Prisoners

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Prisoners

  • adult male prisoner
  • female prisoner
  • french prisoner
  • male prisoner

  • Terms modified by Prisoners

  • prisoner dilemma
  • prisoner dilemma game

  • Selected Abstracts


    WHAT CRIME RATES TELL US ABOUT WHERE TO FOCUS PROGRAMS AND SERVICES FOR PRISONERS

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 3 2007
    SUSAN TURNER
    First page of article [source]


    IMPROVING ACCESS TO OPIATE ADDICTION TREATMENT FOR PRISONERS

    ADDICTION, Issue 7 2010
    AMY NUNN
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    GOD's PRISONERS: PENAL CONFINEMENT AND THE CREATION OF PURGATORY

    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 1 2006
    ANDREW SKOTNICKI
    This essay explores two events that occurred in the thirteenth century: the decree normalizing the prison as the fundamental disciplinary apparatus in the first universal system of law (canon law) and the formal recognition by the Catholic Church of the existence of Purgatory. It will be suggested that this simultaneity was far from coincidental. The penal colony known as Purgatory reflected in nearly exact detail the contours of the earthly prison. Implications for modern theology will then be discussed. [source]


    RESEARCH ON PRISONERS , A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE IOM COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS (2006) AND EUROPEAN REGULATIONS

    BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2010
    BERNICE S. ELGER
    ABSTRACT The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Ethical Considerations for Revisions to DHHS Regulations for Protection of Prisoners Involved in Research published its report in 2006. It was charged with developing an ethical framework for the conduct of research with prisoners and identifying the safeguards and conditions necessary to ensure that research with prisoners is conducted ethically. The recommendations contained in the IOM report differ from current European regulations in several ways, some being more restrictive and some less so. For example, the IOM report suggests limiting the percentage of prisoners that should be involved in a biomedical study to 50%, a limit that does not exist in Europe. However, the report does not specifically advise against research without a direct benefit to an individual prisoner: the European regulations are more restrictive than the IOM committee recommendations in this respect. The definition of minimal risk varies, as well as the proposed role of the minimal risk requirement and of the principle of subsidiarity (research that can only be done effectively in prisons). The IOM report proposes a number of thoughtful suggestions, which it would be beneficial to implement everywhere, such as registers of research on prisoners. The European regulations offer pragmatic solutions to several thorny issues. In summary, the IOM committee report represents an admirable effort to tackle the present inconsistencies and deficiencies of federal regulations in the US on research on prisoners (45 CFR 46 Subpart C). Nonetheless, before acting on the recommendations, US regulators might consider revisiting international guidelines such as those published by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Science (CIOMS) and the Declaration of Helsinki. [source]


    Depression, hopelessness and suicide ideation among vulnerable prisoners

    CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR AND MENTAL HEALTH, Issue 3 2005
    Emma J. Palmer PhD
    Background Self-harm among prisoners is high, and suicide rates increasing. Assessment of depressive characteristics is easy. To what extent are these linked with previous self-harm? Aims To compare depressive characteristics of prisoners who report previous self-harm with those who do not. Methods Twenty-four new arrivals at an adult male category B local prison who reported previous episodes of suicidal behaviour (including self-harm and/or explicit attempted suicide) were assessed using the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. A further 24 new arrivals were matched as closely as possible with them on sociodemographic and offending characteristics. Results Mean scores on the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation were significantly higher among the prisoners with a history of self-harm. Discussion Prisoners with a previous history of self-harm are more likely than those without to show a range of depressive symptoms than their imprisoned peers without such a history, suggesting a continued vulnerability to self-harm and perhaps suicide. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Persistence of drug use during imprisonment: relationship of drug type, recency of use and severity of dependence to use of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine in prison

