Process

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Process

  • Decision-Mak process
  • abiotic process
  • ablation process
  • absorption process
  • accession process
  • accreditation process
  • accretion process
  • accumulation process
  • acquisition process
  • action research process
  • activated sludge process
  • activation process
  • active process
  • actual process
  • acute inflammatory process
  • adaptation process
  • adaptive learning process
  • adaptive process
  • addictive process
  • addition process
  • additional process
  • adhesion process
  • adjustment process
  • administration process
  • administrative process
  • adsorption process
  • advanced oxidation process
  • affective process
  • age-related process
  • ageing process
  • aggregation process
  • aging process
  • alkylation process
  • allocation process
  • alternative process
  • alveolar process
  • amplification process
  • anabolic process
  • anaerobic digestion process
  • analogous process
  • analysis process
  • analytic hierarchy process
  • analytic process
  • analytical hierarchy process
  • analytical process
  • angiogenic process
  • annealing process
  • anodization process
  • apical process
  • apoptosi process
  • apoptotic process
  • application process
  • appraisal process
  • approval process
  • arrival process
  • articular process
  • assembly process
  • assessment process
  • assimilation process
  • associative process
  • asymmetric process
  • atherosclerotic process
  • atmospheric process
  • attachment process
  • attention process
  • attentional process
  • attenuation process
  • attribution process
  • audit process
  • autoimmune process
  • automatic process
  • autophagic process
  • autoregressive process
  • average process
  • bacterial process
  • baking process
  • bargaining process
  • basic biological process
  • basic process
  • batch process
  • behavioral process
  • behavioural process
  • below-ground process
  • benign process
  • binding process
  • biocatalytic process
  • biochemical process
  • bioconversion process
  • biodegradation process
  • biogeochemical process
  • biogeographical process
  • biologic process
  • biological process
  • biomimetic process
  • bioremediation process
  • biosynthetic process
  • biotechnological process
  • biotic process
  • birth process
  • bleaching process
  • blending process
  • board process
  • bologna process
  • bonding process
  • bone formation process
  • bottom-up process
  • brain process
  • branching process
  • broad process
  • broader process
  • budget process
  • budgetary process
  • budgeting process
  • building process
  • business process
  • calcination process
  • calculation process
  • calibration process
  • capture process
  • carcinogenic process
  • care process
  • caries process
  • cascade process
  • casting process
  • catabolic process
  • catalytic process
  • causal process
  • cell culture process
  • cell cycle process
  • cell death process
  • cell differentiation process
  • cell process
  • cellular process
  • central process
  • certification process
  • challenging process
  • change process
  • charge transfer process
  • charge-transfer process
  • chemical process
  • chemical reaction process
  • chemical vapor deposition process
  • choice process
  • chromatographic process
  • chronic inflammatory process
  • ciliary process
  • clarification process
  • classification process
  • cleavage process
  • climatic process
  • clinical decision-making process
  • clinical process
  • clustering process
  • cmo process
  • co-evolutionary process
  • coagulation process
  • coarsening process
  • coating process
  • coding process
  • coevolutionary process
  • cognitive process
  • collaborative process
  • collection process
  • collision process
  • colonization process
  • combined process
  • combustion process
  • commercial process
  • common process
  • communication process
  • community process
  • compaction process
  • comparison process
  • compensation process
  • compensatory process
  • competing process
  • competition process
  • competitive process
  • complete process
  • complex biological process
  • complex process
  • complicated process
  • component process
  • composting process
  • compound poisson process
  • compounding process
  • computational process
  • condensation process
  • conduction process
  • condylar process
  • conflict process
  • consensus process
  • consent process
  • consolidation process
  • construction process
  • consultation process
  • consultative process
  • contemporary process
  • continuous flow process
  • continuous process
  • contraction process
  • control process
  • controlled process
  • convective process
  • conventional process
  • convergence process
  • conversion process
  • cooking process
  • cooling process
  • cooperative process
  • coping process
  • coprecipitation process
  • core process
  • coronoid process
  • corporate governance process
  • corrosion process
  • counting process
  • coupling process
  • creation process
  • creative process
  • creep process
  • critical process
  • crosslinking process
  • crucial process
  • cryopreservation process
  • crystal growth process
  • crystallization process
  • cultivation process
  • cultural process
  • culture process
  • cumulative process
  • cure process
  • curing process
  • current process
  • cutting process
  • cvd process
  • cycle process
  • cyclization process
  • cytoplasmic process
  • damage process
  • data collection process
  • data-generating process
  • deactivation process
  • death process
  • decay process
  • decision making process
  • decision process
  • decision-making process
  • decomposition process
  • dedifferentiation process
  • deformation process
  • degenerative process
  • degradation process
  • degradative process
  • dehydration process
  • deliberative process
  • delivery process
  • delphi process
  • demineralization process
  • democratic process
  • demographic process
  • denaturation process
  • dendritic process
  • denitrification process
  • densification process
  • density-dependent process
  • dependent process
  • deposition process
  • depositional process
  • derivatization process
  • design process
  • desorption process
  • destruction process
  • destructive process
  • detection process
  • determination process
  • deterministic process
  • detoxification process
  • developing process
  • development process
  • developmental process
  • dewatering process
  • dewetting process
  • diagenetic process
  • diagnostic process
  • different biological process
  • different cellular process
  • different developmental process
  • different process
  • differentiation process
  • difficult process
  • diffusion process
  • diffusional process
  • digestion process
  • digestive process
  • dimerization process
  • dip-coating process
  • dirichlet process
  • disciplinary process
  • disclosure process
  • discovery process
  • disease process
  • dispersal process
  • dispersion process
  • dissipative process
  • dissociation process
  • dissolution process
  • distillation process
  • distinct process
  • distributed process
  • disturbance process
  • diverse cellular process
  • diverse process
  • diversification process
  • division process
  • dna repair process
  • dominant process
  • domino process
  • downstream process
  • drug development process
  • drug discovery process
  • drying process
  • dual process
  • due process
  • dyeing process
  • dynamic process
  • dynamical process
  • early developmental process
  • early process
  • ecological process
  • economic process
  • ecosystem process
  • editorial process
  • education process
  • educational process
  • effective process
  • efficient process
  • electoral process
  • electrochemical process
  • electrode process
  • electrodeposition process
  • electron transfer process
  • electron-transfer process
  • electronic process
