Association Study (association + study)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Association Study

  • control association study
  • genetic association study
  • genome wide association study
  • genome-wide association study
  • wide association study


  • Selected Abstracts


    Genome-Wide Association Study of Alcohol Dependence Implicates a Region on Chromosome 11

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2010
    Howard J. Edenberg
    Background:, Alcohol dependence is a complex disease, and although linkage and candidate gene studies have identified several genes associated with the risk for alcoholism, these explain only a portion of the risk. Methods:, We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on a case,control sample drawn from the families in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. The cases all met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,Fourth Edition; controls all consumed alcohol but were not dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs. To prioritize among the strongest candidates, we genotyped most of the top 199 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p , 2.1 × 10,4) in a sample of alcohol-dependent families and performed pedigree-based association analysis. We also examined whether the genes harboring the top SNPs were expressed in human brain or were differentially expressed in the presence of ethanol in lymphoblastoid cells. Results:, Although no single SNP met genome-wide criteria for significance, there were several clusters of SNPs that provided mutual support. Combining evidence from the case,control study, the follow-up in families, and gene expression provided strongest support for the association of a cluster of genes on chromosome 11 (SLC22A18, PHLDA2, NAP1L4, SNORA54, CARS, and OSBPL5) with alcohol dependence. Several SNPs nominated as candidates in earlier GWAS studies replicated in ours, including CPE, DNASE2B, SLC10A2, ARL6IP5, ID4, GATA4, SYNE1, and ADCY3. Conclusions:, We have identified several promising associations that warrant further examination in independent samples. [source]


    Polymorphisms of the IL-1 Gene Complex Are Associated With Alcohol Dependence in Spanish Caucasians: Data From an Association Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2009
    Pilar A. Saiz
    Background:, There is growing evidence for involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 4 functionally relevant polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha genes were associated with alcohol dependence and with measures of clinical severity and treatment outcome. Methods:, Two hundred alcohol-dependent (AD) patients and 420 healthy controls from the same Spanish Caucasian population were genotyped using standard methods. Baseline and 6-month assessments included alcohol intake, addiction severity, and biomarkers of alcohol intake. Results:, Alcohol-dependent patients showed an excess of IL-1,,889 C/T [50.8% vs. 39.3%, ,2 (df) = 7.30 (2), uncorrected p = 0.026, corrected p = 0.104] and IL-1RA (86 bp)n A1/A1 genotypes [64.8% vs. 50.8%, ,2 (df) = 12.65 (3), corrected p = 0.020]. The A1/A1 excess was associated with alcohol dependence only in men [69.9% vs. 49.5%, ,2 (df) = 15.72 (2), corrected p < 0.001]. Six-month clinical and hematological outcome measures did not vary by genotype of the 4 polymorphisms. Haplotype analysis revealed an excess of the IL-1,,889 C/IL-1, +3953 C/IL-1RA A2 haplotype in the control group compared with AD patients [20.0% vs. 14.1%, ,2 (df) = 7.25 (1), p = 0.007; odds ratio (OR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.46,0.89] and in the abstainers after 6 months of treatment compared with nonabstinent patients [14.7% vs. 6.2%, ,2 (df) = 5.65 (1), p = 0.017; OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.15,5.62]. Conclusions:, Our findings provide further tentative evidence of the role of IL-1 in alcohol dependence as well as evidence that the nature of the associations may be direct, gender-specific, or involve haplotype effects. However, findings from single association studies constitute tentative knowledge and must be interpreted carefully and precise replication is required. [source]


    Global,Local Interference is Related to Callosal Compromise in Alcoholism: A Behavior-DTI Association Study

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2009
    Eva M. Müller-Oehring
    Background:, Visuospatial ability is a multifactorial process commonly impaired in chronic alcoholism. Identification of which features of visuospatial processing are affected and which are spared in alcoholism, however, has not been clearly determined. We used a global,local paradigm to assess component processes of visuospatial ability and MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine whether alcoholism-related microstructural degradation of the corpus callosum contributes to disruption of selective lateralized visuospatial and attention processes. Methods:, A hierarchical letter paradigm was devised, where large global letters were composed of small local letters. The task required identification of target letters among distractors presented at global, local, both, or neither level. Attention was either selectively directed to global or local levels or divided between levels. Participants were 18 detoxified chronic alcoholics and 22 age-matched healthy controls. DTI provided quantitative assessment of the integrity of corpus callosal white matter microstructure. Results:, Alcoholics generally had longer reaction times than controls but obtained similar accuracy scores. Both groups processed local targets faster than global targets and showed interference from targets at the unattended level. Alcoholics exhibited moderate compromise in selectively attending to the global level when the global stimuli were composed of local targets. Such local interference was less with longer abstinence. Callosal microstructural integrity compromise predicted degree of interference from stimulus incongruency in the alcoholic group. This relationship was not observed for lateral or third ventricular volumes, which are measures of nonspecific cortical volume deficits. Conclusion:, Global,local feature perception was generally spared in abstinent chronic alcoholics, but impairments were observed when directing attention to global features and when global and local information interfered at stimulus or response levels. Furthermore, the interference-callosal integrity relationship in alcoholics indicates that compromised visuospatial functions include those requiring bilateral integration of information. [source]


