also plasmid-mediated expression of bioluminescence in M. morganii was assessed using plasmid pT7-3 luxCDABE. No significant differences in growth and histamine formation characteristics of the lux -marked strains and wild type M. morganii strain were observed. Luminescent strain of M. morganii was used in experiments in which the correlation between light output, viable cell count and histamine formation was assessed. During the exponential growth phase, a positive linear correlation was observed between these three parameters in trypticase soy broth-histidine medium at 37C. It was demonstrated that expression of bioluminescence had not had a significant effect upon both growth rate and histamine production. Thus, the measurement of bioluminescence was found to be a simple, fast and reliable method for determination of viable cell count and histamine content. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Constructing predictive models in microbiology requires a large number of data on desired factors. Commonly used traditional methods of counting viable cells and measuring histamine, e.g., to model the growth limits of M. morganii as a function of different intrinsic and extrinsic factors, are time consuming and laborious, and require a lot of laboratory space and materials. According to the results of this research, measurement of bioluminescence is a simple, fast and reliable method for the determination of viable cell count and histamine content during the exponential growth phase. Thus, it can be used as a labor- and material-saving selective data capture method for constructing predictive models in many different areas. [source]


    SIDEROPHORE PRODUCTION, SERUM RESISTANCE, HEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY AND EXTENDED-SPECTRUM ,-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING KLEBSIELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2007
    HAN GUNDOGAN
    ABSTRACT This study aimed at the isolation and identification of Klebsiella spp. from dairy product to establish their public health significance by determining their virulence factors, antibiotic resistance and extended-spectrum ,-lactamase (ESBL). Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis were identified in 25 (58%), 11 (26%) and 7 (16%) isolates, respectively. A high prevalence of Klebsiella isolates had virulence factors such as siderophore production (63%), serum resistance (32.5%) and hemolytic activity (58%). ESBL - producing Klebsiella spp. was detected in 35% of the isolates. Resistance to the antimicrobial agents tested was found to be much higher in the ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. than in non-ESBL-producing isolates. All ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. showed high-level resistance to cephalosporins and monobactams. The majority of the serum resistant, siderophore, hemolysin and ESBL producers were K. pneumoniae. [source]


    EFFECT OF HEADSPACE OXYGEN AND FILMS OF DIFFERENT OXYGEN TRANSMISSION RATE ON TOXIN PRODUCTION BY CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPE E IN RAINBOW TROUT FILLETS STORED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2000
    ISABELLE DUFRESNE
    ABSTRACT Studies were conducted to determine the effect of various levels of headspace oxygen (0,100%, balance CO2) or film oxygen transmission rate (OTR) on the time to toxicity in modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) fresh trout fillets challenged with C. botulinum type E (102 spore/g) and stored under moderate temperature abuse conditions (12C). In all cases, trout were toxic within 5 days, irrespective of the initial levels of oxygen in the package headspace. However, spoilage preceded toxigenesis. Packaging of trout fillets in low gas barrier films, with OTRs ranging from 4,000 to 10,000 cc/m2/day at 24C and 0% relative humidity, also had no effect on time to toxicity in all MAP trout fillets. All fillets were toxic within 4,5 days and spoilage again preceded toxigenesis. This study has shown that the addition of headspace O2, either directly to a package or indirectly by using a low gas barrier film, had no influence on the time to toxigenesis or spoilage. Additional barriers, other than headspace O2 or film transmission rate, need to be considered to ensure the safety of MAP trout fillets, particularty at moderate temperature abuse conditions. [source]


