Association Analysis (association + analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Association Analysis

  • genetic association analysis
  • genome-wide association analysis
  • haplotype association analysis

  • Selected Abstracts

    Association Analyses of Genetic Polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, NQO1, NAT2, LPL, PRSS1, PSTI, and CFTR With Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis in Japan

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2010
    Katsuya Maruyama
    Background:, Excessive consumption of alcohol is involved in the onset of pancreatitis. However, most of heavy drinkers do not always develop chronic pancreatitis. Various genetic factors appear to be involved in these individual differences in onset of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Here we investigated a possible association of alcoholic pancreatitis with polymorphisms of the various genes belong to the phase II detoxification enzymes responsible for metabolism of the oxidative compounds, and the several genes that have relevance to inherited pancreatitis. Methods:, The subjects consisted of 53 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, 54 alcoholic patients without pancreatic dysfunction, and 42 healthy individuals. DNA was extracted from the peripheral nucleated blood cells of all subjects and genetic mutations and subtypes were analyzed by the PCR and RFLP methods. We examined the correlation between chronic alcoholic pancreatitis and variants of the phase II detoxification enzymes such as Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1), NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and N-acetyl transferase (NAT2). In addition, genes of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (PSTI), and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were also analyzed. Results:, Frequencies of the gene deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in addition to the C-allele frequency of NQO1 tended to be higher in the alcoholic patients with (AlCP) or without pancreatic dysfunction (Alc) than in the healthy controls although the difference was not significant. The NAT2 gene showed no relation with Alc and AlCP patients. PSTI, LPL, PRSS1, and CFTR genes presented no association with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Conclusions:, All genes analyzed in the present study lacked association with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. However, the gene deletion of GSTM1 and GSTT1, and the C-allele of NQO1 cannot be ruled out for association with alcoholism. [source]

    Genetic Diversity and Association Analysis for Salinity Tolerance, Heading Date and Plant Height of Barley Germplasm Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Lilia Eleuch
    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of barley accessions. Additionally, association trait analysis was conducted for grain yield under salinity, heading date and plant height. For this purpose, 48 barley genotypes were analyzed with 22 microsatellite simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Four of the 22 markers (Bmac316, scssr03907, HVM67 and Bmag770) were able to differentiate all barley genotypes. Cluster and principal coordinate analysis allowed a clear grouping between countries from the same region. The genotypes used in this study have been evaluated for agronomic performance in different environments. Conducting association analysis for grain yield under salinity conditions using TASSEL software revealed a close association of the marker Bmag749 (2H, bin 13) in two different environments with common significant alleles (175, 177), whereas the HVHOTR1 marker (2H, bin 3) was only significant in Sakhar_Egypt with alleles size being 158 and 161. Heading date also showed an association with scssr03907 through the common significant specific allele 111 and EBmac0415 markers in three different agro climatic locations, whereas HVCMA, scssr00103 and HVM67 were linked to heading date in the Egyptian environment only. The plant height association analysis revealed significant markers Bmag770 via the significant allele 152 and scssr09398. [source]

    Joint Identification of Multiple Genetic Variants via Elastic-Net Variable Selection in a Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    Seoae Cho
    Summary Unraveling the genetic background of common complex traits is a major goal in modern genetics. In recent years, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been conducted with large-scale data sets of genetic variants. Most of those studies have relied on single-marker approaches that identify single genetic factors individually and can be limited in considering fully the joint effects of multiple genetic factors on complex traits. Joint identification of multiple genetic factors would be more powerful and would provide better prediction on complex traits since it utilizes combined information across variants. Here we propose a multi-stage approach for GWA analysis: (1) prescreening, (2) joint identification of putative SNPs based on elastic-net variable selection, and (3) empirical replication using bootstrap samples. Our approach enables an efficient joint search for genetic associations in GWA analysis. The suggested empirical replication method can be beneficial in GWA studies because one can avoid a costly, independent replication study while eliminating false-positive associations and focusing on a smaller number of replicable variants. We applied the proposed approach to a GWA analysis, and jointly identified 129 genetic variants having an association with adult height in a Korean population. [source]