    An Association Study Between Alcoholism and the Serotonergic Receptor Genes

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2000
    Akio Himei
    Background: Linkage and association studies of alcoholism using DNA makers have been conducted without conclusive results. The comorbidity of alcoholism with affective disorder indicates that dysfunction of the serotonergic system may play an important role in developing alcoholism. Methods: We studied the genetic association between alcoholism and alleles of the HTR1A, HTR2A, and HTR2C genes. The subjects were 91 biologically unrelated alcoholics and 90 controls. Polymorphisms of these genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and the data were analyzed by X2 tests. Results: We found no significant association between alcoholism and the HTR1A, HTR2A, and HTR2C genes. Conclusions: The study results suggest that these serotonergic receptor genes may not directly contribute to the etiology of alcoholism. [source]


    Association Study Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the 14,3-3 , Chain and Dopamine D4 Receptor Genes and Alcoholism

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2000
    H. Ishiguro
    Background: The dopaminergic system may be involved in the development of alcoholism. As part of our ongoing studies on the association between alcoholism and dopaminergic genes, we report herein a mutation analysis of the 14,3-3 , chain gene (YWHAH) and an association study between alcoholism and the YWHAH and dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) polymorphisms. Methods: Nucleotide mutations were investigated using single-strand conformation polymorphism methods. Associations were analyzed using a case-control design involving 185 Japanese alcoholics and 286 Japanese controls. Results: Five polymorphisms, -147G>A, -134(GCCTGCA)2,4, IVS1+31(G)7,8. IVS1+73,74ins(G), and 753A>G, were detected on the YWHAH, and three of them were novel. No significant associations were found between alcoholism and these polymorphisms or two additional polymorphisms on DRD4 exon III and DRD4 -521C/T. Conclusions: YWHAH and DRD4 do not appear to play a major role in the development of alcoholism. [source]


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Association Study of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Polymorphisms of its Gene with Ectopic Pregnancy

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Julio Elito Jr
    Citation Elito J Jr, Daher S, Fernandes da Silva MO, Marconi NMH, Pendeloski KPT, Moron AF, Camano L. Association study of vascular endothelial growth factor and polymorphisms of its gene with ectopic pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 120,125 Problem, In ectopic pregnancy, increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are present. The aims of this study were to determine the association between ,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms and ectopic pregnancy, and to determine whether serum levels of VEGF were affected by genetic factors. Method of study, This is a case,control study wherein 74 women with a history of ectopic pregnancy in a tertiary care center were compared to 134 post-menopausal controls with two pregnancies and no ectopic pregnancy for the genotyping of VEGF polymorphisms. For 35 patients with the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, serum concentrations of VEGF were obtained before the treatment. Genotyping of VEGF (,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T) polymorphisms was performed by PCR, followed by endonuclease digestion. ELISA was performed to evaluate the VEGF serum levels. Results, The ,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T VEGF polymorphisms were not associated with ectopic pregnancy (P = 0.170, P = 0.285, and P = 0.700, respectively). The serum levels of VEGF were not associated with the genotype of ,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T VEGF polymorphisms (P = 0.702; P = 0.347, and P = 0.256, respectively). Conclusion, There was no association between ectopic pregnancy and ,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T VEGF polymorphisms. There was no correlation between VEGF genotype and the expression of VEGF in blood samples. [source]


    Association Study and Mutation Analysis of Adiponectin Shows Association of Variants in APM1 with Complex Obesity in Women

    ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 5 2009
    Sigri Beckers
    Summary We performed an association study and mutation analysis of the adiponectin (APM1) gene to study its involvement in the development of obesity. We also studied the interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , (PPAR,). 223 obese women and 87 healthy female control subjects were used for association analysis. Mutation analysis was done on 95 morbidly obese adults and 123 overweight and obese children and adolescents. We selected 6 haplotype tagging SNPs in APM1 and the Pro12Ala variant (rs1805192) in PPAR, to study the interaction. The G allele of rs2241766 was more common in controls (cases 10.8% vs. controls 18.4%, nominal p = 0.011; OR = 0.57, nominal p = 0.018). The rs2241766/rs3774261 haplotype was also associated with obesity (nominal p = 0.004). Only the latter association remained significant after controlling for the False Discovery Rate. Resequencing of exon 2, exon 3 and intron 2 in 95 individuals did not reveal any SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2241766. No interaction with the Pro12Ala variant in PPAR, was detected. Mutation analysis of APM1 did not identify mutations. In conclusion, we found an association of an APM1 haplotype with obesity and found that APM1 mutations are not a common cause of monogenic obesity in our cohort. [source]


    A Genome-wide Association Study of Autism Reveals a Common Novel Risk Locus at 5p14.1

    ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 3 2009
    Deqiong Ma
    Summary Although autism is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, its underlying genetic architecture has largely eluded description. To comprehensively examine the hypothesis that common variation is important in autism, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a discovery dataset of 438 autistic Caucasian families and the Illumina Human 1M beadchip. 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) demonstrated strong association with autism risk (p-value < 0.0001). The validation of the top 96 SNPs was performed using an independent dataset of 487 Caucasian autism families genotyped on the 550K Illumina BeadChip. A novel region on chromosome 5p14.1 showed significance in both the discovery and validation datasets. Joint analysis of all SNPs in this region identified 8 SNPs having improved p-values (3.24E-04 to 3.40E-06) than in either dataset alone. Our findings demonstrate that in addition to multiple rare variations, part of the complex genetic architecture of autism involves common variation. [source]


    Candidate Gene Association Study for Noise-induced Hearing Loss in Two Independent Noise-exposed Populations

    ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 2 2009
    A. Konings
    Summary Millions of people are daily exposed to high levels of noise. Consequently, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most important occupational health hazards worldwide. In this study, we performed an association study for NIHL based on a candidate gene approach. 644 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 53 candidate genes were analyzed in two independent NIHL sample sets, a Swedish set and part of a Polish set. Eight SNPs with promising results were selected and analysed in the remaining part of the Polish samples. One SNP in PCDH15 (rs7095441), resulted in significant associations in both sample sets while two SNPs in MYH14 (rs667907 and rs588035), resulted in significant associations in the Polish sample set and significant interactions with noise exposure level in the Swedish sample set. Calculation of odds ratios revealed a significant association of rs588035 with NIHL in the Swedish high noise exposure level group. Our studies suggest that PCDH15 and MYH14 may be NIHL susceptibility genes, but further replication in independent sample sets is mandatory. [source]


    Linkage and Association Study of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease Families Linked to 9p21.3

    ANNALS OF HUMAN GENETICS, Issue 6 2008
    S. Züchner
    Summary A chromosomal locus for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has previously been mapped to 9p21.3. The most significant results were reported in a sample of autopsy-confirmed families. Linkage to this locus has been independently confirmed in AD families from a consanguineous Israeli-Arab community. In the present study we analyzed an expanded clinical sample of 674 late-onset AD families, independently ascertained by three different consortia. Sample subsets were stratified by site and autopsy-confirmation. Linkage analysis of a dense array of SNPs across the chromosomal locus revealed the most significant results in the 166 autopsy-confirmed families of the NIMH sample. Peak HLOD scores of 4.95 at D9S741 and 2.81 at the nearby SNP rs2772677 were obtained in a dominant model. The linked region included the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A gene (CDKN2A), which has been suggested as an AD candidate gene. By re-sequencing all exons in the vicinity of CDKN2A in 48 AD cases, we identified and genotyped four novel SNPs, including a non-synonymous, a synonymous, and two variations located in untranslated RNA sequences. Family-based allelic and genotypic association analysis yielded significant results in CDKN2A (rs11515: PDT p = 0.003, genotype-PDT p = 0.014). We conclude that CDKN2A is a promising new candidate gene potentially contributing to AD susceptibility on chromosome 9p. [source]


    Association study between kynurenine 3-monooxygenase gene and schizophrenia in the Japanese population

    GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 4 2006
    N. Aoyama
    Several lines of evidence suggest that metabolic changes in the kynurenic acid (KYNA) pathway are related to the etiology of schizophrenia. The inhibitor of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is known to increase KYNA levels, and the KMO gene is located in the chromosome region associated with schizophrenia, 1q42-q44. Single-marker and haplotype analyses for 6-tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of KMO were performed (cases = 465, controls = 440). Significant association of rs2275163 with schizophrenia was observed by single-marker comparisons (P = 0.032) and haplotype analysis including this SNP (P = 0.0049). Significant association of rs2275163 and haplotype was not replicated using a second, independent set of samples (cases = 480, controls = 448) (P = 0.706 and P = 0.689, respectively). These results suggest that the KMO is unlikely to be related to the development of schizophrenia in Japanese. [source]


