Primitive Mantle (primitive + mantle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Melt,wall rock interaction in the mantle shown by silicate melt inclusions in peridotite xenoliths from the central Pannonian Basin (western Hungary)

ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2009
Csaba Szabó
Abstract In this paper we present a detailed textural and geochemical study of two equigranular textured amphibole-bearing spinel lherzolite xenoliths from Szigliget, Bakony,Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (BBHVF, western Hungary) containing abundant primary silicate melt inclusions (SMIs) in clinopyroxene rims and secondary SMIs in orthopyroxene (and rarely spinel) along healed fractures. The SMIs are dominantly composed of silicate glass and CO2 -rich bubbles. Clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene are zoned in both studied xenoliths, especially with respect to Fe, Mg, Na, and Al contents. Cores of clinopyroxenes in both xenoliths show trace element distribution close to primitive mantle. Rims of clinopyroxenes are enriched in Th, U, light rare earth elements (LREEs) and medium REEs (MREEs). Amphiboles in the Szg08 xenolith exhibit elevated Rb, Ba, Nb, Ta, LREE, and MREE contents. The composition of silicate glass in the SMIs covers a wide range from the basaltic trachyandesite and andesite to phonolitic compositions. The glasses are particularly rich in P2O5. Both primary and secondary SMIs are strongly enriched in incompatible trace elements (mostly U, Th, La, Zr) and display a slight negative Hf anomaly. The development of zoned pyroxenes, as well as the entrapment of primary SMIs in the clinopyroxene rims, happened after partial melting and subsequent crystallization of clinopyroxenes, most probably due to an interaction between hot volatile-bearing evolved melt and mantle wall-rocks. This silicate melt filled microfractures in orthopyroxenes (and rarely spinels) resulting in secondary SMIs. [source]

The formation of foliated (garnet-bearing) granites in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt: partial melting of subducted continental crust during exhumation

Abstract Foliated (garnet-bearing) (FGB) granites are associated closely with and are usually the major wall rocks of the high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in the Tongbai-Dabie region, the mid segment of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in central China. These granites appear either as small plutons or as veins, which commonly intrude into or surround the HP and UHP metamorphic eclogites or gneisses. The veins of FGB granites usually penetrate into the retrograded eclogites or gneisses along the foliations. Condensation rims can occasionally be found along the margins of granite veins. These granites are rich in Si and alkali with high Ga/Al ratios, and depleted in Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Sc, V, Ni, Co, Cr and Sr, which are similar to A-type granites. In a chondrite normalized diagram, the samples are light rare earth elements enriched with different extent of negative Eu anomaly. Moreover, Rb, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti show different degrees of negative anomalies, whereas Ba, K, La, Zr and Hf show positive anomalies in the primitive mantle normalized diagram. Negative anomalies of Eu and Sr indicate strong influence of plagioclase. In conventional discrimination diagrams, these FGB granites belong to the A-type granite, with geochemical characteristics affinitive to post-collisional granites. The ,Nd (230 Ma) values (,15.80 to ,2.52) and TDM values (1.02,2.07 Ga) suggest that magma for the FGB granites were derived from a heterogeneous crustal source. Therefore, the FGB granites may provide clues for deciphering the formation of post-collisional granites. It is proposed that the magma of the FGB granites both in the HP and UHP units was formed in an extensional tectonic setting slightly post-dating the HP and UHP metamorphism, most likely as a result of decompressional partial melting of UHP retrograded eclogites during exhumation. [source]

Niobium and tantalum in carbonaceous chondrites: Constraints on the solar system and primitive mantle niobium/tantalum, zirconium/niobium, and niobium/uranium ratio

K. p. Jochum
The abundance of Ta was determined in the same meteorites by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). Precision of the MIC-SSMS and RNAA techniques is ,3% and , 5%, respectively. The new abundances for CI chondrites are: Nb = 0.247, Ta = 0.0142, Zr = 3.86, Y = 1.56 ,g/g; or 0.699, 0.0202, 11.2, and 4.64 atoms/106 Si atoms, respectively. The values agree with earlier compilations, but they are a factor of 2 more precise than earlier analyses. Trace element concentrations in the CM, CV, and CK chondrites are higher than in the CI chondrite Orgueil by about 37, 86, and 120%, respectively, in agreement with the variable absolute contents of refractory lithophile elements in different groups of carbonaceous chondrites. Of particular interest are the chondritic Nb/Ta, Zr/Nb, and Nb/U ratios, because these ratios are important tools for interpreting the chemical evolution of planetary bodies. We obtained Nb/Ta = 17.4 ± 0.5 for the carbonaceous chondrites and the Juvinas-type eucrites investigated. Though this value is similar to previous estimates, it is much more precise. The same is true for Zr/Nb (15.5 ± 0.2) and Zr/Y (2.32 ± 0.12). In combination with recently published MIC-SSMS U data for carbonaceous chondrites, we obtained a chondritic Nb/U ratio of 29 ± 2. Because Nb, Ta, Zr, Y, and U are refractory lithophile elements and presumably partitioned into the silicate phase of the Earth during core formation, the elemental ratios may also be used to constrain evolution of the Earth's primitive mantle and, with the more precise determinations fractionation of Nb and Ta during magmatic processes and mantle-crust interactions, can now be interpreted with greater confidence. [source]