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2006
    John Strang
    ABSTRACT Aim To investigate the persistence of use of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine drugs during imprisonment, and to identify factors associated with increased levels of persistence. Design The use of heroin, cocaine and amphetamine by current prison inmates has been examined and, in particular, the relationship between drug use within prison and the type of drug used prior to imprisonment, recency of use and severity of dependence., Setting and participants A randomly selected sample of 1009 adult male prisoners in 13 prisons in England and Wales during 1994/95; structured confidential interviews conducted by independent research staff. Enquiry about prior use of heroin, cocaine or amphetamine focused on three time-periods (ever, last year and last month pre-prison) and the use of these drugs during the first month of imprisonment. Findings A total of 557 (55%) of the 1009 prisoners had used previously one of the three drugs selected for study: 58% had used heroin, 69% cocaine and 75% amphetamine. More than half (59%; 327/557) had used these drugs in the month before the current imprisonment. Drug use in prisons was most likely to occur among those who had used in the month prior to imprisonment. The persistence of heroin use in prison occurred more frequently (70%) than use of cocaine (20%) or amphetamine (15%). Of those using heroin pre-imprisonment, 67% considered they were dependent, compared to 15% and 22%, respectively, for cocaine and amphetamine users. Conclusions Changes in the drug-taking behaviour of drug users after imprisonment vary according to the type of drug being taken. Prisoners were much more likely to continue to use heroin than either cocaine or amphetamines while in prison. Heroin was most likely to be used by those who had been using heroin during the immediate pre-imprisonment period, and particularly by the two-thirds of heroin users who considered themselves dependent. In view of the high prevalence of prior use of these drugs by individuals currently imprisoned, continuing attention is required to study of their behaviour and of the impact of interventions that may be introduced during or following their incarceration. [source]


    Napoleon's Lost Legions: French Prisoners of War in Britain, 1803,1814

    HISTORY, Issue 295 2004
    GAVIN DALY
    During the Napoleonic Wars, over 100,000 French prisoners of war were held captive in Britain. These prisoners remain a marginal group in the military history of the period, yet they represent a key turning point in the history of European prisoners of war, and their predicament offers insights into the nature of the French Revolution. This article considers the treatment and experiences of French prisoners, and in particular seeks to understand the circumstances surrounding their long-term captivity. Unlike eighteenth-century prisoners of war, prisoners of the Napoleonic Wars remained captive for the duration of the conflict, unable to return home through the traditional means of prisoner exchange or officer parole. This radical departure from the past gave rise to the modern practice of interning prisoners of war for the entire duration of a war. This historic shift was, on the one level, a result of the actions of one man , Napoleon Bonaparte. Yet, as this article highlights, it must also be understood as part of the long-term social and cultural legacy of the French Revolution. [source]


    Users' views of prison health services: a qualitative study

    JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, Issue 3 2007
    Louise Condon
    Abstract Title. Users' views of prison health services: a qualitative study. Aim., This paper is a report of a study of the views of prisoners about health services provided in prisons. Background., Prison provides an opportunity for a ,hard to reach' group to access health services, primarily those provided by nurses. Prisoners typically have high health and social needs, but the views and experiences of prisoners about health services in prison have not been widely researched. Method., Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 111 prisoners in purposively selected 12 prisons in England in 2005. Interviews covered both prisoners' views of health services and their own ways of caring for their health in prison. Interviews were analysed to develop a conceptual framework and identify dominant themes. Findings., Prisoners considered health services part of a personal prison journey, which began at imprisonment and ended on release. For those who did not access health services outside prison, imprisonment improved access to both mental and physical health services. Prisoners identified accessing services, including those provided by nurses, confidentiality, being seen as a ,legitimate' patient and living with a chronic condition as problems within the prison healthcare system. At all points along the prison healthcare journey, the prison regime could conflict with optimal health care. Conclusion., Lack of autonomy is a major obstacle to ensuring that prisoners' health needs are fully met. Their views should be considered when planning, organizing and delivering prison health services. Further research is needed to examine how nurses can ensure a smooth journey through health care for prisoners. [source]


    Persistence of Traumatic Memories in World War II Prisoners of War

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 12 2009
    (See editorial comments by Dr. Jules Rosen, 2347), on pp 234
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the long-term effects of the prisoner of war (POW) experience on U.S. World War II (WWII) veterans. DESIGN: Exploratory study. SETTING: Participants were recruited through the Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital; a POW reunion in Orlando, Florida; and the WWII veterans periodical, "The QUAN." PARTICIPANTS: One hundred fifty-seven American military veterans who were former WWII POWs. MEASURMENTS: Participants completed a mailed survey describing their POW experiences, POW effects on subsequent psychological and physical well-being, and ways in which these experiences shaped major decisions in their lives. RESULTS: Participants from the European and Pacific theaters reported that their captivity during WWII affected their long-term emotional well-being. Both groups reported high rates of reflection, dreaming, and flashbacks pertaining to their POW experiences, but Pacific theater POWs did so at higher rates in the present than in the past. Large portions of both groups reported greater rumination on POW experiences after retirement. Finally, 16.6% of participants met the requirements of a current, clinical diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the Mississippi PTSD scale, with PTSD rates in Pacific theater POWs (34%) three times those of European theater POWs (12%). CONCLUSION: Traumatic memories and clinical levels of PTSD persist for WWII POWs as long as 65 years after their captivity. Additionally, rumination about these experiences, including flashbacks and persistent nightmares, may increase after retirement, particularly for those held in the Pacific theater. These findings inform the current therapeutic needs of this elderly population and future generations of POWs from other military conflicts. [source]