    Association study of polymorphisms in SOCS family genes with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOGENETICS, Issue 1 2006
    R. Ni
    Summary Suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins play important roles in the negative regulation of cytokine signal. We first searched for polymorphisms in SOCS-1, SOCS-3 and SOCS-5 genes, and examined the association of the polymorphisms with type 1 diabetes (T1D). As a result, we did not find any significant associations between SOCS genes and T1D. [source]


    Association study of Wegener granulomatosis and the functionally relevant A645G polymorphism in the bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) gene

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IMMUNOGENETICS, Issue 1 2005
    P. Jagiello
    Summary In antineutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) ANCAs are detected. Recent observations suggest that BPI-ANCAs can potentially contribute to a proinflammatory setting in the absence of proteinase 3 (PRTN3) ANCAs during the development of a pulmonary relapse by impeding the elimination of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB). However, it is as yet not clear whether the genetic background contributes to the generation of BPI-ANCAs in Wegener granulomatosis (WG) or if BPI polymorphisms are associated with WG. In this study we genotyped the functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) A645 (Glu216Lys) of the BPI gene in 201 WG patients and 608 healthy controls. To investigate whether further SNPs might be associated with WG, we also examined an intragenic microsatellite marker. No significant differences were found between patients and controls. Thus BPI polymorphisms do not appear to contribute to genetic predisposition to WG. Moreover, our data do not suggest a genetic background for the generation of BPI-ANCAs in WG. [source]


    Association study between two variants in the DOPA decarboxylase gene in bipolar and unipolar affective disorder,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2002
    Esther Jahnes
    Abstract Irregularities of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission have been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), also known as aromatic L -amino acid decarboxylase, is an enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin and indirectly in the synthesis of noradrenaline. Therefore, the DDC gene can be considered as a candidate gene for affective disorders. Recently, two novel variants were reported in the DDC gene: a 1-bp deletion in the promoter and a 4-bp deletion in the untranslated exon 1. Subsequently, an association case,control study including 112 English patients and 80 Danish patients with bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) revealed a significant association with the 1-bp deletion. This finding prompted us to analyze whether this effect was also present in a larger and ethnically homogeneous sample of 228 unrelated German patients with BPAD (208 patients with BP I disorder, 20 patients with BP II disorder), 183 unrelated patients with unipolar affective disorder (UPAD), and 234 healthy control subjects. For both BPAD and UPAD we could not detect a genetic association with either variant. Thus, our results do not support an involvement of the 1-bp or 4-bp deletion within the DDC gene in the etiology of affective disorders. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Association study of a promoter polymorphism of UFD1L gene with schizophrenia

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Issue 6 2001
    Alessandro De Luca
    Abstract Schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders are often found in patients affected by DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial syndrome (DGS/VCFS) as a result of hemizygosity of chromosome 22q11.2. We evaluated the UFD1L gene, mapping within the DGS/VCFS region, as a potential candidate for schizophrenia susceptibility. UFD1L encodes for the ubiquitin fusion degradation 1 protein, which is expressed in the medial telencephalon during mouse development. Using case control, simplex families (trios), and functional studies, we provided evidence for association between schizophrenia and a single nucleotide functional polymorphism, ,277A/G, located within the noncoding region upstream the first exon of the UFD1L gene. The results are supportive of UFD1L involvement in the neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia and contribute in delineating etiological and pathogenetic mechanism of the schizophrenia subtype related to 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Association study between cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and pathogenesis and psychotic symptoms of mood disorders,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2001
    Shih-Jen Tsai MD
    Abstract Cannabis can induce mood change and sometimes psychotic symptoms in normal persons. In brain, the main active ingredient of cannabis acts via the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CNR1) which is located on chromosome 6q14-15. Linkage studies have suggested the presence of a bipolar disorder susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q. In this population based association study, we tested the hypothesis that a microsatellite polymorphism in the promoter region of the CNR1 gene confers susceptibility to mood disorders and psychotic features. We genotyped the CNR1 gene is 154 mood disorder patients and 165 normal controls. The results showed that the triplet repeat polymorphism in the promoter region of the CNR1 gene was not likely to be involved in the pathogenesis or in the psychotic symptoms of mood disorders. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Association Study of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Polymorphisms of its Gene with Ectopic Pregnancy