    Gene-Trait Similarity Regression for Multimarker-Based Association Analysis

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 3 2009
    Jung-Ying Tzeng
    Summary We propose a similarity-based regression method to detect associations between traits and multimarker genotypes. The model regresses similarity in traits for pairs of "unrelated" individuals on their haplotype similarities, and detects the significance by a score test for which the limiting distribution is derived. The proposed method allows for covariates, uses phase-independent similarity measures to bypass the needs to impute phase information, and is applicable to traits of general types (e.g., quantitative and qualitative traits). We also show that the gene-trait similarity regression is closely connected with random effects haplotype analysis, although commonly they are considered as separate modeling tools. This connection unites the classic haplotype sharing methods with the variance-component approaches, which enables direct derivation of analytical properties of the sharing statistics even when the similarity regression model becomes analytically challenging. [source]

    Nonparametric Association Analysis of Exchangeable Clustered Competing Risks Data

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2009
    Yu Cheng
    Summary The work is motivated by the Cache County Study of Aging, a population-based study in Utah, in which sibship associations in dementia onset are of interest. Complications arise because only a fraction of the population ever develops dementia, with the majority dying without dementia. The application of standard dependence analyses for independently right-censored data may not be appropriate with such multivariate competing risks data, where death may violate the independent censoring assumption. Nonparametric estimators of the bivariate cumulative hazard function and the bivariate cumulative incidence function are adapted from the simple nonexchangeable bivariate setup to exchangeable clustered data, as needed with the large sibships in the Cache County Study. Time-dependent association measures are evaluated using these estimators. Large sample inferences are studied rigorously using empirical process techniques. The practical utility of the methodology is demonstrated with realistic samples both via simulations and via an application to the Cache County Study, where dementia onset clustering among siblings varies strongly by age. [source]

    Conditional Likelihood Methods for Haplotype-Based Association Analysis Using Matched Case,Control Data

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2007
    Jinbo Chen
    Summary Genetic epidemiologists routinely assess disease susceptibility in relation to haplotypes, that is, combinations of alleles on a single chromosome. We study statistical methods for inferring haplotype-related disease risk using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data from matched case,control studies, where controls are individually matched to cases on some selected factors. Assuming a logistic regression model for haplotype-disease association, we propose two conditional likelihood approaches that address the issue that haplotypes cannot be inferred with certainty from SNP genotype data (phase ambiguity). One approach is based on the likelihood of disease status conditioned on the total number of cases, genotypes, and other covariates within each matching stratum, and the other is based on the joint likelihood of disease status and genotypes conditioned only on the total number of cases and other covariates. The joint-likelihood approach is generally more efficient, particularly for assessing haplotype-environment interactions. Simulation studies demonstrated that the first approach was more robust to model assumptions on the diplotype distribution conditioned on environmental risk variables and matching factors in the control population. We applied the two methods to analyze a matched case,control study of prostate cancer. [source]

    Selection of the most informative individuals from families with multiple siblings for association studies

    Chunyu Liu
    Abstract Association analyses may follow an initial linkage analysis for mapping and identifying genes underlying complex quantitative traits and may be conducted on unrelated subsets of individuals where only one member of a family is included. We evaluate two methods to select one sibling per sibship when multiple siblings are available: (1) one sibling with the most extreme trait value; and (2) one sibling using a combination score statistic based on extreme trait values and identity-by-descent sharing information. We compare the type I error and power. Furthermore, we compare these selection strategies with a strategy that randomly selects one sibling per sibship and with an approach that includes all siblings, using both simulation study and an application to fasting blood glucose in the Framingham Heart Study. When genetic effect is homogeneous, we find that using the combination score can increase power by 30,40% compared to a random selection strategy, and loses only 8,13% of power compared to the full sibship analysis, across all additive models considered, but offers at least 50% genotyping cost saving. In the presence of genetic heterogeneity, the score offers a 50% increase in power over a random selection strategy, but there is substantial loss compared to the full sibship analysis. In application to fasting blood sample, two SNPs are found in common for the selection strategies and the full sample among the 10 highest ranked single nucleotide polymorphisms. The EV strategy tends to agree with the IBD-EV strategy and the analysis of the full sample. Genet. Epidemiol. 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A non-synonymous mutation in a conserved site of the MTTP gene is strongly associated with protein activity and fatty acid profile in pigs