Guandishan Granitoids of the Paleoproterozoic Lüliang Metamorphic Complex in the Trans-North China Orogen: SHRIMP Zircon Ages, Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications

Shuwen LIU
Abstract: The Paleoproterozoic Lüliang Metamorphic Complex (PLMC) is situated in the middle segment of the western margin of the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO), North China Craton (NCC). As the most important lithological assemblages in the southern part of the PLMC, Guandishan granitoids consist of early gneissic tonalities, granodiorites and gneissic monzogranites, and younger gneissic to massive monzogranites. Petrochemical features reveal that the early gneissic tonalities and granodiorites belong to the medium-K calc-alkaline series; the early gneissic monzogranites are transitional from high-K calc-alkaline to the shoshonite series; the younger gneissic to massive monzogranites belong to the high-k calc-alkaline series, and all rocks are characterized by right-declined REE patterns and negative Nb, Ta, Sr, P, and Ti anomalies in the primitive mantle normalized spidergrams. SHRIMP zircon U,Pb isotopic dating reveals that the early gneissic tonalities and granodiorites formed at ,2.17 Ga, the early gneissic monzogranites at ,2.06 Ga, and the younger gneissic to massive monzogranites at ,1.84 Ga. Sm,Nd isotopic data show that the early gneissic tonalities and granodiorites have ,Nd(t) values of +0.48 to ,3.19 with Nd-depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of 2.76,2.47 Ga, and early gneissic monzogranites have ,Nd(t) values of ,0.53 to ,2.51 with TDM of 2.61,2.43 Ga, and the younger gneissic monzogranites have ,Nd(t) values of ,6.41 to ,2.78 with a TDM of 2.69,2.52 Ga. These geochemical and isotopic data indicate that the early gneissic tonalities, granodiorites, and monzogranites were derived from the partial melting of metamorphosed basaltic and pelitic rocks, respectively, in a continental arc setting. The younger gneissic to massive monzogranites were derived by partial melting of metamorphosed greywackes within the continental crust. Combined with previously regional data, we suggest that the Paleoproterozoic granitoid magmatism in the Guandishan granitoids of the PLMC may provide the best geological signature for the complete spectrum of Paleoproterozoic geodynamic processes in the Trans-North China Orogen from oceanic subduction, through collisional orogenesis, to post-orogenic extension and uplift. [source]

Chronology and Geochemistry of Mesozoic Volcanic Rocks in the Linjiang Area, Jilin Province and their Tectonic Implications

Yang YU
Abstract: Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemical analytical results are presented for the volcanic rocks of the Naozhigou, Ergulazi, and Sidaogou Formations in the Linjiang area, southeastern Jilin Province to constrain the nature of magma source and their tectonic settings. The Naozhigou Formation is composed mainly of andesite and rhyolite and its weighted mean 206Pb/238U age for 13 zircon grains is 222±1 Ma. The Ergulazi Formation consists of basaltic andesite, basaltic trachyandesite, and andesite, and six grains give a weighted mean 206Pb/Z38U age of 131±4 Ma. The Sidaogou Formation consists mainly of trachyandesite and rhyolite, and six zircon grains yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 113±4 Ma. The volcanic rocks have SiO2= 60.24%,77.46%, MgO = 0.36%,1.29% (Mg#= 0.32,0.40) for the Naozhigou Formation, SiO2= 51.60%,59.32%, MgO = 3.70%,5.54% (Mg#= 0.50,0.60) for the Ergulazi Formation, and SiO2= 58.28%,76.32%, MgO = 0.07%,1.20% (Mg#= 0.14,0.46) for the Sidaogou Formation. The trace element analytical results indicate that these volcanic rocks are characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), relative depletion in heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and high field strength elements (HFSEs, Nb, Ta, and Ti), and negative Eu anomalies. Compared with the primitive mantle, the Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the Linjiang area have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7053,0.7083) and low ,Nd(t) values (,8.38 to ,2.43), and display an EMU trend. The late Triassic magma for the Naozhigou Formation could be derived from partial melting of a newly accretional crust with the minor involvement of the North China Craton basement and formed under an extensional environment after the collision of the Yangtze Craton and the North China Craton. The Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks for the Ergulazi and Sidaogou Formations could be formed under the tectonic setting of an active continental margin related to the westward subduction of the Izanagi plate. [source]