Problem Behaviors (problem + behavior)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Problem Behaviors

  • adolescent problem behavior
  • children problem behavior


  • Selected Abstracts


    Cumulative Environmental Risk and Youth Problem Behavior

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 3 2004
    Jean M. Gerard
    Using data from Wave 1 (n = 5,070) and Wave 2 (n = 4,404) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined the relationship between cumulative risk exposure and youth problem behavior. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a positive, linear association between cumulative risk and problem behaviors. The association between cumulative risk and externalizing problems was stronger for White youth than for Black youth. The association between cumulative risk and internalizing problems was stronger for girls than for boys, and stronger for White youth than for Black and Hispanic youth. Cumulative risk predicted change over time in internalizing problems. Findings support the theoretical notion that adolescents experience diminished psychological comfort when risk factors are present across several social domains. [source]


    The Implications of Unmitigated Agency and Unmitigated Communion for Domains of Problem Behavior

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 6 2000
    Vicki S. Helgeson
    Agency and communion are broad dimensions of personality that reflect a focus on the self and a focus on others, respectively. In this article, we distinguish unmitigated agency, a focus on the self to the exclusion of others, from agency, and we distinguish unmitigated communion, a focus on others to the exclusion of self, from communion. We argue that it is unmitigated agency and unmitigated communion that are linked to domains of problem behavior, in particular relationship difficulties and poor health behavior. Unmitigated agency and unmitigated communion are associated with a lack of support from others, a reluctance to ask others for help, and a range of poor health behaviors. The reasons for these links differ. The links to problem behavior for unmitigated communion individuals stem from their tendency to subjugate their own needs to the needs of others and their dependence on others for esteem. The links to problem behavior for unmitigated agency individuals stem from their unwillingness to attend to relationships and their negative view of others. [source]


    Socio-cognitive Habilitation Using the Math Interactive Learning Experience Program for Alcohol-Affected Children

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2007
    Julie A. Kable
    Background: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) has been recognized as a disabling condition with a significant impact on the neurobehavioral functioning of affected individuals, including cognition, behavior, and academic functioning, but little research has been performed on targeted interventions for these children. Methods: A socio-cognitive habilitative program focused on improving behavior and math functioning in children 3 to 10 years of age (n=61) was developed and evaluated. The intervention provided parental instruction on FAS, advocacy, and behavioral regulation via workshops and interactive math tutoring with children. All families received parental instruction and were then randomly assigned to either the math instruction or standard psychoeducational care groups. Results: Satisfaction with workshops was very high, with over 90% agreeing that trainers were knowledgeable and materials easy to understand and helpful. Significant gains in knowledge were found for information provided in the instructional groups. At posttesting, caregivers reported fewer problem behaviors on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, Internalizing Problem Behavior, Externalizing Problem Behavior, and Total Problem Behavior summary scales. After 5 months, both groups of children demonstrated gains in math knowledge but significantly higher gains were found in the group receiving direct math instruction. The math treatment group was also more likely to demonstrate a gain of over 1 standard deviation on any of the 4 math outcome measures used. Conclusions: These findings suggest that parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FAS(D)) benefit from instruction in understanding their child's alcohol-related neurological damage and strategies to provide positive behavioral supports and that targeted psychoeducational programs may be able to remediate some of the math deficits associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. [source]


    Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: Their Relations with Classroom Problem Behavior and Peer Status

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 4 2002
    Jeff Kiesner
    It has been suggested that early antisocial behavior plays a causal role in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence through pervasive failures in social competence and social acceptance (Patterson & Capaldi, 1990). The present study was conducted to test this hypothesis by examining longitudinal data from a sample of 215 Italian middle school students. Analyses revealed that Time 1 (T1) problem behavior predicted both Time 2 (T2) peer status and T2 depressive symptoms, even after controlling for T1 peer status and depressive symptoms, respectively. Moreover, T1 peer status predicted depressive symptoms at T2, even after controlling for prior levels of depressive symptoms. However, analyses did not support the hypothesis that peer rejection mediates the effects of problem behavior on depression. [source]


    Supporting Successful Transition to Kindergarten: General Challenges and Specific Implications for Students with Problem Behavior

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 8 2005
    Melissa Stormont
    The purpose of this review is to present factors that impede and promote successful transition to kindergarten, with a focus on the specific needs of students with problem behavior. The review addresses competencies that teachers report are critical for success in kindergarten, traditional transition practices, and challenges in implementing transition practices. Suggestions are provided to begin to attend to some of the issues affecting successful transition for children with challenging behavior and include an overarching framework to better support transition practices and specific suggestions for appropriate supports. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 765,778, 2005. [source]