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Julio Elito Jr
    Citation Elito J Jr, Daher S, Fernandes da Silva MO, Marconi NMH, Pendeloski KPT, Moron AF, Camano L. Association study of vascular endothelial growth factor and polymorphisms of its gene with ectopic pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol 2010; 63: 120,125 Problem, In ectopic pregnancy, increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are present. The aims of this study were to determine the association between ,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms and ectopic pregnancy, and to determine whether serum levels of VEGF were affected by genetic factors. Method of study, This is a case,control study wherein 74 women with a history of ectopic pregnancy in a tertiary care center were compared to 134 post-menopausal controls with two pregnancies and no ectopic pregnancy for the genotyping of VEGF polymorphisms. For 35 patients with the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, serum concentrations of VEGF were obtained before the treatment. Genotyping of VEGF (,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T) polymorphisms was performed by PCR, followed by endonuclease digestion. ELISA was performed to evaluate the VEGF serum levels. Results, The ,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T VEGF polymorphisms were not associated with ectopic pregnancy (P = 0.170, P = 0.285, and P = 0.700, respectively). The serum levels of VEGF were not associated with the genotype of ,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T VEGF polymorphisms (P = 0.702; P = 0.347, and P = 0.256, respectively). Conclusion, There was no association between ectopic pregnancy and ,634C/G, ,460T/C, and +936C/T VEGF polymorphisms. There was no correlation between VEGF genotype and the expression of VEGF in blood samples. [source]


    Association study in a Sardinian sample between bipolar disorder and the nuclear receptor REV-ERB, gene, a critical component of the circadian clock system

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 2 2009
    Giovanni Severino
    Objective:, The aim of our study was to investigate the association between REV-ERB, gene (NR1D1) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder (BP) in a case-control sample of Sardinian ancestry and evaluate its effect on age at onset (AAO) of BP. Methods:, We genotyped SNPs rs12941497 (SNP1) and rs939347 (SNP2), located, respectively, in the first intron and in the 5,UTR region of the gene, in a sample comprised of 300 bipolar patients and 300 healthy controls of Sardinian ancestry. We also studied AAO by means of admixture analysis, obtaining a cutoff point of age 22 and then carrying out association analysis between the two AAO groups. Results:, In the case-control comparison, single marker analysis showed no association for any of the SNPs tested. Haplotype analysis showed a nominally significant association for two haplotypes of SNPs 1-2. Comparing the early- and later-onset groups, nominal association was found for SNP1. Haplotype analysis showed that one haplotype was nominally associated with the later-onset group. Conclusions:, Our results, indicating a nominal association of the REV-ERB, gene with BP, suggest a possible role of REV-ERB, in the pathogenesis of BP. Further investigation of larger independent samples and different populations is warranted. [source]


    Association study of 5,-UTR polymorphisms of the human dopamine transporter gene with manic depression

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 5p1 2006
    Gerald Stöber
    Objectives:, To determine the degree of association of five single nucleotide polymorphisms at the 5,-untranslated region (5,-UTR) of the human dopamine transporter gene (hSLC6A3; hDAT1) in bipolar affective disorder. Methods:, In a case,control design study, the polymorphisms were genotyped for allelic and genotypic distribution between 105 index cases (50 males) with bipolar affective disorder according to DSM IV and 199 unaffected control subjects (120 males). Results:, At the 5,-UTR locus of hSLC6A3, no significant allelic or genotypic differences were observed between index cases and controls. However, distinct 5-locus genotypes accumulated in subjects with bipolar affective disorder compared to control subjects (p = 0.029, odds ratio 1.84, 95% confidence interval 1.12,3.02). Conclusions:, In conclusion, our data do not provide evidence for a major role of the 5,-UTR of the dopamine transporter gene in bipolar affective disorder. A minor contribution of distinct genotypes may be possible and warrants replication in extended samples. [source]


    Association study of 15 novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the T-bet locus among Finnish asthma families

    CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Issue 7 2004
    E. Ylikoski
    Summary Objective T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet) is a transcription factor regulating the commitment of T helper (Th) cells by driving the cells into the Th1 direction. Abnormal Th1/Th2 balance may lead to complex disorders like asthma or autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have suggested that T-bet might be a candidate gene for asthma. This led us to screen 23 Finnish individuals for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the T-bet locus and study the association between the SNPs and high serum IgE level and asthma. Methods We screened all six exons, adjacent intronic areas and 2 kb of the 5,-flanking region from 23 individuals utilizing WAVEÔ technology. To explore whether T-bet is associated in serum IgE regulation or asthma we genotyped the SNPs in a Finnish asthmatic founder population. The association analyses were made using haplotype pattern mining. Results Fifteen novel SNPs were found in the T-bet gene. Within the Finnish asthmatic founder population, there was no association between T-bet SNPs and high serum IgE level or asthma. Conclusions The genetic variability in the T-bet gene does not play a role in the pathogenesis of human asthma. Our results provide a novel panel of SNPs in T-bet and will help determine whether the SNPs have a functional role in other T cell-mediated diseases. [source]


    The serotonin transporter 5-HTTPR polymorphism is associated with current and lifetime depression in persons with chronic psychotic disorders

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 2 2009
    J. Contreras
    Objective:, Variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter region has been shown to influence depression in persons who have been exposed to a number of stressful life events. Method:, We evaluated whether genetic variation in 5-HTTLPR, influences current depression, lifetime history of depression and quantitative measures of depression in persons with chronic psychotic disorders. This is an association study of a genetic variant with quantitative and categorical definitions of depression conducted in the southwest US, Mexico and Costa Rica. We analyzed 260 subjects with a history of psychosis, from a sample of 129 families. Results:, We found that persons carrying at least one short allele had a statistically significant increased lifetime risk for depressive syndromes (P < 0.02, odds ratio 2.18, 95% CI 1.10,4.20). Conclusion:, The ,ss' or ,sl' genotype at the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphic locus increases the risk of psychotic individuals to develop major depression during the course of their illness. [source]


    Association of aldose reductase gene Z+2 polymorphism with reduced susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Caucasian Type 1 diabetic patients

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2004
    M. Lajer
    Abstract Aims The Z,2 allele of the (AC)n polymorphism in the aldose reductase gene (ALR2) confers increased risk of microvascular diabetic complications, whereas the Z+2 allele has been proposed to be a marker of protection. However data are conflicting. Therefore, we investigated whether this polymorphism is associated with diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus in a large case,control study and a family-based analysis. Methods A total of 431 Type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and 468 patients with longstanding Type 1 diabetes and persistent normoalbuminuria were genotyped for the case,control study. In addition, 102 case trios and 98 control trios were genotyped for a family-based study. Results Thirteen different alleles were identified. In the case,control study, the Z+2 allele frequency was significantly higher in the normoalbuminuric diabetic than in patients with diabetic nephropathy (0.17 vs. 0.11, P = 0.008), suggesting a protective function of the Z+2 allele. No significant increase in the frequency of the putative risk allele Z,2 was found in patients with diabetic nephropathy vs. controls (0.39 vs. 0.36). No association with diabetic retinopathy was found. Although the results of the transmission of the Z,2 and Z+2 alleles in the independent family-based study were consistent with the association study, the number of informative families was limited and thus differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions The Z+2 allele of the ALR2 promoter polymorphism is associated with a reduced susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Danish Type 1 diabetic patients, suggesting a minor role for the polyol pathway in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. No association of the ALR2 polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy was found. [source]


    Dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) VNTR polymorphism in major psychiatric disorders: family-based association study in the Bulgarian population

    ACTA PSYCHIATRICA SCANDINAVICA, Issue 5 2002
    L. Georgieva
    Objective:,A 40-bp variable number tandem repeat in the 3,-UTR of dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) has been examined for association with major psychiatric disorders in several case,control studies. No significant results have been found. We used a new collection of parent,offspring trios to test for association with schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar 1 disorder (BPI) and schizoaffective (SA) disorder. Method:,We genotyped trios from Bulgarian origin where the proband had SZ (178 trios), BPI (77 trios) and SA (29 trios). Alleles ranging from 5 to 11 repeats were observed. The results were analysed with the extended TDT (ETDT). Results:,No preferential transmission of alleles was observed for any diagnostic group. The presence of allele DAT*10 was associated with the severity and frequency of auditory hallucinations, however, this result is not significant if corrected for multiple testing. Conclusion:,Our results are in agreement with previous reports of a lack of association between this polymorphism and major psychiatric disorders. [source]


    Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha 5 (CHRNA5) with smoking status and with ,pleasurable buzz' during early experimentation with smoking