    The relationship between social problem-solving and bullying behaviour among male and female adult prisoners

    AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Issue 4 2001
    *Article first published online: 18 JUL 200, Jane L. Ireland
    Abstract The association between social problem solving and bullying behaviour among adult male and female prisoners is presented. A total of 210 male and 196 female prisoners were categorised into four groups: pure bullies, pure victims, bully/victims, and those not involved in bullying or victimisation. Prisoners completed a questionnaire that presented them with different bullying scenarios and were asked to suggest ways of dealing with each. Female bully/victims produced significantly more solutions in response to theft-related bullying than male bully/victims. There were no further significant group or gender differences in the number of solutions generated. The bully group favoured aggressive responses for all scenarios. Males reported more aggressive responses than females. The results are discussed with reference to the environment in which the social problem solving is taking place and highlights the importance of distinguishing between the different groups involved in bullying. Aggr. Behav. 27:297,312, 2001. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Prisons and the tuberculosis epidemic in Russia

    JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2003
    A. J. Mercer
    A resurgence of tuberculosis (TB) occurred in Russia in the 1990s, in a period of general health crisis following the break-up of the Soviet Union. Inter-related increases in poverty, unemployment and unhealthy lifestyle probably contributed to increased incidence and mortality from TB among the civilian population. The number of prisoners increased dramatically in the 1990s and many come from socially marginalized groups at high risk of TB. There is a high prevalence of TB in prisons in Russia, with inadequate TB control measures, overcrowding and poor nutrition contributing to the problem. Many prisoners are released before completion of treatment, often into a social milieu that fosters transmission of TB. Prisoners and ex-prisoners account for a very high proportion of TB cases in Russia and without adequate treatment for them the epidemic is unlikely to be brought under control. 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    The development and evaluation of a telepsychiatry service for prisoners

    JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 4 2004
    S. LEONARD bsc rn (mm) dip ndip b&fdip ptsdcounselling
    The introduction of increasingly sophisticated telecommunication systems seems to offer opportunities to respond to some of the key problems around structural and spatial inequalities in access to health care. There is evidence which suggests that serious mental health problems are common among prisoners and psychiatric comorbidity is the norm. Many prisoners have complex mental health needs, but more often than not these remain unaddressed. Telepsychiatry is one strategy to improve the accessibility and quality of mental health care in the prison setting. This paper firstly reviews the current prison health care system and then describes a research study which is focused on the development and evaluation of a telepsychiatry service for prisoners. This study has investigated what is lost or gained in a psychiatric assessment when it is conducted via telepsychiatry. The researcher compared the inter-rater reliability between two raters interviewing 80 participants in an observer/interviewer split configuration in telepsychiatry and same room settings. The measure used was the Comprehensive Psychopathology Rating Scale. Prisoners and prison staff also took part in semi-structured interviews which focused on their satisfaction and acceptability of the telepsychiatry service. A cost comparison of the telepsychiatry service with the existing visiting service was conducted. This paper outlines the study design and focuses on the potential impact that telepsychiatry may have upon the practice setting. [source]


    Dual Diagnosis: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship With Suicide Risk in a Nationwide Sample of French Prisoners

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
    Michael Lukasiewicz
    Background:, Axis I psychiatric disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are common in prison, but only few studies have focused on their association in this setting. Dual diagnosis (DD) (the co-occurrence of a SUD and any axis I disorder) is known to have a poorer prognosis and to require more intense supportive care. Objectives:, The objectives of this study were (1) to describe prisoners with DD (prevalence and characteristics); (2) to compare DD prisoners with 3 other groups of prisoners: no diagnosis (ND), SUD alone, or other isolated PD; and (3) to evaluate the impact of DD on suicide risk in prison. Method:, A random stratified strategy was used to select 23 various types of prisons and 998 prisoners. Diagnoses were assessed using a unique procedure, each prisoner being evaluated by 2 psychiatrists, 1 junior, using a structured interview (MINI 5 plus), and 1 senior, using an open clinical interview. Following interviews, clinicians met to establish a list of diagnoses. Cloninger's temperament and character inventory was also used. Results:, Of the prisoners, 26.3% had a DD. DD prevalence was almost 80% in prisoners with SUD, while only one-third of the prisoners with an axis I PD had co-morbid SUD. No significant differences were observed in drug use patterns between DD and SUD without co-morbid PDs. DD showed the strongest association with suicide risk [OR = 5.7 (1.7,4.6)]. Conclusion:, DD is very frequent in prison and is a major risk factor for suicide. Systematic psychiatric/SUD screening of prisoners with either a SUD or an axis I PD should be encouraged. [source]