  • electrospinning process
  • elementary process
  • elimination process
  • embryonic process
  • emission process
  • emotion regulation process
  • emotional process
  • empirical process
  • empowerment process
  • emulsification process
  • enantioselective process
  • energy transfer process
  • energy-dependent process
  • energy-transfer process
  • engineering process
  • enrichment process
  • ensiling process
  • entire process
  • entrepreneurial process
  • environmental process
  • enzymatic process
  • epigenetic process
  • episodic memory process
  • equilibrium process
  • erosion process
  • erosional process
  • error process
  • essential biological process
  • essential process
  • estimation process
  • evaluation process
  • evaporation process
  • evolution process
  • evolutionary process
  • evolving process
  • excavation process
  • exchange process
  • excitation process
  • executive process
  • expansion process
  • expensive process
  • experimental process
  • explicit process
  • extinction process
  • extraction process
  • extrusion process
  • fabrication process
  • failure process
  • family process
  • fast process
  • fatigue process
  • fed-batch process
  • feedback process
  • feeding process
  • fenton process
  • fermentation process
  • fermentative process
  • fertilization process
  • fibrotic process
  • filling process
  • film process
  • filtration process
  • firing process
  • first-order autoregressive process
  • fitting process
  • flocculation process
  • flow process
  • fluvial process
  • foaming process
  • folding process
  • food process
  • foot process
  • formal process
  • formation process
  • formulation process
  • fractionally integrate process
  • fractionation process
  • fracture process
  • fragmentation process
  • freeze-drying process
  • freezing process
  • friendly process
  • frying process
  • functional process
  • fundamental biological process
  • fundamental cellular process
  • fundamental process
  • fusion process
  • garch process
  • gas-phase process
  • gasification process
  • gaussian process
  • gel process
  • gelation process
  • general process
  • generating process
  • generation process
  • genetic process
  • geochemical process
  • geological process
  • geomorphic process
  • germination process
  • glial process
  • global process
  • globalization process
  • glycosylation process
  • governance process
  • gradual process
  • grafting process
  • granulation process
  • green process
  • greening process
  • grinding process
  • group process
  • growth process
  • hardening process
  • healing process
  • heat transfer process
  • heating process
  • heterogeneous process
  • hierarchical process
  • hierarchy process
  • hiring process
  • historical process
  • homeostatic process
  • hybrid process
  • hybridization process
  • hydration process
  • hydrogenation process
  • hydrologic process
  • hydrological process
  • hydrolysis process
  • hydrothermal process
  • identification process
  • identity process
  • imaging process
  • immobilization process
  • immune process
  • immunological process
  • implantation process
  • implementation process
  • implicit process
  • important cellular process
  • important physiological process
  • important process
  • imprinting process
  • improvement process
  • inactivation process
  • independent process
  • individual process
  • induction process
  • industrial process
  • infection process
  • infectious process
  • inference process
  • infiltration process
  • inflammation process
  • inflammatory process
  • inflation process
  • influence process
  • information process
  • informed consent process
  • inhibitory process
  • inhomogeneous poisson process
  • initial process
  • initiation process
  • injection molding process
  • injection process
  • innovation process
  • innovative process
  • inquiry process
  • insertion process
  • institutional process
  • instructional design process
  • integrate process
  • integration process
  • interaction process
  • interactional process
  • interactive process
  • interconversion process
  • interesting process
  • internal process
  • interpersonal process
  • interpretation process
  • interpretive process
  • interrelated process
  • intervention process
  • interview process
  • intracellular process
  • intricate process
  • intrinsic process
  • invasion process
  • inversion process
  • investment process
  • ion exchange process
  • ion-exchange process
  • ionization process
  • irradiation process
  • isomerization process
  • iterative process
  • judicial process
  • jump-diffusion process
  • key ecosystem process
  • key process
  • kinetic process
  • knowledge management process
  • knowledge process
  • labor process
  • laborious process
  • labour process
  • lake process
  • large-scale process
  • latent process
  • latter process
  • leaching process
  • learning process
  • legal process
  • legislative process
  • lengthy process
  • level process
  • life process
  • lift-off process
  • liga process
  • limiting process
  • linear process
  • linear repetitive process
  • linguistic process
  • lithographic process
  • litigation process
  • loading process
  • local process
  • long memory process
  • long process
  • long-term process
  • loss process
  • low-cost process
  • lvy process
  • machining process
  • main process
  • maintenance process
  • major process
  • making process
  • mammalian cell culture process
  • management process
  • mandibular process
  • manufacturing process
  • many biological process
  • many cellular process
  • many developmental process
  • many physiological process
  • many process
  • mapping process
  • marked point process
  • market process
  • markov decision process
  • markov process
  • mass transfer process
  • mass transport process
  • mastoid process
  • matching process
  • maturation process
  • measurement process
  • mechanical process
  • mediation process
  • melt spinning process
  • melting process
  • membrane process
  • membrane separation process
  • memory process
  • mental process
  • merging process
  • metabolic process
  • metamorphic process
  • metapopulation process
  • metastatic process
  • microbial process
  • microencapsulation process
  • microevolutionary process
  • microphysical process
  • migration process
  • mineralization process
  • minimization process
  • minor process
  • mixing process
  • mobilization process
  • modeling process
  • modelling process
  • modernisation process
  • modification process
  • molding process
  • molecular process
  • molecular recognition process
  • monitoring process
  • morphogenetic process
  • motion process
  • motivational process
  • movement process
  • moving average process
  • multi-step process
  • multifaceted process
  • multifactorial process
  • multiple process
  • multistage process
  • multistep process
  • multivariable process
  • mutational process
  • nanofiltration process
  • natural process
  • negotiation process
  • neoplastic process
  • neural process
  • neurobiological process
  • neurodegenerative process
  • neuronal process
  • neuropathological process
  • neuropsychological process
  • neutral process
  • new process
  • new product development process
  • nitrification process
  • nodulation process
  • non-linear process
  • nonlinear process
  • normal aging process
  • normal process
  • novel process
  • npd process
  • nucleation process
  • numerous biological process
  • numerous cellular process
  • numerous physiological process
  • numerous process
  • nursing process
  • observation process
  • observed process
  • oceanographic process
  • of biological process
  • of cellular process
  • of process
  • one process
  • one-pot process
  • one-step process
  • ongoing process
  • only process
  • ontogenetic process
  • operational process
  • optimal process
  • optimization process
  • ordering process
  • organizational process