    ADDICTION, Issue 9 2008
    Richard Sherva
    ABSTRACT Aims To extend the previously identified association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5 (CHRNA5) and nicotine dependence to current smoking and initial smoking-experience phenotypes. Design, setting, participants Case,control association study with a community-based sample, comprising 363 Caucasians and 72 African Americans (203 cases, 232 controls). Measurements Cases had smoked , five cigarettes/day for , 5 years and had smoked at their current rate for the past 6 months. Controls had smoked between one and 100 cigarettes in their life-time, but never regularly. Participants also rated, retrospectively, pleasurable and displeasurable sensations experienced when they first smoked. We tested for associations between smoking phenotypes and the top 25 SNPs tested for association with nicotine dependence in a previous study. Findings A non-synonymous coding SNP in CHRNA5, rs16969968, was associated with case status [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, P = 0.01] and, in Caucasians, with experiencing a pleasurable rush or buzz during the first cigarette (OR = 1.6, P = 0.01); these sensations were associated highly with current smoking (OR = 8.2, P = 0.0001). Conclusions We replicated the observation that the minor allele of rs16969968 affects smoking behavior, and extended these findings to sensitivity to smoking effects upon experimentation. While the ability to test genetic associations was limited by sample size, the polymorphism in the CHRNA5 subunit was shown to be associated significantly with enhanced pleasurable responses to initial cigarettes in regular smokers in an a priori test. The findings suggest that phenotypes related to subjective experiences upon smoking experimentation may mediate the development of nicotine dependence. [source]


    Interleukin-10 is associated with resistance to febrile seizures: Genetic association and experimental animal studies

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2009
    Yoshito Ishizaki
    Summary Purpose:, Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common form of childhood convulsions. Many reports have shown that a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1) ,, may have a facilitatory effect on the development of FS. We have previously shown that the IL1B -511C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with simple FS of sporadic occurrence. The balance between pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines influences the regulation of infections and could, therefore, play a role in the pathogenesis of FS. Here, to determine whether pro- and antiinflammatory cytokine genes are responsible for the susceptibility to FS, we have performed an association study on functional SNPs of cytokine genes in FS patients and controls. Methods:, The promoter SNPs of four inflammatory cytokine genes (IL6 -572C/G, IL8 -251A/T, IL10 -592A/C and TNFA -1037C/T) were examined in 249 patients with FS (186 simple and 63 complex FS) and 225 controls. Because the IL10 -592 SNP showed a positive association with FS, two additional SNPs (IL10 -1082A/G and -819T/C) were subjected to haplotype analysis. Furthermore, we examined the in vivo role of IL-10 in hyperthermia-induced seizures using immature animal models. Results:, The frequencies of the IL10 -592C allele and -1082A/-819C/-592C haplotype were significantly decreased in FS as compared with in controls (p = 0.014 and 0.013, respectively). The seizure threshold temperature in the IL-10,administered rats was significantly higher than that in the saline-treated control ones (p = 0.027). Conclusions:, The present study suggests that IL-10 is genetically associated with FS and, contrary to IL-1,, confers resistance to FS. [source]


    STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies (STREGA) , an extension of the STROBE statement

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION, Issue 4 2009
    Julian Little
    Abstract Making sense of rapidly evolving evidence on genetic associations is crucial to making genuine advances in human genomics and the eventual integration of this information in the practice of medicine and public health. Assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of this evidence, and hence the ability to synthesize it, has been limited by inadequate reporting of results. The STrengthening the REporting of Genetic Association studies (STREGA) initiative builds on the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement and provides additions to 12 of the 22 items on the STROBE checklist. The additions concern population stratification, genotyping errors, modelling haplotype variation, Hardy,Weinberg equilibrium, replication, selection of participants, rationale for choice of genes and variants, treatment effects in studying quantitative traits, statistical methods, relatedness, reporting of descriptive and outcome data and the volume of data issues that are important to consider in genetic association studies. The STREGA recommendations do not prescribe or dictate how a genetic association study should be designed, but seek to enhance the transparency of its reporting, regardless of choices made during design, conduct or analysis. [source]


    Genes causing clefting syndromes as candidates for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate: a family-based association study

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORAL SCIENCES, Issue 6 2008
    Luca Scapoli
    Clefts of the orofacial region are among the most common congenital defects, caused by abnormal facial development during gestation. Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is a complex trait most probably caused by multiple interacting loci, with possible additional environmental factors. As facial clefts form part of more than 300 syndromes, one strategy for identifying the genetic causes of NSCLP could be to study candidate genes responsible for clefting syndromes. Three genes were selected for this investigation: TP63, which codes for the tumour protein p63 and causes Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal dysplasia-orofacial Cleft syndrome; JAG2, a downstream gene of TP63; and MID1, which is responsible for Opitz syndrome. A linkage disequilibrium investigation was performed with intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms on each of these genes in a sample study of 239 patients/parents trios. Evidence which suggests that JAG2 and MID1 may play a role in NSCLP was obtained. [source]