    HIV Testing for Prisoners Based on Risk Factors May Underestimate Prevalence of Infection

    PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, Issue 3 2009
    Article first published online: 3 SEP 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Attachment Style Classification and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Former Prisoners of War

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 3 2001
    Michael Dieperink M.D., Ph.D.
    Adult attachment style and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology were investigated in 107 former prisoner of war veterans. Those with secure attachment styles scored significantly lower on measures of PTSD than did those with insecure styles, and attachment style was a stronger predictor of PTSD symptom intensity than was trauma severity. The suggested association between attachment style and PTSD's development and persistence are discussed in relation to research and clinical practice. [source]


    Does Overcrowding in Prisons Exacerbate the Risk of Suicide among Women Prisoners?

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 2 2010
    LAUREN SHARKEY
    Abstract: This article reveals the main contributory factors to suicide among female prisoners and shows that overcrowding is a factor exacerbating the risk of suicide. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten female prisoners in one closed prison in 2007. They focused on incidents of self-harm and attempted suicide revealing the negative impact of the prison experience and, in particular, the effect of overcrowding. There are few studies looking at the link between overcrowding and suicide. This study highlights the need to explore this link especially at a time when overcrowding and suicide in prisons are high. [source]


    Plugging the Prisoner Finance Gap: A Critical Analysis of Financial Support for Newly-Released Prisoners

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 1 2010
    YVETTE HARTFREE Senior Research Associate
    Abstract: The prison discharge grant is intended to meet prisoners' immediate needs on release and assist with living costs prior to their receiving their first benefit payment. It has been widely criticised for providing inadequate financial support, leaving prisoners with a gap in their finances on release. This article discusses the extent to which recent policy developments have been effective in closing this gap. The analysis is based on data from a longitudinal qualitative study of 40 prisoners who were tracked over a six-month period following their release from prison. This research shows that despite new policy initiatives the prisoner finance gap remains. [source]


    Does the NOMS Risk Assessment Bubble Need to Burst for Prisoners Who May be Innocent to Make Progress?

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 4 2009
    MICHAEL NAUGHTON
    Abstract: This article considers, critically, a new course for prison and probation staff who work with indeterminate sentenced prisoners (ISPs) that has been devised by the National Offender Management Service (NOMS), which allows, for the first time, the possibility that some prisoners maintaining innocence may be innocent. However, whilst on its face this looks like a significant step, a closer analysis shows that the rationale and operations of the NOMS system of risk assessment for prisoners maintaining innocence remains trapped in a bubble which deters meaningful assistance to prisoners who may be innocent. As such, prisoners maintaining innocence continue to be faced with the ,parole deal', a situation whereby they claim that they must choose to admit their guilt for crimes that they say that they did not commit in order to make progress through the prison system and obtain their release. [source]


    Prisoners as Citizens in a Democracy

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 2 2008
    DEBORAH CHENEY
    A number of approaches are adopted by governments of the Council of Europe and the UK is one of 13 member states which operate a blanket ban on prisoners voting. Following a European Court of Human Rights judgment in 2006, the UK is now obliged to review this policy which has been held to breach an individual's right to contribute to free elections. The options open to the UK are to retain prisoner disenfranchisement or enfranchise certain serving prisoners based on criteria such as sentence length and offence seriousness. [source]


    Suffering, Faith and Penitence Amongst British Prisoners 1835 to 1860: The Application of a Theology

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 1 2001
    Bill Forsythe
    This article discusses suffering amongst some British prisoners prior to and post their imprisonment between 1835 and 1860. Those who revealed their suffering to officials tended to disclose this in the context of the evangelical Christian prison mission which was a dominant motif of prison discipline at this time. Clear themes of suffering emerged from their self disclosures, which prisoners themselves set in the context of a spiritual struggle which they experienced as highly problematic. [source]