  • orogenic process
  • osmotic process
  • other physiological process
  • other process
  • oxidation process
  • oxidative process
  • participatory process
  • particle formation process
  • partnership process
  • pathogenic process
  • pathologic process
  • pathological process
  • pathophysiologic process
  • pathophysiological process
  • patterning process
  • peace process
  • pedogenic process
  • peer review process
  • perceptual process
  • percolation process
  • periglacial process
  • peripheral process
  • pet process
  • phase inversion process
  • phase process
  • phase separation process
  • phase-separation process
  • photochemical process
  • photophysical process
  • photosynthetic process
  • physical process
  • physiologic process
  • physiological process
  • physiopathological process
  • planning process
  • plant process
  • plasma process
  • point process
  • poisson process
  • policy process
  • policy-making process
  • policymaking process
  • poling process
  • political process
  • polymerisation process
  • polymerization process
  • polyol process
  • population process
  • population-level process
  • possible process
  • practical process
  • precipitation process
  • preparation process
  • pretreatment process
  • price discovery process
  • price formation process
  • price process
  • pricing process
  • printing process
  • problem-solving process
  • product development process
  • product innovation process
  • production process
  • productive process
  • progressive process
  • proliferative process
  • proton transfer process
  • protonation process
  • psychological process
  • psychosocial process
  • public process
  • pumping process
  • purification process
  • quality process
  • quenching process
  • radial process
  • radiative process
  • radical polymerization process
  • radical process
  • raft process
  • random process
  • rapid process
  • rate process
  • reaction process
  • reactive extrusion process
  • reactive process
  • reading process
  • real process
  • rearrangement process
  • reasoning process
  • recent process
  • recognition process
  • recombinant fermentation process
  • recombination process
  • reconstitution process
  • reconstruction process
  • recovery process
  • recruitment process
  • recycling process
  • redox process
  • reduction process
  • reductive process
  • referral process
  • refinement process
  • reflective process
  • refolding process
  • reforming process
  • regeneration process
  • regenerative process
  • regional process
  • registration process
  • regulated process
  • regulation process
  • regulatory process
  • rehabilitation process
  • rejection process
  • relate process
  • relational process
  • relationship process
  • relaxation process
  • release process
  • relevant process
  • remediation process
  • remodeling process
  • remodelling process
  • removal process
  • renewal process
  • reorganization process
  • repair process
  • reparative process
  • repetitive process
  • reporting process
  • reproduction process
  • reproductive process
  • research process
  • resin transfer molding process
  • resolution process
  • resorption process
  • resorptive process
  • restoration process
  • restructuring process
  • retention process
  • retrieval process
  • return process
  • reverse process
  • reversible process
  • review process
  • revision process
  • reward process
  • ripening process
  • risk assessment process
  • robust process
  • rolling process
  • root process
  • runoff generation process
  • rupture process
  • same process
  • sampling process
  • scalable process
  • scale process
  • scattering process
  • scientific process
  • screening process
  • search process
  • secondary process
  • secretion process
  • secretory process
  • sedimentary process
  • seeding process
  • segmentation process
  • segregation process
  • selection process
  • selective process
  • self-assembling process
  • self-assembly process
  • self-regulation process
  • self-regulatory process
  • semi-markov process
  • semibatch process
  • sensory process
  • sentencing process
  • separation process
  • sequential process
  • service process
  • settlement process
  • several biological process
  • several cellular process
  • several developmental process
  • several physiological process
  • several process
  • sharing process
  • short process
  • shrinking process
  • signal transduction process
  • signaling process
  • signalling process
  • significant process
  • similar process
  • simple process
  • simulation process
  • simultaneous process
  • single process
  • single-step process
  • sintering process
  • situ process
  • slope process
  • slow process
  • sludge process
  • small-scale process
  • smoking process
  • social exchange process
  • social learning process
  • social process
  • socialization process
  • software development process
  • soil process
  • sol-gel process
  • solidification process
  • solution process
  • solvent extraction process
  • solvent-evaporation process
  • solvothermal process
  • sorption process
  • sorting process
  • spatial point process
  • spatial process
  • speciation process
  • specific process
  • spin-coating process
  • spinning process
  • spinous process
  • splicing process
  • spray process
  • standard cmo process
  • standard process
  • standard-setting process
  • state process
  • stationary process
  • step process
  • step-by-step process
  • sterilization process
  • stochastic process
  • storage process
  • strategic planning process
  • strategy process
  • structural process
  • structured process
  • studied process
  • sublimation process
  • submission process
  • substitution process
  • succession process
  • successional process
  • surface process
  • surgical process
  • swelling process
  • switching process
  • synthesis process
  • synthetic process
  • systematic process
  • systematic review process
  • systemic process
  • tandem oxidation process
  • tandem process
  • taphonomic process
  • team process
  • technological process
  • technology process
  • tectonic process
  • temperature process
  • temporal process
  • testing process
  • therapeutic process
  • therapy process
  • thermal process
  • thermodynamic process
  • thickening process
  • thought process
  • threatening process
  • three-step process
  • time-consuming process
  • time-dependent process
  • top-down process
  • traditional process
  • training process
  • transduction process
  • transesterification process
  • transfer molding process
  • transfer process
  • transformation process
  • transformative process
  • transition process
  • translation process
  • translocation process
  • transnational process
  • transparent process
  • transplant process
  • transport process
  • transverse process
  • treatment process
  • triage process
  • trial process
  • tumorigenic process
  • tunneling process
  • two-electron process
  • two-stage process
  • two-step process
  • uhlenbeck process
  • ultrafiltration process
  • underlying disease process
  • underlying inflammatory process
  • underlying process
  • uneven process
  • unfolding process
  • uniform process
  • unique process
  • unprecedented process
  • uptake process
  • urban process
  • vacuum process
  • validation process
  • vapor deposition process
  • variety of biological process
  • variety of cellular process
  • variety of process
  • various biological process
  • various cellular process
  • various process
  • very process
  • visual process
  • volatility process
  • vulcanization process
  • washing process
  • wastewater treatment process
  • water process
  • water treatment process
  • weaning process
  • wear process
  • weathering process
  • welding process
  • wet granulation process
  • wetting process
  • whole process
  • wider process
  • wiener process
  • work process
  • wound healing process
  • wound-healing process
  • writing process

