Prolonged Prothrombin Time (prolonged + prothrombin_time)

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Selected Abstracts

Cholestasis enhances liver ischemia/reperfusion-induced coagulation activation in rats

Jaap J. Kloek
Aim:, Cholestasis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major liver surgery. An additional risk is induced when vascular inflow occlusion is applied giving rise to liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The role of the coagulation system in this type of injury is elusive. The aim of the current study was to assess activation of coagulation following hepatic I/R injury in cholestatic rats. Methods:, Male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups and subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham laparotomy. After 7 days, both groups underwent 30 min partial liver ischemia. Animals were sacrificed before ischemia or after 6 h, 24 h, and 48 h reperfusion. Results:, Plasma AST and ALT levels were higher after I/R in cholestatic rats (P < 0.05). Hepatic necrosis, liver wet/dry ratio and neutrophil influx were increased in the BDL group up to 48 h reperfusion (P < 0.05). Liver synthetic function was decreased in the BDL group as reflected by prolonged prothrombin time after 6 h and 24 h reperfusion (P < 0.05). I/R in cholestatic rats resulted in a 12-fold vs. 7-fold (P < 0.01) increase in markers for thrombin generation and a 6-fold vs. 2-fold (P < 0.01) increase in fibrin degradation products (BDL vs. control, respectively). In addition, the cholestatic rats exhibited significantly decreased levels of antithrombin (AT) III and increased levels of the fibrinolytic inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) during reperfusion. Conclusions:, Cholestasis significantly enhances I/R-induced hepatic damage and inflammation that concurs with an increased activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis. [source]

Treatment of Immune-Mediated Hemolytic Anemia in Dogs with Cyclophosphamide

Kristine Burgess
A review of 60 cases of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) in the dog was performed in order to characterize the disease and to identify potential prognostic indicators. Dogs ranged in age from 1 to 13 years, with a mean age of 6.5 years. The 2 most commonly affected breeds were Cocker Spaniels and Labrador Retrievers. Fifty-two of the 60 dogs tested (87%) were autoagglu-tination positive and spherocytes were present in 45 (75%). Forty-one (89%) of 46 patients tested positive for the presence of immunoglobulin on the red blood cell surface (Coombs assay). The most common clinical signs at presentation were lethargy, weakness, pale mucous membranes, icterus, hemoglobinuria, and anorexia. PCV less than 25% was present in 59 (98%) dogs. At the time of presentation, 35 dogs (58%) had a nonregenerative anemia, whereas 25 patients (42%) had a regenerative response. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 41 (68%) dogs. Nine of 34 dogs (26%) had a prolonged prothrombin time, 19 of 34 (56%) had a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin clotting time, and 12 of 34 (35%) had abnormal fibrinogen concentrations. All dogs received prednisone at immunosuppressive doses (2.2,4.4 mg/kg PO as a single or divided dose every 24 hours) and cyclophosphamide as primary therapy. Forty-one dogs (63%) received cyclophosphamide at 50 mg/m2 q24h for 4 days, whereas 9 dogs (15%) received an initial high dose (200 mg/m2) followed by 3 days of a lower dose (50 mg/m2 q24h). No statistical difference in survival times was found for either protocol. Thirteen dogs were treated with azathioprine in addition to cyclophosphamide and prednisone. The median survival time of dogs that received all 3 drugs was 370 days as compared to 9 days for those dogs that were treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisone alone. Thirty-one (52%) dogs died from the disease, 13 (22%) dogs were alive, and 15 (25%) dogs were lost to follow-up. The median length of survival for all dogs was 21 days. Eight dogs that were discharged from the hospital suffered a relapse (PCV < 25%). [source]

Recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven®) as a hemostatic agent after surgery for congenital heart disease