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 6 2009
    J. Estellé
    Summary Despite the economic interest of the fatty acid profile in pigs, no gene has been convincingly associated with this trait so far. Here, the porcine microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) gene, which plays a crucial role in the assembly of nascent lipoproteins, has been analysed as a positional candidate gene for a QTL affecting the fatty acid composition that was previously identified on chromosome 8 in an Iberian by Landrace F2 cross. By resequencing a panel of different breeds, a non-synonymous polymorphism in a conserved residue of the lipid transfer domain of MTTP was identified. Association analyses with this polymorphism showed a strong association with the fatty acid composition of porcine fat, much stronger than the QTL effect, in the F2 cross and in a synthetic Sino-European line. In addition, in vitro activity assays in liver protein extracts have shown that this mutation is also associated with the lipid transfer activity of the MTTP protein (P < 0.1). These results suggest that the detected polymorphism is a potential causal factor of the fatty acid composition QTL. There appears to be an interaction between the porcine MTTP genotype and the type of fat source in the pig diet, which would agree with the previous results on the biology of MTTP biology. [source]

    Association analyses of a SNP in the promoter of IGF1 with fat deposition and carcass merit traits in hybrid, Angus and Charolais beef cattle

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2009
    K. K. Islam
    Summary A SNP in the promoter region of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF1) (c.,512C>T) was analysed for associations with 10 fat deposition and carcass merit traits in hybrid (n = 455), Angus (n = 204) and Charolais (n = 186) beef cattle populations. Significant associations of the SNP were found for ultrasound backfat thickness (P = 0.030), carcass average backfat (P = 0.015) and carcass lean meat yield (LMY) (P = 0.023) in the Angus beef population, with the ,CC' genotype showing higher fat depth and lower LMY than the ,TT' genotype. Analyses of transcription factor binding sites based on transcription element search system prediction revealed that the ,C' allele introduces a binding site for nuclear factor I, which has an adipose tissue-specific regulatory role and thus may contribute to the SNP effect on fat deposition in the population of pure Angus cattle, a breed with greater fat depth than the hybrid and Charolais breeds. [source]

    Genes located on a SSC17 meat quality QTL region are associated with growth in outbred pig populations

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2009
    A. M. Ramos
    Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of markers developed in eight genes, located in a previously detected meat quality QTL region on SSC17, on growth, fat and meat quality traits collected in commercial pig populations of different genetic backgrounds. The genes had been previously mapped to SSC17 as part of a fine-mapping effort. Association analyses were conducted between each marker and the available phenotypic traits. Results showed that three genes (CTSZ, CSTF1 and C20orf43) were significantly associated with the growth traits. In addition, CTSZ also impacted on meat colour, with the less favourable genotype for growth being associated with darker meat. The differences observed between genotypes were substantial and may be of economic importance to pig producers. These markers may be useful for selecting for faster growth or improved meat quality. [source]

    The porcine fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is associated with fat deposition in Italian Duroc pigs

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 1 2009
    L. Fontanesi
    Summary In humans, common variants in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are associated with body mass index and obesity. Here we sequenced exon 4, parts of introns 3 and 4 and two portions of the 3,-untranslated region of the porcine FTO gene in a panel of nine pigs of different breeds and identified three SNPs. Allele frequencies of the g.276T>G (AM931150) mutation were studied in seven pig breeds. This mutation was used to linkage-map FTO to SSC6. Association analyses between the g.276T>G polymorphism and several traits [pH of semimembranosus muscle and estimated breeding values (EBV) for average daily gain, back fat thickness, lean cuts, ham weight and feed:gain ratio] were carried out in 257 sib-tested Italian Large White pigs. Only feed:gain ratio showed P < 0.05. A selective genotyping approach was applied, analysing two extreme and divergent groups of Italian Large White pigs selected on the basis of back fat thickness EBV (50 with most positive and 50 with most negative values). Fisher's exact test (two-tailed) was not significant when comparing the allele frequencies of these two groups. The same approach was used in the Italian Duroc breed for which two extreme and divergent groups of animals were selected according to visible intermuscular fat EBV. Differences of allele frequencies between these two groups were highly significant (P < 0.00001, P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, considering all animals or only two- or three-generation unrelated animals respectively), indicating association between the analysed FTO marker and intermuscular fat deposition. [source]