  • Terms modified by Process

  • process acting
  • process analytical technology
  • process application
  • process approach
  • process behavior
  • process being
  • process better
  • process change
  • process characteristic
  • process characterization
  • process cheese
  • process condition
  • process configuration
  • process consisting
  • process control
  • process critical
  • process data
  • process dependent
  • process description
  • process design
  • process development
  • process diversity
  • process downstream
  • process duration
  • process dynamics
  • process economics
  • process efficiency
  • process element
  • process engineering
  • process equipment
  • process essential
  • process evaluation
  • process extension
  • process factor
  • process flow
  • process formation
  • process heat
  • process help
  • process implied
  • process important
  • process improvement
  • process independent
  • process indicator
  • process industry
  • process innovation
  • process input
  • process integration
  • process intensification
  • process intensity
  • process kinetics
  • process knowledge
  • process lead
  • process leading
  • process literature
  • process make
  • process management
  • process mean
  • process measure
  • process measurement
  • process model
  • process modeling
  • process modelling
  • process models
  • process monitoring
  • process necessary
  • process nonlinearity
  • process occurring
  • process only
  • process operating
  • process operation
  • process optimization
  • process option
  • process other
  • process outcome
  • process outgrowth
  • process output
  • process parameter
  • process performance
  • process perspective
  • process plant
  • process point
  • process prior
  • process quality
  • process rate
  • process relate
  • process representation
  • process research
  • process response
  • process safety
  • process scale-up
  • process screening device
  • process setting
  • process show
  • process simulation
  • process simulator
  • process skill
  • process speed
  • process step
  • process stream
  • process studies
  • process study
  • process synthesis
  • process system
  • process take
  • process technology
  • process temperature
  • process theory
  • process thought
  • process time
  • process tracing
  • process underlying
  • process understanding
  • process unit
  • process used
  • process variability
  • process variable
  • process variable condition
  • process variance
  • process variation
  • process water
  • process window
  • process work

  • Selected Abstracts


    THE ROLE OF THE BIDDING PROCESS IN PRICE DETERMINATION: JUMP BIDDING IN SEQUENTIAL ENGLISH AUCTIONS

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2008
    YARON RAVIV
    This paper uses data collected from a series of public auctions of used cars in New Jersey to examine how strategic bidding affects price determination in open-outcry English auctions. "Jumps" in the bidding, which occur when a new offer exceeds the old offer by more than the minimum bid increment, are highly pervasive and consistently related to the item's presale estimated price. The size of the jumps is not affected by the selling order, however. This jump bidding pattern suggests that open-outcry auctions are more appropriately interpreted with models that assume common-item valuations rather than models assuming private valuations. (JEL D44) [source]


    HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND LIFE CYCLE SAVINGS IN THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 3 2007
    KAM KI TANG
    This paper studies investment in health and human capital in a life cycle model. Health investment enhances survival to old age by improving health from its endowed level. The model predicts two distinctive phases of development. When income is low enough, the economy has no health investment and little savings, leading to slow growth. When income grows, health investment will become positive and the saving rate will rise, leading to higher life expectancy and faster growth. A health subsidy can move the economy from the first phase to the next. Subsidies on health and human capital investments can improve welfare. (JEL I00, J10, H50, O10) [source]


    A NEW THEORY OF THE BUDGETARY PROCESS

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 1 2006
    SOUMAYA M. TOHAMY
    This paper offers an alternative to the view that budgetary decisions are incremental because they are complex, extensive, and conflicted. Our model interprets incrementalism as the result of a legislative political strategy in response to interest group politics and economic conditions. Accordingly, a legislator chooses between single-period budgeting or multiperiod budgeting, where single-period budgeting is associated with a greater chance of non-incremental budgeting outcomes. We use a statistical procedure developed by Dezhbakhsh et al. (2003) for identifying non-incremental outcomes to test the implications of the model. Results support the model's predictions: a higher discount rate and a persistently large deficit appear to cause departures from incremental budgeting; Democrats' control over the political process have a similar effect, while a higher inflation rate has an opposite effect. [source]


    LINKING COEVOLUTIONARY HISTORY TO ECOLOGICAL PROCESS: DOVES AND LICE

    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2003
    Dale H. Clayton
    Abstract Many host-specific parasites are restricted to a limited range of host species by ecological barriers that impede dispersal and successful establishment. In some cases, microevolutionary differentiation is apparent on top of host specificity, as evidenced by significant parasite population genetic structure among host populations. Ecological barriers responsible for specificity and genetic structure can, in principle, reinforce macroevolutionary processes that generate congruent host-parasite phylogenies. However, few studies have explored both the micro- and macroevolutionary ramifications of close association in a single host-parasite system. Here we compare the macroevolutionary histories of two genera of feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) that both parasitize New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbiformes). Earlier work has shown that dove body lice (genus Physconelloides) are more host specific and have greater population genetic structure than dove wing lice (Columbicola). We reconstructed phylogenies for representatives of the two genera of lice and their hosts, using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. The phylogenies were well resolved and generally well supported. We compared the phylogenies of body lice and wing lice to the host phylogeny using reconciliation analyses. We found that dove body lice show strong evidence of cospeciation whereas dove wing lice do not. Although the ecology of body and wing lice is very similar, differences in their dispersal ability may underlie these joint differences in host specificity, population genetic structure, and coevolutionary history. [source]