    SPR1 gene near HLA-C is unlikely to be a psoriasis susceptibility gene

    EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    Y. T. Chang
    Abstract:, Although genetics analyses have identified the HLA-Cw6 allele to be the major risk allele for psoriasis vulgaris (PV) in many racial groups, it has been proposed that other putative genes near the HLA-C locus are involved in PV susceptibility and that the association of Cw6 is a result of linkage disequilibrium. The SPR1 gene, a predicted gene located 128 kb telomeric to the HLA-C locus, is considered to be one potential candidate gene of PV. Until now, no association study of the SPR1 gene has been conducted on psoriasis patients. We investigated the SPR1 gene for disease association by direct sequencing of the SPR1 gene in 116 Chinese patients with PV and 116 normal subjects. Genotyping for HLA-Cw6 was also carried out using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. Significant increase of the HLA-Cw6 allele was found in psoriasis patients (32.8% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.001). We found that the SPR1 gene is a highly polymorphic gene containing 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), two of which have not been previously reported, and four SNPs cause amino acid change. No significantly different allelic distribution of 13 SPR1 SNPs could be found between the patients with PV and controls after correction for multiple testing. If the frequencies of SPR1 SNPs were compared between the early onset psoriatics and control subjects, early onset patients were more likely to have G allele at position 988 (60% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.001). However, the significance disappeared upon stratification for the Cw6 status. Haplotype-based association analysis showed two susceptibility haplotypes (types 8 and 19) in early onset psoriasis patients. Nonetheless, the significance also disappeared after stratification of the Cw6 status. Our results suggest that HLA-Cw6 remains the major risk allele in Chinese psoriatics, and that the SPR1 gene might not play an important role in the causation of PV. [source]


    An international multicenter association study of the serotonin transporter gene in persistent ADHD

    GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2010
    E. T. Landaas
    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder affecting children and adults. It has been suggested that gene variants related to serotonin neurotransmission are associated with ADHD. We tested the functional promoter polymorphism 5-HTTLPR and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in SLC6A4 for association with ADHD in 448 adult ADHD patients and 580 controls from Norway. Replication attempts were performed in a sample of 1454 Caucasian adult ADHD patients and 1302 controls from Germany, Spain, the Netherlands and USA, and a meta-analysis was performed also including a previously published adult ADHD study. We found an association between ADHD and rs140700 [odds ratio (OR ) = 0.67; P = 0.01] and the short (S) allele of the 5-HTTLPR (OR = 1.19; P = 0.06) in the Norwegian sample. Analysis of a possible gender effect suggested that the association might be restricted to females (rs140700: OR = 0.45; P = 0.00084). However, the meta-analysis of 1894 cases and 1878 controls could not confirm the association for rs140700 [OR = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.67,1.09; P = 0.20]. For 5-HTTLPR, five of six samples showed a slight overrepresentation of the S allele in patients, but meta-analysis refuted a strong effect (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00,1.21; P = 0.06). Neither marker showed any evidence of differential effects for ADHD subtype, gender or symptoms of depression/anxiety. In conclusion, our results do not support a major role for SLC6A4 common variants in persistent ADHD, although a modest effect of the 5-HTTLPR and a role for rare variants cannot be excluded. [source]


    Association between genetic variants of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) and cognitive set shifting in healthy individuals

    GENES, BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR, Issue 5 2010
    B. T. Baune
    Set-shifting and maintenance are complex cognitive processes, which are often impaired in schizophrenia. The genetic basis of these processes is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the association between genetic variants of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (GRM3) and cognitive set-shifting in healthy individuals. The relationship between 14 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GRM3 gene and cognitive set-shifting as measured by perseverative errors using the modified card sorting test (MCST) was analysed in a sample of N = 98 young healthy individuals (mean age in years: 22.7 ± 0.19). Results show that SNP rs17676277 is related to the performance on the MCST. Subjects with the TT genotype showed significantly less perseverative errors as compared with the AA (P = 0.025) and AT (P = 0.0005) and combined AA/AT genotypes (P = 0.0005). Haplotype analyses suggest the involvement of various SNPs of the GRM3 gene in perseverative error processing in a dominant model of inheritance. The findings strongly suggest that the genetic variation (rs17676277 and three haplotypes) in the metabotropic GRM3 is related to cognitive set-shifting in healthy individuals independent of working memory. However, because of a relatively small sample size for a genetic association study, the present results are tentative and require replication. [source]