    Association of the IL2RA/CD25 gene with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 1 2009
    Anne Hinks
    Objective IL2RA/CD25, the gene for interleukin-2 receptor ,, is emerging as a general susceptibility gene for autoimmune diseases because of its role in the development and function of regulatory T cells and the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within this gene with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), Graves' disease, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to determine whether SNPs within the IL2RA/CD25 gene are associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods Three SNPs within the IL2RA/CD25 gene, that previously showed evidence of an association with either RA, MS, or type 1 DM, were selected for genotyping in UK JIA cases (n = 654) and controls (n = 3,849). Data for 1 SNP (rs2104286) were also available from North American JIA cases (n = 747) and controls (n = 1,161). Association analyses were performed using Plink software. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Results SNP rs2104286 within the IL2RA/CD25 gene was significantly associated with UK JIA cases (OR for the allele 0.76 [95% CI 0.66,0.88], P for trend = 0.0002). A second SNP (rs41295061) also showed modest evidence for association with JIA (OR 0.80 [95% CI 0.63,1.0], P = 0.05). Association with rs2104286 was convincingly replicated in the North American JIA cohort (OR 0.84 [95% CI 0.65,0.99], P for trend = 0.05). Meta-analysis of the 2 cohorts yielded highly significant evidence of association with JIA (OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.62,0.88], P = 4.9 × 10,5). Conclusion These results provide strong evidence that the IL2RA/CD25 gene represents a JIA susceptibility locus. Further investigation of the gene using both genetic and functional approaches is now required. [source]

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promoter polymorphisms and the clinical expression of scleroderma

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 11 2006
    Sou-Pan Wu
    Objective To investigate the potential association between functional polymorphisms in the gene for the innate mediator, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and the clinical expression of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Genomic DNA samples and clinical data were collected from the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. A total of 740 subjects were studied; 203 of them had diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc), 283 had limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc), and the remaining 254 healthy subjects served as controls. Association analyses were performed on the whole data set and on patient and sex subsets. Significant relationships were determined between clinical variables and MIF polymorphisms for each disease subtype in the studied groups. Results The frequency of the ,173*C MIF allele, which was previously reported to be associated with high production of MIF, was lower in the lcSSc group (12.6%) than in the dcSSc (19.2%) or control (18.5%) groups (P = 0.010 and P = 0.011, respectively). Haplotype analysis for 2 closely linked polymorphisms in the MIF promoter showed that in white subjects with lcSSc or dcSSc, the lcSSc population had a significantly lower representation of the high-expression MIF haplotype defined by ,173*C and ,794 with 7 CATT repeats (C7) (P = 0.015, odds ratio 1.94 [95% confidence interval 1.14,3.32]). Fibroblasts encoding the C7 MIF haplotype were observed to produce more MIF upon in vitro stimulation than those with a non-C7 haplotype. Conclusion Functional promoter polymorphisms in the MIF gene affect the clinical presentation of SSc. The proinflammatory haplotype defined by C7 is underrepresented in patients with lcSSc. [source]

    Sequence variants of the secreted phosphoprotein 1 gene are associated with total serum immunoglobulin E levels in a Japanese population

    Y. Tanino
    Summary Background Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is a cytokine with pleiotrophic immunological activities, including activation of macrophage chemotaxis and T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses. SPP1 gene polymorphisms have been shown to be associated with several immune inflammatory diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), which is characterized by fewer allergic symptoms and lower numbers of allergen sensitizations. Objective The present study examined whether SPP1 gene polymorphisms are associated with total serum IgE levels, atopy and asthma in a Japanese population. Methods This case,control association analysis examined 611 subjects, including 268 subjects with asthma. We genotyped three promoter and two exon polymorphisms at SPP1: ,1687A/G; ,381T/C; ,94 deletion/G; 5891C/T; and 7052T/C. Results Association analyses of SPP1 polymorphisms showed that homozygosities for the 5891T allele (P=0.009) and 7052C allele (P=0.001) were significantly associated with increased levels of total IgE in non-asthmatic subjects. However, these variants were not associated with asthma and atopy. Interestingly, individuals carrying the 5891C allele, which is more prevalent in patients with MS in Japanese populations, displayed significantly lower levels of total serum IgE. Individuals homozygous for the 7052C allele, which is associated with development of systemic lupus erythematosus, displayed significantly higher total serum IgE levels. Conclusion These findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in SPP1 may play a role in controlling basal levels of total serum IgE, independent of atopy. [source]

    Association analysis of genes in the renin-angiotensin system with subclinical cardiovascular disease in families with Type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Diabetes Heart Study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2006
    K. P. Burdon
    Abstract Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major complication of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and nitric oxide production are both important regulators of vascular function and blood pressure. Genes encoding proteins involved in these pathways are candidates for a contribution to CVD in diabetic patients. We have investigated variants of the angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) genes for association with subclinical measures of CVD in families with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods Atherosclerosis was measured by carotid intima-media thickness and calcification of the carotid and coronary arteries in 620 European Americans and 117 African Americans in the Diabetes Heart Study. Because of the role of these systems in blood pressure regulation, blood pressure was also investigated. Results Compelling evidence of association was not detected with any of the SNPs with any outcome measures after adjustments for covariates despite sufficient power to detect relatively small differences in traits for specific genotype combinations. Conclusions Genetic variation of the RAS and NOS3 genes do not appear to strongly influence subclinical cardiovascular disease or blood pressure in this diabetic population. [source]