    BOTULINAL TOXIN PRODUCTION IN VACUUM AND CARBON DIOXIDE PACKAGED MEAT DURING CHILLED STORAGE AT 2 AND 4C

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2000
    S.M. MOORHEAD
    ABSTRACT This study was undertaken to determine if carbon dioxide packaging of meat afforded a food safety advantage over vacuum packaging with respect to botulinal toxin production during chilled storage. A cocktail of washed spores from five toxigenic clostridial strains , four reference Clostridium botulinumstrains [types A, B (2 strains) and E] and a C. butyricum type E strain , was inoculated onto lamb chumps. Of these strains, two were psychrotolerant. The inoculated chumps were individually carbon dioxide packaged and duplicate packs were placed into storage at 10, 8, 6, 4 and 2C. All storage regimens included a weekly defrost cycle when meat surface temperatures increased by up to 6 to 7C during a 2 to 2.5 h period. After 84 days storage, packs were assessed for the presence of botulinal toxin using the mouse bioassay procedure. All packs contained botulinal toxin. To compare toxin production in vacuum and carbon dioxide packs at chill temperatures, the challenge trials were repeated for 4 and 2C storage. Packs were examined at regular intervals for toxin presence. Both pack types contained toxin after 21 and 48 days storage at 4 and 2C, respectively. In the unlikely, but not impossible, event that raw meat would be contaminated with psychrotolerant toxincapable clostridial spores, product safety, with respect to botulinal toxin presence after prolonged chilled storage, requires storage temperatures to be maintained below 2C for both vacuum and carbon dioxide packaged product. [source]


    EFFECT OF ETHANOL VAPOR ON GROWTH AND TOXIN PRODUCTION BY CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM IN A HIGH MOISTURE BAKERY PRODUCT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2000
    DAPHNE PHILLIPS DAIFAS
    ABSTRACT To determine the effect of ethanol vapor on toxin production by Clostridium botulinum, studies were done in English style crumpets (aw 0.990, pH 6.5) challenged with 500 spores/g C. botulinum types A and proteolytic B and packaged in high gas barrier bags [ethanol transmission rate (ETR) 0.21 g/m2/day @ 25 C]. Crumpets were packaged in air with either commercially available ethanol vapor generators (Ethicap® 2, 4 or 6G) or cotton wool pads saturated with 2, 4 or 6 g of 95% food grade ethanol and stored at 25C. Toxin was detected in all inoculated control crumpets (0% ethanol) after 5 days at ambient temperature (25C). Ethicap® 2G delayed toxicity for 10 days while complete inhibition (>21 days) was observed in all crumpets packaged with 4 or 6G Ethicap® or with 2, 4 or 6 g of ethanol per pad. However, all crumpets were overtly spoiled by this time. Both headspace ethanol and absorption of ethanol by crumpets increased as a function of Ethicap® size/weight of ethanol. Based on these preliminary studies, ethanol vapor would appear to be an effective additional barrier to control the growth and toxin production by C. botulinum in high moisture bakery products and ensure the safety of these products at ambient temperature. [source]


    SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF THE ORGANIC-WALLED DINOFLAGELLATE CYST PRODUCTION IN THE COASTAL UPWELLING REGION OFF CAPE BLANC (MAURITANIA): A FIVE-YEAR SURVEY,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Karin A. F. Zonneveld
    A 5-year sediment trap survey in the upwelling area off Cape Blanc (NW Africa) provides information on the seasonal and annual resting cyst production of dinoflagellates, their sinking characteristics and preservation potential. Strong annual variation in cyst production characterizes the region. Cyst production of generally all investigated species, including Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax (Biecheler) T. Horig. ex T. Kita et Fukuyo (cyst genus Impagidinium) and Gonyaulax spinifera (Clap. et J. Lachm.) Diesing (cyst genus Nematosphaeropsis) was enhanced with increasing upper water nutrient and trace-element concentrations. Cyst production of Lingulodinium polyedrum (F. Stein) J. D. Dodge was the highest at the transition between upwelling and upwelling-relaxation. Cyst production of Protoperidinium americanum (Gran et Braarud) Balech, Protoperidinium monospinum (Paulsen) K. A. F. Zonn. et B. Dale, and Protoperidinium stellatum (D. Wall) Balech, and heterotrophic dinoflagellates forming Brigantedinium spp. and Echinidinium aculeatum Zonn., increased most pronouncedly during upwelling episodes. Production of Protoperidinium conicum (Gran) Balech and Protoperidinium pentagonum (Gran) Balech cysts and total diatom valves were related, providing evidence of a predator,prey relationship. The export cyst-flux of E. aculeatum, P. americanum, P. monospinum, and P. stellatum was strongly linked to the flux of total diatom valves and CaCO3, whereas the export production of Echinidinium granulatum Zonn. and Protoperidinium subinerme (Paulsen) A. R. Loebl. correlated with total organic carbon, suggesting potential consumption of diatoms, prymnesiophytes, and organic matter, respectively. Sinking velocities were at least 274 m · d,1, which is in range of the diatom- and coccolith-based phytoplankton aggregates and "slower" fecal pellets. Species-selective degradation did not occur in the water column, but on the ocean floor. [source]