    Reliability and comparability of a Spanish-language form of the preschool and kindergarten behavior scales

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 4 2002
    Amy G. Carney
    Comparability of a Spanish language translation of the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales was examined in relation to the English language version. Children ages 3,6 enrolled in preschool, kindergarten, or Head Start programs were rated concurrently by respondents on English and Spanish versions of the PKBS. Results showed virtually identical internal consistency of scores on both forms on Social Skills (.93) and Problem Behavior (.96) Scales. Correlations between forms for Social Skills and Problem Behavior scores were .93 and .94, respectively. Implications of these findings, directions for future research and the importance of continued work toward development/translation of other Spanish language assessment instruments for the early childhood population are discussed. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    The Role of Parenting Styles in Children's Problem Behavior

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2005
    Kaisa Aunola
    This study investigated the combination of mothers' and fathers' parenting styles (affection, behavioral control, and psychological control) that would be most influential in predicting their children's internal and external problem behaviors. A total of 196 children (aged 5,6 years) were followed up six times from kindergarten to the second grade to measure their problem behaviors. Mothers and fathers filled in a questionnaire measuring their parenting styles once every year. The results showed that a high level of psychological control exercised by mothers combined with high affection predicted increases in the levels of both internal and external problem behaviors among children. Behavioral control exercised by mothers decreased children's external problem behavior but only when combined with a low level of psychological control. [source]


    The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2004
    Leon Feinstein
    This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on this change, and the extent to which this change influenced adult outcomes. The analyses were conducted on 11,200 individuals from the UK Birth Cohort Study who were born in 1970 and who were resurveyed at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, and 30. Substantial discontinuities emerged during middle childhood, with strong SES influences. Changes in middle childhood strongly affected adult outcomes, often outweighing the effects of cognitive development before age 5. [source]


    Epidemiological Personology: The Unifying Role of Personality in Population-Based Research on Problem Behaviors

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 6 2000
    Robert F. Krueger
    Epidemiological personology refers to a paradigm in which a developmental perspective on individual differences is paired with a population-based sampling frame to yield insights about the role of personality in consequential social outcomes. We review our work in epidemiological personology, linking personality to diverse, problematic social outcomes: Mental disorders, health-risk behaviors, and violence. We conclude that broad-band personality measurement is both feasible and fruitful in large-scale research on problem behaviors, and we call for increased collaboration between personality psychologists and researchers in fields such as public health, epidemiology, and sociology. [source]


    The Role of Youth Problem Behaviors in the Path From Child Abuse and Neglect to Prostitution: A Prospective Examination

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 1 2010
    Helen W. Wilson
    Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines 5 potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages 0,11) with cases processed during 1967,1971 were matched with nonabused, nonneglected children and followed into young adulthood. Data are from in-person interviews at approximately age 29 and arrest records through 1994. Structural equation modeling tested path models. Results indicated that victims of child abuse and neglect were at increased risk for all problem behaviors except drug use. In the full model, only early sexual initiation remained significant as a mediator in the pathway from child abuse and neglect to prostitution. Findings were generally consistent for physical and sexual abuse and neglect. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce problem behaviors among maltreated children may also reduce their risk for prostitution later in life. [source]


    Paternal and Maternal Influences on Problem Behaviors Among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 1 2009
    Judith A. Stein PhD
    Using an Attachment Theory conceptual framework, associations were investigated among positive paternal and maternal relationships, and recent problem behaviors among 501 currently homeless and runaway adolescents (253 males, 248 females). Homeless and runaway youth commonly exhibit problem behaviors such as substance use, various forms of delinquency and risky sex behaviors, and report more emotional distress than typical adolescents. Furthermore, attachments to their families are often strained. In structural equation models, positive paternal relationships significantly predicted less substance use and less criminal behavior, whereas maternal relationships did not have a significant effect on or association with either behavior. Positive maternal relationships predicted less survival sex behavior. Separate gender analyses indicated that among the females, a longer time away from home was significantly associated with a poorer paternal relationship, and more substance use and criminal behavior. Paternal relations, a neglected area of research and often not addressed in attachment theory, should be investigated further. Attachments, particularly to fathers, were protective against many deleterious behaviors. Building on relatively positive relations and attachments may foster family reunifications and beneficial outcomes for at-risk youth. [source]