Summary Background :,Postoperative bleeding and blood product requirements can be substantial in children undergoing open-heart surgery, and reexploration is required in 1% of cases. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa, NovoSeven®, NovoNordisk, Denmark) is a hemostatic agent approved for the treatment of hemophilic patients with inhibitors to factor VIII or factor IX. It has also been used with success in other conditions. We present our experience with rFVIIa treatment for uncontrolled bleeding after open-heart surgery in five pediatric patients. Methods :,The study group consisted of five patients after open-heart surgery with excessive blood loss. The patients were treated with rFVIIa after failure of conventional treatment to control the bleeding. Blood loss, blood product consumption, and coagulation test results were recorded before and after rFVIIa administration. Results :,In all cases, blood loss decreased considerably after rFVIIa administration (mean 7.8 ml·kg,1·h,1), almost eliminating the need for additional blood products, and the prolonged prothrombin time normalized. In two patients with thrombocytopathy, rFVIIa helped to discriminate surgical bleeding from bleeding caused by a defect in hemostasis. No side effects of rFVIIa treatment were noted. Conclusions :,These cases support the impression that RFVIIa is efficient and safe in correcting hemostasis in children after cardiopulmonary bypass when other means fail. However, the data are still limited, and more extensive research is needed. [source]

Acquired factor VII deficiency associated with Wilms tumor

Jeremy Granger MD
Abstract We present the case of a 2-year-old female with Wilms tumor whose initial evaluation revealed a prolonged prothrombin time (PT) and normal activated partial thromboplastin time. Mixing studies demonstrated correction of the PT and the Factor VII activity was 17% in the absence of a Factor VII inhibitor. She underwent successful resection of the tumor with fresh frozen plasma support and no excessive bleeding. Post-operative testing demonstrated normal PT at 3 days and 1-month. Although acquired von Willebrand factor deficiency has a known association with Wilms tumor, paraneoplastic factor VII deficiency associated with Wilms tumor is previously unreported. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;52:394,395. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Successful management of bleeding with recombinant factor VIIa (NovoSeven®) in a patient with Burkitt lymphoma and thrombosis of the left femoral and left common iliac veins


Abstract We present the case of an 18-year-old female with Burkitt lymphoma involving the intra-abdominal and inguinal lymph nodes. The tumor had invaded the left femoral and common iliac veins causing secondary thrombosis and vessel occlusion. Chemotherapy and anticoagulant treatment resulted in mild thrombocytopenia and a prolonged prothrombin time, respectively, which exacerbated postoperative bleeding following surgical removal of a deep inguinal necrosis. After 6 days, bleeding combined with epistaxis was considered to be life threatening and anticoagulant reversal with recombinant factor VIIa was successfully performed. The patient has since achieved complete remission and subsequent antithrombotic therapy has resolved the vascular occlusion. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007;49:332,335. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Prolongation of the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in children with sickle cell disease

Leslie J. Raffini MD
Abstract Background Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have high rates of perioperative complications, including bleeding 1,2. Procedures We conducted a retrospective review of pre-operative coagulation studies in pediatric patients with SCD followed by a prospective study of 100 well children with SCD to determine the prevalence of abnormal coagulation screening tests, and to evaluate potential etiologies. Results In the retrospective study, 32/84 (38.1%) had a prolonged prothrombin time (PT), compared to 8/100 in the prospective study. Prolongations of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were less common. Children in the prospective study with prolonged PTs had significantly lower levels of Factor V and VII compared to those with normal PTs. Factor VII levels were <50% in 4/8 with long PTs, compared to 3/92 with normal PTs, P,=,0.001. Though retrospectively, several patients had normalization of their PT with vitamin K, there was no laboratory evidence of vitamin K deficiency in the prospective study. In the retrospective analysis, six of seven children who had pre-operative coagulation studies and significant intraoperative blood loss had prolonged PTs (P,=,0.04). Conclusions Children with SCD admitted for surgical procedures were more likely to have prolonged PTs than those tested at a well visit. There was intra-patient variability in coagulation studies that may be related to clinical status, hepatocellular dysfunction, and/or increased clotting factor consumption. Future well-designed prospective studies to determine whether abnormal coagulation studies are associated with an increased risk of perioperative bleeding in children with SCD are necessary. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006; 47:589,593. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The effect of aprotinin on transfusion requirements in pediatric orthotopic liver transplantation