    Genome-wide association studies using haplotype clustering with a new haplotype similarity

    Lina Jin
    Abstract Association analysis, with the aim of investigating genetic variations, is designed to detect genetic associations with observable traits, which has played an increasing part in understanding the genetic basis of diseases. Among these methods, haplotype-based association studies are believed to possess prominent advantages, especially for the rare diseases in case-control studies. However, when modeling these haplotypes, they are subjected to statistical problems caused by rare haplotypes. Fortunately, haplotype clustering offers an appealing solution. In this research, we have developed a new befitting haplotype similarity for "affinity propagation" clustering algorithm, which can account for the rare haplotypes primely, so as to control for the issue on degrees of freedom. The new similarity can incorporate haplotype structure information, which is believed to enhance the power and provide high resolution for identifying associations between genetic variants and disease. Our simulation studies show that the proposed approach offers merits in detecting disease-marker associations in comparison with the cladistic haplotype clustering method CLADHC. We also illustrate an application of our method to cystic fibrosis, which shows quite accurate estimates during fine mapping. Genet. Epidemiol. 34: 633,641, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Association analysis of polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 receptor (alpha) gene with atopic asthma in patients from western Mexico

    K. I. Mújica-López
    Summary We undertook an association analysis between the ile50val, glu375ala, cys406arg, and ser761pro polymorphisms of the IL-4R, gene and atopic asthma, total IgE levels and IL-4 serum levels in a population from western Mexico. We found that the ser761pro polymorphism was monomorphic for ser761, while there was no association between any of the other polymorphisms and the three phenotypes analysed. [source]

    Association analysis of fibre traits in Gossypium arboreum accessions

    PLANT BREEDING, Issue 2 2008
    S. K. Kantartzi
    Abstract Advances in the use of diploid Asiatic species in cotton breeding require an understanding of the relatedness and ancestry of diploid cotton accessions, and identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with agronomically important phenotypic traits, for example, fibre quality. Fifty-six Gossypium arboreum germplasm accessions introduced from nine regions of Africa, Asia and Europe were evaluated for eight fibre characters (lint percentage, lint colour, elongation, micronaire, strength, 50% span length, 2.5% span length and maturity%) and genotyped with 98 SSR markers. When viewed across all accessions most of the SSR markers were polymorphic. Population structure analysis identified six main clusters for the accessions which corresponded to different geographic regions, indicating agreement between genetic and predefined populations. The general linear model method was used to disclose marker,trait associations. Marker,trait associations were investigated by fitting single marker regression models for phenotypic traits on marker band intensities with correction for population structure. This paper illustrates the potential of association mapping in diploid cotton, because existing phenotypic data, a modest number of SSR markers, and a pioneering statistical analysis, identified interesting associations. [source]

    Validation of whole genome linkage-linkage disequilibrium and association results, and identification of markers to predict genetic merit for twinning

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2010
    C. D. Bierman
    Summary A previous genome-wide search with a moderate density 10K marker set identified many marker associations with twinning rate, either through single-marker analysis or combined linkage-linkage disequilibrium (LLD; haplotype) analysis. The objective of the current study was to validate putative marker associations using an independent set of phenotypic data. Holstein bulls (n = 921) from 100 paternal half-sib families were genotyped. Twinning rate predicted transmitting abilities were calculated using calving records from 1994 to 1998 (Data I) and 1999 to 2006 (Data II), and the underlying liability scores from threshold model analysis were used as the trait in marker association analyses. The previous analysis used 201 bulls with daughter records in Data I. In the current analysis, this was increased to 434, providing a revised estimate of effect and significance. Bulls with daughter records in Data II totaled 851, and analysis of this data provided the validation of results from analysis of Data I. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to validate previously significant single-marker associations and LLD results. Bulls were genotyped for a total of 306 markers. Nine of 13 LLD regions located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 22, 23(2) and 26 were validated, showing significant results for both Data I and II. Association analysis revealed 55 of 174 markers validated, equating to a single-marker validation rate of 31%. Stepwise backward elimination and cross-validation analyses identified 18 SNPs for use in a final reduced marker panel explaining 34% of the genetic variation, and to allow prediction of genetic merit for twinning rate. [source]