    Childhood problem behaviors and injury risk over the life course

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 12 2009
    Markus Jokela
    Background:, Childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors have been associated with injury risk in childhood and adolescence, but it is unknown whether this association continues to hold in adulthood. We examined whether externalizing and internalizing behaviors expressed in childhood predict injuries in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Methods:, The participants were from the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 11,537). Problem behaviors were assessed by teachers at ages 7 and 11. Injuries were reported by the participants' parents (at ages 7, 11, 16) and by the participants (at ages 23, 33, 42, and 46). Data on injury severity were available at ages 23 and 33, and on types of injuries at ages 23, 33, and 42. Measures of childhood family environment included father's social class, family size, and family difficulties. Adult psychological distress, treated as a potential mediating factor, was assessed at ages 23, 33, and 42. Results:, Externalizing behavior predicted increased injury risk: one SD increase in externalizing score was associated with 10,19% increase in the rate of injuries in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In contrast, internalizing behavior decreased injury rate by 3,9% in adolescence and adulthood. Externalizing behavior was associated with various types of injuries, including injuries in traffic, at home, at work, and from violent assaults, while internalizing behavior predicted decreased injury risk particularly in sports, in traffic, and at home. These associations were largely independent of childhood family environment and adult psychological distress. Conclusions:, The findings suggest that childhood problem behaviors predict injury risk over the life course from childhood to midlife, with externalizing behaviors increasing and internalizing behaviors decreasing this risk. [source]


    Preventing preschool externalizing behavior problems through video-feedback intervention in infancy

    INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, Issue 5 2006
    Mariska Klein Velderman
    In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined. Early short-term video-feedback intervention to promote positive parenting (VIPP) focusing on maternal sensitivity and implemented in the baby's first year of life significantly protected children from developing clinical Total Problems at preschool age. Also, compared with the control group, fewer VIPP children scored in the clinical range for Externalizing Problems. No intervention effects on Internalizing clinical problem behavior were found. The VIPP effects on Externalizing and Total clinical Problems were not mediated by VIPP effects on sensitivity and infant attachment or moderated by mother or child variables. Maternal satisfaction with perceived support appeared to be associated with less children's Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems. More research is needed to find the mechanisms triggered by VIPP, but the outcomes could be considered as promising first steps in the prevention of disturbing, externalizing behavior problems in young children. [source]


    Disorganized infant attachment and preventive interventions: A review and meta-analysis

    INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, Issue 3 2005
    Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg
    Infant disorganized attachment is a major risk factor for problematic stress management and later problem behavior. Can the emergence of attachment disorganization be prevented? The current narrative review and quantitative meta-analysis involves 15 preventive interventions (N = 842) that included infant disorganized attachment as an outcome measure. The effectiveness of the interventions ranged from negative to positive, with an overall effect size of d = 0.05 (ns). Effective interventions started after 6 months of the infant's age (d = 0.23). Interventions that focused on sensitivity only were significantly more effective in reducing attachment disorganization (d = 0.24) than interventions that (also) focused on support and parent's mental representations (d = ,0.04). Most sample characteristics were not associated with differences in effect sizes, but studies with children at risk were more successful (d = 0.29) than studies with at-risk parents (d = ,0.10), and studies on samples with higher percentages of disorganized attachment in the control groups were more effective (d = 0.31) than studies with lower percentages of disorganized children in the control group (d = ,0.18). The meta-analysis shows that disorganized attachments may change as a side effect of sensitivity-focused interventions, but it also illustrates the need for interventions specifically focusing on the prevention of disorganization. [source]


    The adolescent origins of substance use disorders

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue S1 2008
    Matt McGue
    Abstract Although early use of alcohol during adolescence has been consistently associated with increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood, the specific mechanisms that underlie this association remain unclear. We describe a program of epidemiological twin-family research that shows that early use of alcohol is best conceptualized as an indicator of a more general propensity to engage in adolescent problem behavior. Adolescent problem behavior, in turn, is a risk factor for a broad range of adult externalizing disorders, of which alcoholism is but one manifestation. These findings are shown to be consistent with a dual-process model whereby early adolescent problem behavior is associated with increased risk of adult psychopathology because both are indicators of a common inherited liability and because early adolescent problem behavior increases the likelihood an adolescent is exposed to high-risk environments. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of cross-cultural research, which may be especially informative for identifying the consequences of early adolescent drinking. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Cumulative Environmental Risk and Youth Problem Behavior