    ON-THE-JOB SEARCH, PRODUCTIVITY SHOCKS, AND THE INDIVIDUAL EARNINGS PROCESS,

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 3 2010
    Fabien Postel-Vinay
    Individual labor earnings observed in worker panel data have complex, highly persistent dynamics. We investigate the capacity of a structural job search model with on-the-job search, wage renegotiation by mutual consent, and i.i.d. productivity shocks to replicate salient properties of these dynamics, such as the covariance structure of earnings, the evolution of individual earnings mean, and variance with the duration of uninterrupted employment, or the distribution of year-to-year earnings changes. Structural estimation of our model on a 12-year panel of highly educated British workers shows that our simple framework produces a dynamic earnings structure that is remarkably consistent with the data. [source]


    IS THERE AN ALTERNATIVE PROCESS TO AGING AND DEATH?

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 1 2010
    Ittyerah Tholath Peter MS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    PROTEOLYSIS IN SALMON (SALMO SALAR) DURING COLD STORAGE; EFFECTS OF STORAGE TIME AND SMOKING PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2001
    KAREN ENGVANG LUND
    ABSTRACT Changes in free amino acids (FAAs), small peptides and myofibrillar proteins were investigated in salmon (Salmo salar) muscle stored at OC for up to 23 days and after the stored salmon was smoked. Storage time and smoking process did not increase the formation of FAAs and small peptides indicating low exopeptidase activity. During storage, SDS PAGE analysis of myofibrils showed an increase in density of bands at 16, 37, 60, 64, 67, 76 and 130 kDa, a decrease of a 32 kDa band and the appearance of four new bands of 30, 90, 95 and 113 kDa. These results indicate proteolytic degradation. A little change of myosin and no change of ,-actinin and actin were observed. The smoking process itself enhances the intensity of bands, but does not change the pattern markedly except for the appearance of a 25 and 70 kDa band. Degradation pattern after smoking was not affected by storage time. [source]


    DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENT OF ,-(,-GLUTAMYL)LYSINE CROSS-LINKING IN ALASKA POLLOCK (THERAGRA CHALCOGRAMMA) SURIMI PROTEINS BY STREPTOVERTICILLIUM AND ENDOGENOUS TRANSGLUTAMINASES DURING SUWARI PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2001
    KENJI SATO
    ABSTRACT The objective of the present study is to compare the protein cross-linking reaction in Alaska pollock surimi that is catalyzed by a commercially available microbial transglutaminase and by endogenous Alaska pollock transglutaminase. The endogenous transglutaminase was inhibited by EGTA and activated by CaCl2 The microbial transglutaminase was added to the salted surimi with and without EGTA and CaCl2. These surimi pastes were incubated at 25C up to 24 h followed by cooking at 90C. The resultant gels were fractionated into soluble and insoluble (aggregate) fractions by SDS-urea extraction. Compositional analysis revealed that the aggregate consisted predominantly of cross-linked myosin heavy chain. The distribution of ,-(,-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide in the soluble and aggregate fractions andpeptide mapping analyses of the aggregate fraction demonstrate that the formation of isopeptide cross-links in Alaska pollock surimi proteins during suwari process differs when catalyzed by the microbial transglutaminase and endogenous transglutaminase. [source]


    CLARIFICATION AND PURIFICATION OF AQUEOUS STEVIA EXTRACT USING MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2009
    M.H.M. REIS
    ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a native plant from South America and its active constituents have been considered the "sweeteners of the future."Stevia is a natural diet-sweetening source, safe to health and without calories. However, the obtained raw extract is foul smelling, bitter tasting, dark brown colored, and presents suspension matter due to organic and inorganic compounds. Therefore, further purification/clarification is essential in order to get a product of commercial quality. In this work ceramic membranes were applied in the stevia extract clarification process. The process was carried out under different membrane pore sizes and at different pressure values. The best clarification result was obtained with the membrane of 0.1 m at 4 bar. On the other hand, the best condition for the flux was obtained with the membrane of 0.2 m at 6 bar. The process with all the tested membranes and conditions achieved recovery of sweeteners higher than 90%. Finally, a filtration mathematical model was applied to describe the flux behavior, showing that the main fouling phenomenon during the process occurred because of the complete blocking of pores. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Stevia is the world's only all-natural sweetener with zero calories, zero carbohydrates and a zero glycemic index. However, the obtained stevia extract has a dark brown appearance, mainly because of the presence of impurities. In this work the membrane separation process was studied for stevia extract clarification and purification in order to get a product with higher commercial acceptability. The obtained results showed that total clarification and recuperation of sweeteners was almost achieved. Nonetheless, membrane fouling is an inevitable problem during membrane filtration. The mathematical analysis of the fouling occurrences showed that the complete blocking of pores is the main cause for the membrane permeability decrease. [source]


    OPTIMIZATION OF PERMEABILIZATION PROCESS FOR LACTOSE HYDROLYSIS IN WHEY USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2009
    GURPREET KAUR
    ABSTRACT To overcome the permeability barrier and prepare whole cell biocatalysts with high activities, permeabilization of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis NCIM 3566 in relation to, -galactosidase activity was optimized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as permeabilizing agent. Permeabilized whole cells can be advantageous over pure enzyme preparations in terms of cost-effectiveness and increased stability maintained by the intracellular environment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize concentration of CTAB, temperature and the treatment time for maximum permeabilization of yeast cells. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process to achieve maximum enzyme activity obtained by RSM were 0.06% (w/v) CTAB concentration, 28C temperature and process duration of 14 min. At these conditions of process variables, the maximum value of enzyme activity was found to be 1,334 IU/g. The permeabilized yeast cells were highly effective and resulted in 90.5% lactose hydrolysis in whey. PRACTICAL APPLICATION , -Galactosidase is one of the most promising enzymes, which has several applications in the food, fermentation and dairy industry. However, the industrial applications of , -galactosidase have been hampered by the costs involved in downstream processing. The present investigation was focused on developing the low-cost technology for lactose hydrolysis based on permeabilization process. Disposal of lactose in whey and whey permeates is one of the most significant problems with regard to economics and environmental impact faced by the dairy industries. Keeping this in view, lactose hydrolysis in whey has been successfully performed using permeabilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells. Hydrolysis of lactose using , -galactosidase converts whey into a potentially very useful food ingredient, which has immense applications in food industries. Its use has increased significantly in recent years, mainly in the dairy products and in digestive preparations. Lactose hydrolysis causes several potential changes in the manufacture and marketing of dairy products, including increased solubility, sweetness and broader fermentation possibilities. [source]