    Genetic variation in the ,, ,-carotene-9,, 10,-dioxygenase gene and association with fat colour in bovine adipose tissue and milk

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2010
    R. Tian
    Summary ,, ,-carotene-9,, 10,-dioxygenase (BCO2) plays a role in cleaving ,-carotene eccentrically, and may be involved in the control of adipose and milk colour in cattle. The bovine BCO2 gene was sequenced as a potential candidate gene for a beef fat colour QTL on chromosome (BTA) 15. A single nucleotide base change located in exon 3 causes the substitution of a stop codon (encoded by the A allele) for tryptophan80 (encoded by the G allele) (c. 240G>A, p.Trp80stop, referred to herein as SNP W80X). Association analysis showed significant differences in subcutaneous fat colour and beta-carotene concentration amongst cattle with different BCO2 genotypes. Animals with the BCO2 AA genotype had more yellow beef fat and a higher beta-carotene concentration in adipose tissues than those with the GA or GG genotype. QTL mapping analysis with the BCO2 SNP W80X fitted as a fixed effect confirmed that this SNP is likely to represent the quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) for the fat colour-related traits on BTA 15. Moreover, animals with the AA genotype had yellower milk colour and a higher concentration of beta-carotene in the milk. [source]

    Association analysis of a CCR5 variant with ewe lifetime production in three breeds of sheep

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 2 2010
    M. R. Mousel
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Association analysis between canine behavioural traits and genetic polymorphisms in the Shiba Inu breed

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 5 2009
    Y. Takeuchi
    Summary The relationships between behavioural trait data and the genotype of 15 polymorphisms in eight neurotransmitter-related genes were analysed in 77 dogs of the Shiba Inu breed, an indigenous Japanese dog. The data were obtained from a 26-item questionnaire on the dog's behaviour, distributed to the dog's owners, through veterinary hospitals and the Shiba Inu breed magazine. A factor analysis of the questionnaire items extracted eight factors accounting for 66.8% of the variance. An association analysis between these factors and genetic polymorphisms indicated that the polymorphism of c.471T>C in the solute carrier family 1 (neuronal/epithelial high-affinity glutamate transporter) member 2 (SLC1A2) gene was significantly associated with Factor 1, referred to as ,aggression to strangers'. This association remained stable in separate analyses of data from surveys obtained from the hospitals and those obtained from the magazine. The results suggest that the c.471T>C polymorphism is associated with some types of aggressive behaviour in the Shiba Inu. Further studies using other dog breeds are necessary to extend these findings to dogs in general. [source]

    Porcine skeletal muscle differentially expressed gene CMYA1: isolation, characterization, mapping, expression and association analysis with carcass traits

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 3 2009
    X. L. Xu
    Summary To investigate the differences in gene expression between some obese and lean pig breeds, differential display of mRNA was employed in our previous research. One differentially expressed EST (BI596262) was further identified as the porcine cardiomyopathy associated 1 (CMYA1) gene because of its homology to the human CMYA1 gene. The full-length DNA of the porcine CMYA1 gene encompasses 9379 bp, including a complete open reading frame encoding 1839 amino acid residues, a 158-bp 5,-untranslated region and a 630-bp 3,-untranslated region. The porcine CMYA1 gene was assigned to chromosome 13 by the radiation hybrid panel (IMpRH). The porcine CMYA1 gene was expressed only in the striated muscle. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) scanning in the coding region identified one synonymous mutation (c.1053C>T) and three missense mutations, c.1394A>G (p.His465Arg), c.1751A>G (p.Asp582Gly) and c.3290C>A (p.Thr1097Asp). The allele frequencies were tested among about 200 unrelated pigs from several pig breeds. Linkage mapping was further conducted with the SNP c.1751A>G (p.Asp582Gly) in a Berkshire × Yorkshire resource family and this confirmed that porcine CMYA1 is closely linked with Sw344 (distance = 2 cM, LOD score is 129.47), an interesting region harbouring a QTL for back fat thickness. Association analysis in our experimental pig population showed that different genotypes of CMYA1 gene were associated with different back fat thicknesses (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the porcine CMYA1 gene has effects on porcine back fat deposition and further investigation will be necessary to illustrate the underlying mechanisms. [source]

    The g.243A>G mutation in intron 17 of MUC4 is significantly associated with susceptibility/resistance to ETEC F4ab/ac infection in pigs