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 3 2004
    Jean M. Gerard
    Using data from Wave 1 (n = 5,070) and Wave 2 (n = 4,404) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examined the relationship between cumulative risk exposure and youth problem behavior. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a positive, linear association between cumulative risk and problem behaviors. The association between cumulative risk and externalizing problems was stronger for White youth than for Black youth. The association between cumulative risk and internalizing problems was stronger for girls than for boys, and stronger for White youth than for Black and Hispanic youth. Cumulative risk predicted change over time in internalizing problems. Findings support the theoretical notion that adolescents experience diminished psychological comfort when risk factors are present across several social domains. [source]


    Staying Out of Trouble: Community Resources and Problem Behavior Among High-Risk Adolescents

    JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 2 2000
    Lori Kowaleski-Jones
    This research considers how community resources affect adolescent risk-taking attitudes and problem behavior. Data from the 1990 United States Census and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Merged Mother,Child files are merged to form a sample of 860 adolescents age 14 to 18 in 1994. Among these high-risk adolescents, selected community resources have significant associations with adolescent outcomes. Residential stability decreases both adolescent risk-taking attitudes and aggressive behavior, regardless of the level of disadvantage present within the community. Higher quality schools, as perceived by mothers, are environments in which adolescents are less likely to get into trouble, even controlling for attributes of the adolescent's family situation. [source]


    The Implications of Unmitigated Agency and Unmitigated Communion for Domains of Problem Behavior

    JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 6 2000
    Vicki S. Helgeson
    Agency and communion are broad dimensions of personality that reflect a focus on the self and a focus on others, respectively. In this article, we distinguish unmitigated agency, a focus on the self to the exclusion of others, from agency, and we distinguish unmitigated communion, a focus on others to the exclusion of self, from communion. We argue that it is unmitigated agency and unmitigated communion that are linked to domains of problem behavior, in particular relationship difficulties and poor health behavior. Unmitigated agency and unmitigated communion are associated with a lack of support from others, a reluctance to ask others for help, and a range of poor health behaviors. The reasons for these links differ. The links to problem behavior for unmitigated communion individuals stem from their tendency to subjugate their own needs to the needs of others and their dependence on others for esteem. The links to problem behavior for unmitigated agency individuals stem from their unwillingness to attend to relationships and their negative view of others. [source]


    Gender- and Age-Related Differences in the Association Between Social Relationship Quality and Trait Levels of Salivary Cortisol

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 2 2008
    Alan Booth
    The majority of studies linking individual differences in the quality of social relationships and activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have focused on the early development of attachment between infants and their caregivers. Later in development, during middle childhood and adolescence, the parallel HPA links to age-appropriate social relationships with peers, parents, and siblings remain largely unspecified. This study addressed this knowledge gap. Early morning saliva samples were obtained from 367 children in middle childhood (ages 6,10) and 357 adolescents (M age=11,16 years) on two successive days 1 year apart and assayed for cortisol. Latent state,trait modeling was employed to separate variance in cortisol levels attributable to "stable trait-like" versus "state or situational specific" sources to minimize the high moment-to-moment variation in basal adrenocortical activity. During adolescence but not middle childhood, and for girls but not boys, lower levels of "trait cortisol" were associated with poor quality social relationships. The pattern was robust, extending to the quality of relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. Importantly, the relationship was independent of the rates of internalizing or externalizing problem behavior. We found that isolating the variance in cortisol levels attributable to stable intrinsic sources revealed an interpretable pattern that linked individual differences in basal HPA activity to social relationships during adolescence. Studies are needed to reveal the biosocial mechanisms involved in the establishment of this gender- and age-specific phenomenon and to decipher whether or not individual differences in this hormone-behavior link are adaptive. [source]


    Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 2 2007
    Sara E. Goldstein
    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the 11th grade (mean age=17.1 years). At the first assessment, adolescents were asked about their experiences with sexual harassment, their psychological reactions to sexual harassment, and also about their peer relationships, perceived pubertal timing, problem behavior, and mental health. At the second assessment, adolescents reported on their problem behavior and mental health. In general, youth who associated with peers who were involved in problem behavior were at risk for victimization. Among females, those who perceived themselves to be experiencing early pubertal development were also at risk. Additionally, for some adolescents, sexual harassment predicted later adjustment difficulties. [source]


    Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: Their Relations with Classroom Problem Behavior and Peer Status