    CONCENTRATION BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN THE THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF CONVECTIVE DRYING PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2007
    AHMET KAYA
    ABSTRACT In the theoretical analysis of convective drying process, two boundary conditions are common for concentration: constant concentration and convection. In this study, these two boundary conditions were comparatively examined by comparing theoretical results obtained with regard to experimental ones. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) was considered as the product to be dried while air was the drying medium. The drying characteristics of pumpkin were determined for various values of drying air parameters, including temperature, velocity and relative humidity. Sorption isotherms of the dried pumpkin were also determined for different temperatures and water activities. The values of the effective moisture diffusivity, Deff, and the convective mass transfer coefficient, hm, were predicted, and these values were found to agree fairly well with those available in the existing literature. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Convective drying as well as other drying techniques are used in order to preserve and store agricultural products for longer periods by removing some of their moisture content. Drying is a complicated process involving simultaneous heat and mass transfer under transient conditions. Understanding the heat and mass transfer in the product will help to improve drying process parameters and hence the quality. [source]


    NONCONTACT TEMPERATURE MONITORING OF A PELLETING PROCESS USING INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2007
    C. SALAS-BRINGAS
    ABSTRACT Contact methods are commonly used to determine temperature during food and feed manufacturing processes. This may, however, result in incorrect temperature measurements, because many food and feed materials easily agglomerate around the thermowell tip of the sensors, decreasing their time response; also, it is difficult to measure temperature from moving objects using contact methods. This article assesses the use of thermography to measure temperature throughout the manufacture of poultry feed. The experiment showed that precaution should be used when the temperature difference, between the meal at the outlet of the conditioner and pellets at the outlet of the pellet press, is associated with the temperature rise across the die. Precaution should also be used when the temperature of the pellets at the outlet of the pellet press is used as the peak temperature during the process. Temperature measurements through infrared emissions require improved instrument design to operate in a dusty, damp, steamy and oily environment. [source]


    BIOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF TOMATO PULP CONTINUOUS HEAT PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2004
    CRISTIANA DE PAULA PACHECO
    ABSTRACT This research validated the commercial process applied to tomato pulp (pH 4.3 and 8 Brix) packed in Tetra Brik packages. Spores of Bacillus coagulans and Neosartorya fischeri were selected as targets. The heat resistance of both microorganisms, tested independently, was compared. The redesigned thermal processes were carried out in a aseptic processing and tested by indirect inoculation and retrieval with spores immobilized in alginate/tomato balls. The results showed that processes for 30 s at 115C or greater did not allow the survival of heat-resistant molds. For bacterial spores, processes for 30 s at 109C or greater showed no survivors. Although, 30 s at 115C will control both types of spoilage spores, concern for possible C. botulinum growth attributed to metabiosis in product with varying initial populations of molds and residual oxygen content dictated, a process recommendation of 60 s at 126C for safety reasons. [source]


    SCALE-UP and FIELD TEST of the VACUUM/STEAM/VACUUM SURFACE INTERVENTION PROCESS FOR POULTRY,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 5 2003
    MICHAEL KOZEMPEL
    ABSTRACT The Vacuum/Steam/Vacuum surface intervention pilot plant processor was scaled up to a mobile unit that can be transported to close proximity of chicken processing plants. After several modifications to the mandrel that supports the broiler carcass in the treatment chamber to minimize mechanical damage, the unit was capable of 1.1 log cfu/mL kill of inoculated Listeria innocua and 1.4 log cfu/mL kill of inoculated E. coli K-12. Field tests achieved 1.4 log kill of E. coli and 1.2 log kill of Campylobacter on freshly processed chicken using 3 cycles and 138C saturated steam. But, there was extensive mechanical damage. the mandrel was modified in the Eastern Regional Research Center pilot plant to eliminate the mechanical damage. With mechanical damage eliminated, the bacteria kill was 1.1,1.5 log of inoculated E. coli K-12 with a total process time of 1.1 s. [source]


    A NEW APPROACH TO MODELING AND CONTROL OF A FOOD EXTRUSION PROCESS USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK AND AN EXPERT SYSTEM

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2001
    OTILIA POPESCU
    ABSTRACT The paper presents a new approach to the modeling of the start-up part of a food extrusion process. A neural network model is proposed and its parameters are determined. Simulation results with real data are also presented. The inputs and outputs of the model are among those used by the human operator during the start-up process for control. An intelligent controller structure that uses an expert system and "delta-variations" to modify inputs is also proposed. [source]


    FECAL COLIFORM CONTAMINATION OF BEEF CARCASSES DURING THE SLAUGHTERING PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2001
    SUZAN YALIN
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the fecal coliform counts of beef carcasses during different stages in the slaughter process. A total of nine carcasses were selected at random in the abattoir. The samples were taken by excision from three different sites; rump, brisket and shoulder. The samples were collected from the same carcasses at four different stages of processing; after dressing, after evisceration, after washing and after chilling for 24 h in a chilling room. The processing steps did not increase the fecal coliform counts on the rump samples. There were no significant differences in the samples of rump and shoulder among different processing steps. The contamination level of the brisket after washing was significantly higher than other processing steps. Brisket and shoulder parts are critical points for microbiological sampling as these sites showed higher microbial counts after chilling steps. The data obtained have relevance for the planning of washing methods for the production of clean and safe carcasses. [source]