    Does Community Service Rehabilitate better than Short-term Imprisonment?: Results of a Controlled Experiment

    THE HOWARD JOURNAL OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Issue 1 2000
    Martin Killias
    Community service, along with other new sanctions, has been recommended in many Western countries as an alternative to incarceration over many years. Despite a rich literature on evaluations of so-called alternative sanctions, random assignment has only exceptionally been used in this field, and (short-term) imprisonment has never been an option in such designs. The present study tried to assess the comparative effects of community service and prison sentences of up to 14 days, through a controlled experiment in Switzerland in which 123 convicts have been randomly assigned. The results show no difference with respect to later employment history and social and private life circumstances. However, re-arrest by the police was more frequent among those randomly assigned to prison than among those selected for community service. Prisoners also developed more unfavourable attitudes towards their sentence and the criminal justice system. [source]


    Currents in Contemporary Ethics: Discerning Minimal risk in Research Involving Prisoners as Human Subjects

    THE JOURNAL OF LAW, MEDICINE & ETHICS, Issue 3 2004
    T. Howard StoneArticle first published online: 24 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Prisoners of freedom: human rights and the African poor

    THE JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE, Issue 3 2009
    Natalie Djohari
    [source]


    Determinants of Recidivism in Paroled Queensland Prisoners: A Comparative Analysis of Custodial and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    AUSTRALIAN ECONOMIC PAPERS, Issue 3 2000
    Andrew Worthington
    A multinomial ordered probit model is used to predict post-release performance in a sample of Queensland prisoners released between January 1992 and December 1994. Post-release performance is defined in terms of the seriousness of parole breaches and/or reoffences over the length of the parole period or until April 1996. The paper examines the statistical significance of a number of custodial and socioeconomic variables on the likelihood of a parole breach or re-offence. Factors analysed include family composition, age, occupation, ethnicity, the number of events in custody, the number of prison violations and the length of sentence of the most recent custodial episode. All other things being equal, the marginal effects of readmission with respect to the set of explanatory variables varies markedly according to whether readmission is through a parole breach or through actual recidivist behaviour. [source]


    RESEARCH ON PRISONERS , A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE IOM COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS (2006) AND EUROPEAN REGULATIONS

    BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2010
    BERNICE S. ELGER
    ABSTRACT The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Ethical Considerations for Revisions to DHHS Regulations for Protection of Prisoners Involved in Research published its report in 2006. It was charged with developing an ethical framework for the conduct of research with prisoners and identifying the safeguards and conditions necessary to ensure that research with prisoners is conducted ethically. The recommendations contained in the IOM report differ from current European regulations in several ways, some being more restrictive and some less so. For example, the IOM report suggests limiting the percentage of prisoners that should be involved in a biomedical study to 50%, a limit that does not exist in Europe. However, the report does not specifically advise against research without a direct benefit to an individual prisoner: the European regulations are more restrictive than the IOM committee recommendations in this respect. The definition of minimal risk varies, as well as the proposed role of the minimal risk requirement and of the principle of subsidiarity (research that can only be done effectively in prisons). The IOM report proposes a number of thoughtful suggestions, which it would be beneficial to implement everywhere, such as registers of research on prisoners. The European regulations offer pragmatic solutions to several thorny issues. In summary, the IOM committee report represents an admirable effort to tackle the present inconsistencies and deficiencies of federal regulations in the US on research on prisoners (45 CFR 46 Subpart C). Nonetheless, before acting on the recommendations, US regulators might consider revisiting international guidelines such as those published by the Council for International Organizations of Medical Science (CIOMS) and the Declaration of Helsinki. [source]


    The Good Russian Prisoner: Naturalizing Violence in the Caucasus Mountains

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Bruce Grant
    Beginning with a fabled narrative poem by Aleksandr Pushkin from 1822 entitled "Prisoner of the Caucasus," this article is an exploration of how the idiom of kidnapping in the ritual seizure, taking, and most importantly, giving of bodies across perceived cultural lines has been central to Russians understanding of their troubled relations with the mountainous land holdings to their south for over 200 years. By juxtaposing classic ethnographic sources on Caucasian bride-kidnapping and the hostage taking of military figures as proxies in ritualized violence, alongside multiple renderings of Pushkin's "good prisoner" story in poetry, prose, opera, ballet, and film, these seemingly apolitical artifacts of Russian popular culture work to generate a powerful symbolic economy of Russian belonging in the Caucasus Mountains. [source]