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 4 2002
    Jeff Kiesner
    It has been suggested that early antisocial behavior plays a causal role in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence through pervasive failures in social competence and social acceptance (Patterson & Capaldi, 1990). The present study was conducted to test this hypothesis by examining longitudinal data from a sample of 215 Italian middle school students. Analyses revealed that Time 1 (T1) problem behavior predicted both Time 2 (T2) peer status and T2 depressive symptoms, even after controlling for T1 peer status and depressive symptoms, respectively. Moreover, T1 peer status predicted depressive symptoms at T2, even after controlling for prior levels of depressive symptoms. However, analyses did not support the hypothesis that peer rejection mediates the effects of problem behavior on depression. [source]


    Self- and maternal representations, relatedness patterns, and problem behavior in middle childhood

    PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, Issue 2 2008
    ARIELA WANIEL
    The present study investigated the association between children's representations of their mothers' and teachers' reports of children's problem behavior. The research team conducted semistructured narrative interviews with a community sample of 203 Israeli 9- to 11-year-old children. Ten months later, researchers collected teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This study investigated whether children's self-representation narratives and their maladaptive relatedness stances questionnaire scores mediated this association. Results indicated that children reporting benevolent representations of their mothers exhibited lower levels of problem behavior. More positive self-representations and lower levels of skewness in children's relatedness stances to their mothers both mediated this association. This article includes a discussion of these results in light of factors contributing to maladjustment in middle childhood. [source]


    Parents' Evaluation of Adoption Success: A Follow-Up Study of Intercountry and Domestic Adoptions

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 4 2009
    Jenny Castle BSc
    Parents of 165 children adopted from Romania and 52 children adopted from within the United Kingdom rated the success of the adoptions when the children were 11 years old. As was the case at two earlier study waves, satisfaction was found to be extremely high. Both positive and negative assessments were generally stable between ages 6 and 11, although for the children who had more problems there was an increase in negative evaluation, albeit within an overall positive picture. Parents' evaluations were somewhat more negative for this group of children; however, parents reported that having the child as part of their family was very rewarding. Negative evaluation was not directly related to age at placement, but appeared to be a reflection of the later-placed children's higher rates of problem behavior. As found at earlier assessment waves, child factors, in particular conduct problems and inattention or overactivity, were key in predicting parental evaluations at age 11, as were four domains closely associated with institutional deprivation, namely cognitive impairment, quasi-autistic patterns, inattention or overactivity, and disinhibited attachment. The findings emphasize the need for early intervention for children in severely deprived conditions, and for access to postadoption services that target the particular problem behaviors the children may exhibit. [source]


    Principles of sustainable prevention: Designing scale-up of School-wide Positive Behavior Support to promote durable systems,

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 1 2010
    Kent McIntosh
    In this article, we provide an overview of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), an approach to building protective school cultures and preventing the development of problem behavior through instruction, environmental redesign, and attention to systems-level variables. We define the critical features of SWPBS within a prevention science lens, including identification of its conceptual foundations, proximal mediators of student outcomes, and current research base and goals. Given its evidence of effectiveness, we describe efforts and a research agenda in the area of sustainability of SWPBS, including a description of a proposed model of sustainability and a case study of statewide implementation with steps taken to promote sustained implementation. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Conceptual frame for selecting individual psychotherapy in the schools

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 3 2009
    Tammy L. Hughes
    Psychotherapy is a service-delivery that is provided for both general and special education students. This manuscript examines a conceptual framework for determing when to employ psychotherapy within the school-based setting. Decisions are informed by the relationship between problem behavior, therapeutic techniques, short-term outcomes, and overall child development. Both the individual needs of students and the cumulative body of evidence regarding treatment effectiveness are required for intervention selection. The school psychologists' unique training in psychology and education affords the opportunity to effectively use psychotherapy to enhance the academic and social development of children. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    A descriptive study of school discipline referrals in first grade

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 4 2007
    Julie C. Rusby
    School discipline referrals (SDRs) may be useful in the early detection and monitoring of disruptive behavior problems to inform prevention efforts in the school setting, yet little is known about the nature and validity of SDRs in the early grades. For this descriptive study, SDR data were collected on a sample of first grade students who were at risk for developing disruptive behavior problems (n = 186) and a universal sample (n = 531) from 20 schools. Most SDRs were given for physical aggression and the predominant consequence was time out. As expected, boys and at-risk students were more likely to receive an SDR and to have more SDRs than were girls and the universal sample. A large difference between schools regarding the delivery of SDRs was found. A zero-inflated Poisson model clustered by school tested the prediction of school-level variables. Students in schools that had a systematic way of tracking SDRs were more likely to receive one. Also, schools with more low-income students and larger class sizes gave fewer SDRs. SDRs predicted teacher ratings, and to a lesser extent, parent ratings of disruptive behavior at the end of first grade. Practitioners and researchers must examine school-level influences whenever first grade discipline referrals are used to measure problem behavior for the purpose of planning and evaluating interventions. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 333,350, 2007. [source]