    COUPLES THERAPY FOR WOMEN SURVIVORS OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE WHO ARE IN ADDICTIONS RECOVERY: A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY OF TREATMENT PROCESS AND OUTCOME

    JOURNAL OF MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 1 2001
    Barry Trute
    Treatment for women who are survivors of child sexual abuse and who have a history of substance abuse has largely involved gender-specific interventions. This study examines the use of conjoint couple therapy with a cohort of women who were survivors of child sexual abuse and who are in addiction recovery and with their partners. A comparative case study analysis incorporated standardized clinical measures with client and therapist interviews. Brief conjoint therapy was found to assist couples in the specific relationship skill areas of communication and mutual problem solving. Further, substantive gains were found in the realm of affective relations. The women reported an increase in support from their male partners, and the men reported a decrease in negative emotional atmosphere in the relationship. [source]


    CYTOPLASMIC MASSES PRESERVED IN EARLY HOLOCENE DIATOMS: A POSSIBLE TAPHONOMIC PROCESS AND ITS PALEO-ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2006
    Yoshihiro Tanimura
    In Lake Suigetsu, central Japan, greenish/light-brown granules identified as cytoplasmic masses had been preserved in siliceous cell walls of freshwater diatoms in annual layers of lacustrine muds since the early Holocene. The lacustrine muds consisted of alternating dark-colored (rich in diatom valves, clay, and organic matter) and light-colored (mainly diatom valves) laminae. The greenish/light-brown granules were predominately preserved in frustules of the genus Aulacoseira preserved in the dark-colored laminae. The dark-colored laminae were inferred to have formed annually under stratified water caused by surface water warming in summer that caused the formation of an organic-rich anoxic layer on the lake bottom that favored granule preservation. The good preservation of cytoplasmic masses in dark-colored laminae suggested a cause for diatom assemblage periodicity, a phenomenon that was commonly noted in temperate lakes: the cells containing these masses could be potential seed stocks for subsequent spring blooms. Frustules of the most abundant granule-containing species, Aulacoseira nipponica (Skvortzow) Tuji, in the dark-colored laminae of the Early Holocene muds were abundant in the overlying light-colored laminae, suggesting that these species reproduced abundantly in springtime yielding a massive diatom bloom. [source]


    DIATOM SILICA BIOMINERALIZATION: AT NANOSCALE LEVEL A CHEMICALLY UNIFORM PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2000
    E. G. Vrieling
    Using a high-brilliance synchrotron X-ray source, combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) was applied to study nanoscale characteristics, in particular pore size in the range of 3 to 65 nm, of a variety of unialgal cultures of centric and pennate diatoms, and of mixed diatom populations sampled in the field. Results of scattering analysis were compared with details of pore size, structure and orientation visible at the electron microscopic level. WAXS patterns did not reveal any crystalline phase or features of microcrystallinity (resolution 0.07 to 0.51 nm), which implies a totally amorphous character of the SiO2 matrix of the frustule material. SAXS data (resolution 3 to 65 nm) provided information on geometry, size, and distribution of pores in the silica. Overall, two pore regions were recognized that were common to the silica of all samples: the smallest (d less than 10 nm) regularly spaced and shaped spherically, the larger (up to 65 nm) being cylinders or slits. Apparently, at a nanoscale level diatomaceous silica is quite homologous among species, in agreement with the chemical principles of silica polymerization under the conditions of pH and precursor concentrations inside the silicon deposition vesicle. The final frustule "macro"-morphology is of course species-specific, being determined genetically. Synthetically-derived MCM-type silicas have a similarly organized pore distribution in an amorphous silica matrix as we found in all diatom species studied. We therefore suggest that organic molecules of a kind used as structure-directing agents to produce these artificial silicas play a role in the nucleation of the silica polymerization reaction and the shaping of pore morphology inside the silicon deposition vesicle of diatoms. Structure-directing molecules now await isolation from the SDV, followed by identification and characterisation by molecular techniques. [source]


    CHARACTERIZATION OF AGGLOMERATION PROCESS AS A FUNCTION OF MOISTURE CONTENT USING A MODEL FOOD POWDER

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 1 2006
    S. MUKHERJEE
    ABSTRACT A model food-powder system using rice flour of different moisture contents (11 to 22%) was used to study rheological behavior by employing a powder rheometer to obtain maximum force, energy for compression and decompression. The latter parameters were sensitive at moisture contents of ,18%. The compacted mass, obtained using a rotary punch-tableting machine, was subjected to compression testing to determine the maximum force and firmness of the compressed tablets. These two parameters increased markedly above the 17% moisture content. A significant (P , 0.01) relationship between energy for compression for powder and firmness of compacted mass indicated that an adequate integrity of the product could be achieved when a powder requires high energy for compression but low energy for decompression. A modified version of the Hausner ratio, often used to characterize the extent of compactness, was proposed that included a correction factor for loss of moisture during compaction. [source]


    COMPARISON OF PROCESS-BASED AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROACHES FOR STREAMFLOW MODELING IN AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 3 2006
    Puneet Srivastava
    ABSTRACT: The performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and artificial neural network (ANN) models in simulating hydrologic response was assessed in an agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania. All of the performance evaluation measures including Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E) and coefficient of determination (R2) suggest that the ANN monthly predictions were closer to the observed flows than the monthly predictions from the SWAT model. More specifically, monthly streamflow E and R2 were 0.54 and 0.57, respectively, for the SWAT model calibration period, and 0.71 and 0.75, respectively, for the ANN model training period. For the validation period, these values were ,0.17 and 0.34 for the SWAT and 0.43 and 0.45 for the ANN model. SWAT model performance was affected by snowmelt events during winter months and by the model's inability to adequately simulate base flows. Even though this and other studies using ANN models suggest that these models provide a viable alternative approach for hydrologic and water quality modeling, ANN models in their current form are not spatially distributed watershed modeling systems. However, considering the promising performance of the simple ANN model, this study suggests that the ANN approach warrants further development to explicitly address the spatial distribution of hydrologic/water quality processes within watersheds. [source]