    ANIMAL GENETICS, Issue 4 2007
    Q.-L. Peng
    Summary Using a porcine radiation hybrid panel, we assigned the mucin 4 (MUC4) gene to SSC13q41, which harbours the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4ab/ac receptor locus. In addition, we identified two SNPs in intron 17 of MUC4 (DQ124298:g.243A>G and DQ124298:g.334A>G) in the parental population of a White Duroc × Erhualian cross. Association analysis showed that the MUC4 g.243A>G mutation was strongly associated with ETEC F4ab/ac, and especially with F4ac adhesion phenotypes in the White Duroc × Erhualian resource population, indicating that this polymorphism was in a significant linkage disequlibrium with the ETEC F4ab/ac receptor locus. Because of different linkage disequlibrium values between the ETEC F4ab and F4ac adhesion phenotypes and the MUC4 g.243A>G mutation, we argue that the inheritance of F4ab and F4ac receptors might be under the control of two closely linked loci. [source]

    Association analysis of MAPT H1 haplotype and subhaplotypes in Parkinson's disease

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    Cyrus P. Zabetian MD
    Objective An inversion polymorphism of approximately 900kb on chromosome 17q21, which includes the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene defines two haplotype clades, H1 and H2. Several small case,control studies have observed a marginally significant excess of the H1/H1 diplotype among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and one reported refining the association to a region spanning exons 1 to 4 of MAPT. We sought to replicate these findings. Methods We genotyped 1,762 PD patients and 2,010 control subjects for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that differentiates the H1 and H2 clades. We also analyzed four SNPs that define subhaplotypes within H1 previously reported to associate with PD or other neurodegenerative disorders. Results After adjusting for age, sex, and site, we observed a robust association between the H1/H1 diplotype and PD risk (odds ratio for H1/H1 vs H1/H2 and H2/H2, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.25,1.69; p = 8 × 10,7). The effect was evident in both familial and sporadic subgroups, men and women, and early- and late-onset disease. Within H1/H1 individuals, there was no significant difference between cases and control subjects in the overall frequency distribution of H1 subhaplotypes. Interpretation Our data provide strong evidence that the H1 clade, which contains MAPT and several other genes, is a risk factor for PD. However, attributing this finding to variants within a specific region of MAPT is premature. Thorough fine-mapping of the H1 clade in large numbers of individuals is now needed to identify the underlying functional variant(s) that alter susceptibility for PD. Ann Neurol 2007 [source]

    The D4Mit12 locus on mouse chromosome 4 provides susceptibility to both ,-ray-induced and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced thymic lymphomas

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2003
    Hiroki Sato
    Low-penetrance genes control different susceptibilities to ,-ray-induced thymic lymphomas in mouse strains. Our previous genetic analyses with backcross mice between BALB/c and MSM strains and congenic lines localized one such gene near the D4Mit12 locus on chromosome 4. N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) is a guanine base-alkylating agent and differs from ,-radiation in its mechanism of mutagenic action. Accordingly, in this study, we examined whether or not the locus also provides susceptibility to MNU-induced thymic lymphomas using 84 offsprings derived from congenic mice for D4Mit12. Association analysis provided a suggestive linkage at D4Mit12 (P=0.0075) and the linkage was sustained by the peak of likelihood ratio statistical values being at the same position as that for the ,-ray-induced lymphomas. The results strongly suggest that the BALB/c allele near D4Mit12 is associated with susceptibility to lymphomas induced by two carcinogenic agents having different mechanisms of mutagenic action. [source]

    Further evidence for an association between the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A, subunit 4 genes on chromosome 4 and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2009
    Arpana Agrawal
    ABSTRACT Aims A previous association analysis identified polymorphisms in gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A, subunit 4 (GABRA4) and GABRA2 to be associated with nicotine dependence, as assessed by a score of 4 or more on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). In the present report, we extend the previous study by expanding our genotyping efforts significantly for these two genes. Design In 1049 cases (FTND of 4 or more) and 872 controls (smokers with FTND of 0) from the United States and Australia, we examine the association between 23 GABRA4 and 39 GABRA2 recently genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and nicotine dependence using logistic regression-based association analyses using the genomic analysis package PLINK. Results Two and 18 additional SNPs in GABRA4 and GABRA2, respectively, were associated with nicotine dependence. The SNPs identified in GABRA4 (P -value = 0.002) were restricted to introns 1 and 2, exon 1 and the 5, end of the gene, while those in GABRA2 localized to the 3, end of the gene and spanned introns 9,3, and were in moderate to high linkage disequilibrium (as measured by r2) with each other and with previously studied polymorphisms. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate consistently the role of GABRA4 and GABRA2 in nicotine dependence. However, further research is needed to identify the biological influence of these intronic variations and to isolate functionally relevant polymorphisms neighboring them. [source]