Toni M. Rentoul
Abstract: The use of aprotinin to reduce blood loss by inhibiting fibrinolysis thereby decreasing transfusion requirements during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), is well-documented in adults. We set out to test the hypothesis that the prophylactic use of aprotinin reduced blood product requirements during pediatric OLT. A retrospective study was performed, reviewing data from 24 OLTs performed over a 4-yr period. Six patients did not receive aprotinin (group 1), while 18 (group 2) received a weight-based dose of aprotinin. Both groups were comparable with respect to demographics, baseline characteristics and surgical variables except for a significantly more prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in the aprotinin group (p = 0.015). Despite the fact that median values for transfused volumes of red blood cells (78.3 vs. 36.7 mL/kg) and fresh frozen plasma (51.9 vs. 23.7 mL/kg) were more than halved in the aprotinin group, there was no statistical difference demonstrated. The failure to reach statistical significance can probably be explained by the small number in group 1 and a high level of scatter. All patients in group 1 required intraoperative transfusion of RBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) while two patients in group 2 did not require RBC and seven received no FFP. There were four patients in group 1 and 17 in group 2 who did not receive platelets while five in group 1 and 12 in group 2 did not receive cryoprecipitate. The differences between the groups in avoidance of these blood products did not reach statistical significance. There was little difference between groups with respect to albumin and crystalloid requirements. No statistical difference was demonstrated in intraoperative hematologic profiles between the two groups except during the anhepatic phase of surgery when there was a statistically significant more prolonged prothrombin time (p = 0.04) and a greater international normalized ratio (p = 0.027) in group 2. [source]

Plasma Exchange Before Surgery for Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation

Rajko Radovancevic
Abstract:, Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation in end-stage heart failure patients is frequently associated with hemorrhagic complications requiring reoperation. The preoperative coagulopathic profile includes prolonged prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and bleeding time; platelet dysfunction; decreased coagulation factor activity; and increased inflammatory markers. We compare outcomes in LVAD patients treated with preoperative plasma exchange with concurrent, nonrandomized control patients. We reviewed data from 68 consecutive elective patients who received LVADs at our institution. Thirty-five received LVADs after preoperative plasma exchange (replacement of one plasma volume of fresh frozen plasma), and 33 received LVADs without plasma exchange. Groups were comparable in age, sex, body weight, New York Heart Association class, intra-aortic balloon pump insertion, cardiac index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, creatinine, total bilirubin, hemoglobin levels, PT, international normalized ratio, PTT, and platelet count. Early mortality was lower in the plasma exchange group (0% [0/35] vs. 18% [6/33], P = 0.026), and postoperative chest tube drainage decreased by 33% (P = not significant). Blood transfusion requirements were similar.Perioperative mortality decreased in patients treated with plasma exchange before LVAD implantation. [source]

Activated coagulation times in normal cats and dogs using MAX-ACTTM tubes

AM See
Objective, To establish reference values for activated coagulation time (ACT) in normal cats and dogs, by visual assessment of clot formation using the MAX-ACTTM tube. Subjects, We recruited 43 cats and 50 dogs for the study; 11 cats and 4 dogs were excluded from the statistical analysis because of abnormalities on clinical examination or laboratory testing including anaemia, prolonged prothrombin time (PT) or activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), or insufficient plasma volume for comprehensive laboratory coagulation testing. Procedure, Blood samples were collected via direct venipuncture for MAX-ACT, packed cell volume/total solids, manual platelet estimation and PT/APTT measurement. Blood (0.5 mL) was mixed gently in the MAX-ACT tube at 37°C for 30 s, then assessed for clot formation every 5 to 10 s by tipping the tube gently on its side and monitoring for magnet movement. The endpoint was defined as the magnet lodging in the clot. The technique was tested with 10 dogs by collecting two blood samples from the same needle insertion and running a MAX-ACT on each simultaneously. Results, In normal cats the mean MAX-ACT was 66 s (range 55,85 s). In normal dogs the mean was 71 s (range 55,80 s). There was no statistical difference between the first and second samples collected from the same needle insertion. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance, In both cats and dogs, a MAX-ACT result >85 s should be considered abnormal and further coagulation testing should be performed. Additionally, failure to discard the first few drops of the sample does not appear to significantly affect results. [source]