    BIODEGRADATION OF DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AS A POTENTIAL REMOVAL PROCESS DURING AQUIFER STORAGE RECOVERY,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 4 2000
    James E. Landmeyer
    ABSTRACT: The biodegradation potential of two drinking water disinfection byproducts was investigated using aquifer materials obtained from approximately 100 and 200 meters below land surface in an aerobic aquifer system undergoing aquifer storage recovery of treated surface water. No significant biodegradation of a model trihalomethane compound, chloroform, was observed in aquifer microcosms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In contrast, between 16 and 27 percent mineralization of a radiolabeled model haloacetic acid compound, chloroacetic acid, was observed. These results indicate that although the potential for biodegradation of chloroacetic acid exists in deep aquifer systems, chloroform entrained within these aquifers or formed in situ will tend to persist. These results have important implications for water managers planning to meet anticipated lowered permissible levels of trihalomethanes in drinking water. [source]


    PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION WITH JUMPS AND UNOBSERVABLE INTENSITY PROCESS

    MATHEMATICAL FINANCE, Issue 2 2007
    Nicole Buerle
    We consider a financial market with one bond and one stock. The dynamics of the stock price process allow jumps which occur according to a Markov-modulated Poisson process. We assume that there is an investor who is only able to observe the stock price process and not the driving Markov chain. The investor's aim is to maximize the expected utility of terminal wealth. Using a classical result from filter theory it is possible to reduce this problem with partial observation to one with complete observation. With the help of a generalized Hamilton,Jacobi,Bellman equation where we replace the derivative by Clarke's generalized gradient, we identify an optimal portfolio strategy. Finally, we discuss some special cases of this model and prove several properties of the optimal portfolio strategy. In particular, we derive bounds and discuss the influence of uncertainty on the optimal portfolio strategy. [source]


    THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THIS REPORT

    NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 2008
    Article first published online: 5 JUN 200
    [source]


    INTEGRATING ERRORS INTO THE TRAINING PROCESS: THE FUNCTION OF ERROR MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONS AND THE ROLE OF GOAL ORIENTATION

    PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    DOERTE HEIMBECK
    Error management training explicitly allows participants to make errors. We examined the effects of error management instructions ("rules of thumb" designed to reduce the negative emotional effects of errors), goal orientation (learning goal, prove goal, and avoidance goal orientations) and attribute x treatment interactions on performance. A randomized experiment with 87 participants consisting of 3 training procedures for learning to work with a computer program was conducted: (a) error training with error management instructions, (b) error training without error management instructions; and (c) a group that was prevented from making errors. Results showed that short-and medium-term performance (near and far transfer) was superior for participants of the error training that included error management instructions, compared with the two other training conditions. Thus, error management instructions were crucial for the high performance effects of error training. Prove and avoidance goal orientation interacted with training conditions. [source]


    II. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROCESS

    ACTA ARCHAEOLOGICA, Issue 1 2005
    Article first published online: 6 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]


    STRATEGY, STRUCTURE AND PROCESS IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: A TEST OF THE MILES AND SNOW MODEL

    PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, Issue 4 2009
    RHYS ANDREWS
    We present a comprehensive empirical application of the Miles and Snow (1978) model of organizational strategy, structure and process to the public sector. We refine the model by distinguishing between strategy formulation and implementation, and applying it to 90 public service organizations. Although the empirical evidence shows that organizational strategies fit the Miles and Snow categories of prospector, defender and reactor, the relationship between these strategies and organizational structures (for example, centralization) and processes (for example, planning) is less consistent with their model. Conclusions are drawn for public management theory and practice. [source]


    CREATING THE PSYCHOANALYTICAL PROCESS INCORPORATING THREE PANEL REPORTS: OPENING THE PROCESS, BEING IN THE PROCESS AND CLOSING THE PROCESS

    THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, Issue 1 2002
    HENRY F. SMITH
    First page of article [source]


    ENGAGING WITH THE IMMIGRANT HUMAN RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN A BESIEGED BORDER REGION: WHAT DO APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENTISTS BRING TO THE POLICY PROCESS?

    ANNALS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2009
    Josiah McC.
    Engagement with immigration goes beyond work directly with immigrants to include involvement in the immigration policy process. The chapter describes work on immigration and human rights policy grounded in issues facing the U.S.,Mexico border region. A policy coalition with regional and national presence, the Border and Immigration Task Force, combines an organized social movement with bases in immigrant communities with a diverse policy coalition whose members have varied skills, constituencies, and political connections. As applied social scientists in this coalition, we bring a number of skills, including effective writing, synthesis of secondary sources, teaching skills applied to public interaction and communication, and application of the sociological and anthropological imagination to understand the implications, on the ground, of detailed policy recommendations. Our work has not involved community-based primary research, but this form of practice is also mentioned for its relevance to policy formation and advocacy. The literature on public anthropology and public sociology needs to include discussions of engagement in practical policy processes. [source]


    THE CO-OPERATIVE REFORM PROCESS IN TANZANIA AND SRI LANKA

    ANNALS OF PUBLIC AND COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS, Issue 3 2010
    Johnston Birchall
    ABSTRACT**:,This article reports on findings from a three year study of co-operatives in Sri Lanka and Tanzania. The article asks three questions: why do co-operative sectors need reforming; what is the co-operative reform process; and why has reform succeeded in some countries but not others? It provides a short history of co-operatives in three phases: the colonial period, the post-colonial nationalist period and the period of market liberalisation. It shows that the control exercised by colonial governments was deepened under nationalist governments, with co-operatives becoming parastatals. Liberalisation brought a sustained attempt by international agencies to reassert the distinctive nature of co-operatives as member-owned businesses. However, co-ops were ill-prepared to adjust to a competitive market and the lifting of government regulation; many failed, some were corrupted, while a few became truly member-controlled. The article draws on documentary analysis and key informant interviews to provide accounts of the reform process in Tanzania and Sri Lanka. It finds that the process is incomplete and often contested. [source]