    Supporting Successful Transition to Kindergarten: General Challenges and Specific Implications for Students with Problem Behavior

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 8 2005
    Melissa Stormont
    The purpose of this review is to present factors that impede and promote successful transition to kindergarten, with a focus on the specific needs of students with problem behavior. The review addresses competencies that teachers report are critical for success in kindergarten, traditional transition practices, and challenges in implementing transition practices. Suggestions are provided to begin to attend to some of the issues affecting successful transition for children with challenging behavior and include an overarching framework to better support transition practices and specific suggestions for appropriate supports. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 42: 765,778, 2005. [source]


    Beyond parents and peers: The role of important non-parental adults (VIPs) in adolescent development in China and the United States

    PSYCHOLOGY IN THE SCHOOLS, Issue 1 2003
    Chuansheng Chen
    To understand cross-cultural differences and similarities in the social contexts for adolescent development, 201 American and 502 Chinese 11th graders were surveyed about a non-parental adult who had played an important role in their lives (VIPs). Results showed that, compared to adolescents' VIPs in the United States, their Chinese counterparts were more likely to be teachers, to provide support in education-related areas, and to be considered role models. Chinese VIPs were also reported to exhibit fewer problem behaviors and depressive symptoms and express a higher level of sanctions against adolescent problem behaviors than American VIPs. Adolescents in both cultures reported that their VIPs' positive qualities surpassed those of parents and peers. VIPs' characteristics (e.g., sanctions, problem behavior, warmth, and depressed mood) were significantly associated with adolescent outcomes. These results suggest that although there are cross-cultural differences in the nature of VIPs, VIPs are a very important part of social context for adolescent development in both the United States and China. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 40: 35,50, 2003. [source]


    Marijuana Use Among the Adolescent Children of High-Risk Drug-Abusing Fathers

    THE AMERICAN JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS, Issue 2 2002
    David W. Brook M.D.
    This study examines marijuana use among children of male drug abusers. Subjects were 83 African-American and European-American male drug abusers, of whom the majority were injection drug users, and their children. Thirty-one of the fathers were HIV-positive and 52 were HIV-negative. Using logistic regression analyses, we explored cross-sectionally the relationship between four psychosocial domains (ie, paternal attributes, adolescent problem behaviors, father-adolescent relations, and environment) and adolescent marijuana use. The father's use of illegal drugs and his failure to cope adaptively predicted adolescent marijuana use, while a close father-child bond predicted less adolescent marijuana use. Adolescent problem behaviors predicted an increased likelihood of marijuana use. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that the adolescent's problem behavior mediated the associations between both the father-adolescent relationship and environmental factors with adolescent marijuana use. Reducing the risk factors and enhancing the protective factors within each of the domains could help reduce marijuana use among the adolescent children of drug-abusing fathers. Moreover, if a father is a drug abuser, it is important to help him establish a close bond with his child in order to help attenuate the influence of his drug use on the child's marijuana use. [source]


    Assessment of child problem behaviors by multiple informants: a longitudinal study from preschool to school entry

    THE JOURNAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY AND ALLIED DISCIPLINES, Issue 10 2007
    David C.R. Kerr
    Background:, Children's early problem behavior that manifests in multiple contexts is often more serious and stable. The concurrent and predictive validity of ratings of externalizing and internalizing by four informants was examined at preschool and early school age in an at-risk sample. Methods:, Two hundred forty children were assessed by mothers and fathers (Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)), and teachers and laboratory examiners (Teacher Report Form (TRF)) at ages 3 and 5 years. Results:, All informants' ratings of externalizing converged on a common factor at ages 3 and 5 that showed strong stability over time (, = .80). All informants' age 3 externalizing ratings significantly predicted the problem factor at age 5; mothers', fathers', and teachers' ratings were independently predictive. Ratings of internalizing (except by examiners at age 3) also converged at both ages; the problem factor showed medium stability (, = .39) over time. Only fathers' ratings of age 3 internalizing predicted the age 5 problem factor. Conclusions:, Findings support the value of multi-informant assessment, uphold calls to include fathers in childhood research, and suggest that examiners provide valid, though non-unique assessment data. Examiner contributions may prove useful in many research contexts. [source]