    GENETIC STUDY: FULL ARTICLE: Incorporating age at onset of smoking into genetic models for nicotine dependence: evidence for interaction with multiple genes

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Richard A. Grucza
    ABSTRACT Nicotine dependence is moderately heritable, but identified genetic associations explain only modest portions of this heritability. We analyzed 3369 SNPs from 349 candidate genes and investigated whether incorporation of SNP-by-environment interaction into association analyses might bolster gene discovery efforts and prediction of nicotine dependence. Specifically, we incorporated the interaction between allele count and age at onset of regular smoking (AOS) into association analyses of nicotine dependence. Subjects were from the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence and included 797 cases ascertained for Fagerström nicotine dependence and 811 non-nicotine-dependent smokers as controls, all of European descent. Compared with main effect models, SNP × AOS interaction models resulted in higher numbers of nominally significant tests, increased predictive utility at individual SNPs and higher predictive utility in a multi-locus model. Some SNPs previously documented in main effect analyses exhibited improved fits in the joint analysis, including rs16969968 from CHRNA5 and rs2314379 from MAP3K4. CHRNA5 exhibited larger effects in later-onset smokers, in contrast with a previous report that suggested the opposite interaction (Weiss et al. 2008). However, a number of SNPs that did not emerge in main effect analyses were among the strongest findings in the interaction analyses. These include SNPs located in GRIN2B (P = 1.5 × 10,5), which encodes a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel, a key molecule in mediating age-dependent synaptic plasticity. Incorporation of logically chosen interaction parameters, such as AOS, into genetic models of substance use disorders may increase the degree of explained phenotypic variation and constitutes a promising avenue for gene discovery. [source]

    Association evidence of schizophrenia with distal genomic region of NOTCH4 in Taiwanese families

    C.-M. Liu
    Evidence for association with schizophrenia has been reported for NOTCH4, although results have been inconsistent. Previous studies have focused on polymorphisms in the 5, promoter region and first exon of NOTCH4. Our aim was to test the association of the entire genomic region of NOTCH4 in 218 families with at least two siblings affected by schizophrenia in Taiwan. We genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of this gene, with average intermarker distances of 5.3 kb. Intermarker linkage disequilibrium (LD) was calculated using gold software, and single-locus and haplotype association analyses were performed using transmit software. We found that the T allele of SNP rs2071285 (P= 0.035) and the G allele of SNP rs204993 (P= 0.0097) were significantly preferentially transmitted to the affected individuals in the single-locus association analysis. The two SNPs were in high LD (D, > 0.8). Trend for overtransmission was shown for the T-G haplotype of the two SNPs to affected individuals (P= 0.053), with the A-A haplotype significantly undertransmitted (P= 0.034). The associated region distributed across the distal portion of the NOTCH4 gene and overlapped with the genomic region of the G-protein signaling modulator 3 and pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 2. In summary, we found modest association evidence between schizophrenia and the distal genomic region of NOTCH4 in this Taiwanese family sample. Further replication for association with the distal genomic region of NOTCH4 is warranted. [source]

    Using evidence for population stratification bias in combined individual- and family-level genetic association analyses of quantitative traits

    Lucia Mirea
    Abstract Genetic association studies are generally performed either by examining differences in the genotype distribution between individuals or by testing for preferential allele transmission within families. In the absence of population stratification bias (PSB), integrated analyses of individual and family data can increase power to identify susceptibility loci [Abecasis et al., 2000. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66:279,292; Chen and Lin, 2008. Genet. Epidemiol. 32:520,527; Epstein et al., 2005. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 76:592,608]. In existing methods, the presence of PSB is initially assessed by comparing results from between-individual and within-family analyses, and then combined analyses are performed only if no significant PSB is detected. However, this strategy requires specification of an arbitrary testing level ,PSB, typically 5%, to declare PSB significance. As a novel alternative, we propose to directly use the PSB evidence in weights that combine results from between-individual and within-family analyses. The weighted approach generalizes previous methods by using a continuous weighting function that depends only on the observed P -value instead of a binary weight that depends on ,PSB. Using simulations, we demonstrate that for quantitative trait analysis, the weighted approach provides a good compromise between type I error control and power to detect association in studies with few genotyped markers and limited information regarding population structure. Genet. Epidemiol. 34: 502,511, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]