    Multidisciplinary investigations at Stalag Luft III allied prisoner-of-war camp: The site of the 1944 "great escape," Zagan, Western Poland

    GEOARCHAEOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, Issue 7 2007
    J.K. Pringle
    Stalag Luft III, situated in Zagan, Poland (formerly eastern Germany), was the site of a World War II Allied aviator prisoner of war (POW) camp famous for repeat escape attempts,notably the mass escape of 76 POWs in March 1944, shown in the 1963 film "The Great Escape." The site has had little attention to date because it was within restricted military training grounds until 1992. This paper reports on attempts to locate the undiscovered "Dick" escape tunnel (the "Tom" and "Harry" tunnels from the same escape attempt were discovered and destroyed by camp authorities). Geological and geophysical surveys located hut 122, which contained the "Dick" entrance shaft. Subsequent archaeological investigations included surface artifact collection and inspection of the rubble-filled, tunnel entrance shaft. Excavations to a depth of 10 m through yellow glacio-fluvial sand resulted in the discovery of the refilled "Dick" tunnel with intact bed-board shoring and ventilation system. Our investigation provides valuable insights into POW escape efforts. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Persistence of Traumatic Memories in World War II Prisoners of War

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 12 2009
    (See editorial comments by Dr. Jules Rosen, 2347), on pp 234
    OBJECTIVES: To assess the long-term effects of the prisoner of war (POW) experience on U.S. World War II (WWII) veterans. DESIGN: Exploratory study. SETTING: Participants were recruited through the Hines Veterans Affairs Hospital; a POW reunion in Orlando, Florida; and the WWII veterans periodical, "The QUAN." PARTICIPANTS: One hundred fifty-seven American military veterans who were former WWII POWs. MEASURMENTS: Participants completed a mailed survey describing their POW experiences, POW effects on subsequent psychological and physical well-being, and ways in which these experiences shaped major decisions in their lives. RESULTS: Participants from the European and Pacific theaters reported that their captivity during WWII affected their long-term emotional well-being. Both groups reported high rates of reflection, dreaming, and flashbacks pertaining to their POW experiences, but Pacific theater POWs did so at higher rates in the present than in the past. Large portions of both groups reported greater rumination on POW experiences after retirement. Finally, 16.6% of participants met the requirements of a current, clinical diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the Mississippi PTSD scale, with PTSD rates in Pacific theater POWs (34%) three times those of European theater POWs (12%). CONCLUSION: Traumatic memories and clinical levels of PTSD persist for WWII POWs as long as 65 years after their captivity. Additionally, rumination about these experiences, including flashbacks and persistent nightmares, may increase after retirement, particularly for those held in the Pacific theater. These findings inform the current therapeutic needs of this elderly population and future generations of POWs from other military conflicts. [source]


    Architecture in a Landscape of Unholy Unions

    JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION, Issue 1 2009
    MARLON BLACKWELL
    Vernacular is difficult to define, but we usually know it when we see it. As landscape became conurbation, and necessity gave way to greater degrees and higher forms of artifice, vernacular forms were subjugated to the products of industry, trades people and professionals. In the production of most domestic, commercial and industrial buildings architects are involved minimally if at all. When they are they're too often prisoner to repeated conventions that result in a bland contemporary vernacular unworthy of that name. [source]


    From John McCain to Abu Ghraib: Tortured Bodies and Historical Unaccountability of U.S. Empire

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, Issue 1 2009
    Christina Schwenkel
    ABSTRACT John McCain, once considered a "friend" of Vietnam because of his support for normalized relations with the United States, has since lost his standing. Claims to inhumane treatment and torture while a prisoner in the "Hanoi Hilton" have met with angry denials and calls for more attention to the humanitarian care that McCain and others received. Recent U.S. allegations of human rights abuses in Vietnam following the Abu Ghraib prison scandal have further strained relations, as have charges leveled against Vietnamese small-scale producers of dishonest trade practices. Drawing on these exchanges, I examine competing representations of Vietnamese wartime acts that have permeated the "normalization" process. Neoliberal rhetorics aimed at "saving" the Vietnamese economy and its allegedly blemished human rights record are countered by discourses and images that lay claim to a Vietnamese "tradition" of wartime compassion and humanitarianism that also demands U.S. historical accountability for imperial violence and its aftermaths. [Keywords:,neoliberalism, violence, human rights, Vietnam, historical memory] [source]