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    This study uses data from the 1988 to 2006 General Social Survey (GSS) to examine the effects of sexual orientation on earnings. Previous research using the GSS has found that lesbians earn 18%,23% more than similarly qualified heterosexual women and that wage penalties for gay men are slightly larger than the premia for lesbians. Using behavioral definitions of sexual orientation based on the previous year and the previous 5 yr of sexual activity, we find the familiar wage premia/penalties for lesbian/gay workers in our ordinary least squares estimations, but we find that these wage differences are falling over time. Furthermore, in contrast to the earlier results, for our regressions over the entire sample period, correcting for differential selection into full-time work reduces the estimated penalties for unmarried gay men and eliminates the entire wage premium for all lesbians. There is now a sizeable, though imprecisely measured, penalty for some lesbians. (JEL J1, J3, J7) [source]

    Islam and CSR: a study of the compatibility between the tenets of Islam, the UN Global Compact and the development of social, human and natural capital

    John Zinkin
    Abstract Previous research has found that Muslims score elements that are assumed to matter in determining socially responsible business behaviour less highly than people of other religions. This paper looks at whether the tenets of Islam are the reason for this lower score by comparing and contrasting the UN Global Compact's ten principles with those of Islam in the affected areas. In so doing, the paper reconstructs the principles according to their impact on social, human and natural capital and explores whether Islam is supportive of responsible behaviour in these three areas. The paper concludes that, with the possible exception of Islam's focus on personal responsibility and non-recognition of the corporation as a legal person, which could undermine the concept of corporate responsibility, there is no divergence between the tenets of the religion and the principles of the UN Global Compact. Focusing on this convergence of values could help avert the threatened ,clash of civilizations'. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Association of criminal convictions between family members: Effects of siblings, fathers and mothers

    Marieke van de Rakt
    Background,Crime runs in families. Previous research has shown the existence of intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Aim,The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which variation in criminal convictions may be explained by the criminality of siblings and by the intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Method,Data from the Dutch Criminal Career and Life-course Study (CCLS) were used to analyse cross-tabulations and to conduct multi-level logistic regression analyses. Results,The results indicate that criminal convictions of other family members are indeed correlated with individual conviction risk. The criminal history of siblings is most strongly correlated with the convictions of focal respondents. Results furthermore show that parental convictions only account modestly for the association of criminal convictions between siblings. Conclusions,These findings indicate that a direct influence between siblings is plausible, providing support for learning or imitation theories. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Filicide: A comparative study of maternal versus paternal child homicide

    Marieke Liem
    Background,Filicide is the murder of a child by a parent. Historically, filicide was regarded as a female crime, but nowadays, in the West, men have become increasingly likely to be convicted of killing their child. Previous research on filicide has primarily focussed on either maternal or paternal filicide rather than comparing the two. Aim,The aim of our study is to examine and compare the socio-demographic, environmental and psychopathological factors underlying maternal and paternal filicide. Methods,Data were extracted from records in a forensic psychiatric observation hospital in Utrecht, in the Netherlands for the period 1953,2004. Results,Seventy-nine men and 82 women were detained in the hospital under criminal charges in that period, having killed (132) or attempted to kill (29) their own child(ren). Differences between men and women were found with regard to age, methods of killing and motivation underlying the filicide. Conclusions,The categories of filicide identified corresponded to those in studies from other countries, indicating that filicide follows similar patterns throughout the Western world. The fact that 25% of fathers had killed in reaction to threatened separation or divorce, and that over a third of men and more than half of the women were mentally ill at the time may suggest that increased monitoring by primary care physicians under such circumstances might have preventive value. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effect of discordance among violence and general recidivism risk estimates on predictive accuracy

    Jeremy F. Mills
    Introduction,Previous research has shown that the prediction of short-term inpatient violence is negatively affected when clinicians' inter-rater agreement is low and when confidence in the estimate of risk is low. This study examined the effect of discordance between risk assessment instruments used to predict long-term general and violence risk in offenders. Methods,The Psychopathy Checklist , Revised (PCL,R), Level of Service Inventory , Revised (LSI,R), Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), and the General Statistical Information on Recidivism (GSIR) were the four risk-prediction instruments used to predict post-release general and violent recidivism within a sample of 209 offenders. Results,The findings lend empirical support to the assumption that predictive accuracy is threatened where there is discordance between risk estimates. Discordance between instruments had the impact of reducing predictive accuracy for all instruments except the GSIR. Further, the influence of discordance was shown to be greater on certain instruments over others. Discordance had a moderating effect on both the PCL,R and LSI,R but not on the VRAG and GSIR. Conclusions,There is a distinct advantage when attempting to predict recidivism to employing measures such as the LSI-R, which includes dynamic variables and intervention-related criminogenic domains, over a measure purely of fixed characteristics, such as the GSIR; however, if there is discordance between the risk estimates, caution should be exercised and more reliance on the more static historically based instrument may be indicated. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
    Previous research frequently has observed a positive cross-sectional relationship between racial/ethnic minorities and crime and generally has posited that this relationship is entirely because of the effect of minorities on neighborhood crime rates. This study posits that at least some of this relationship might be a result of the opposite effect,neighborhood crime increases the number of racial/ethnic minorities. This study employs a unique sample (the American Housing Survey neighborhood sample) focusing on housing units nested in microneighborhoods across three waves from 1985 to 1993. This format allows one to test and find that such racial/ethnic transformation occurs because of the following effects: First, White households that perceive more crime in the neighborhood or that live in microneighborhoods with more commonly perceived crime are more likely to move out of such neighborhoods. Second, Whites are significantly less likely to move into a housing unit in a microneighborhood with more commonly perceived crime. And third, African American and Latino households are more likely to move into such units. [source]

    Actin-dependent motility of melanosomes from fish retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells investigated using in vitro motility assays

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 2 2004
    E. L. McNeil
    Melanosomes (pigment granules) within retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of fish and amphibians undergo massive migrations in response to light conditions to control light flux to the retina. Previous research has shown that melanosome motility within apical projections of dissociated fish RPE cells requires an intact actin cytoskeleton, but the mechanisms and motors involved in melanosome transport in RPE have not been identified. Two in vitro motility assays, the Nitella assay and the sliding filament assay, were used to characterize actin-dependent motor activity of RPE melanosomes. Melanosomes applied to dissected filets of the Characean alga, Nitella, moved along actin cables at a mean rate of 2 ,m/min, similar to the rate of melanosome motility in dissociated, cultured RPE cells. Path lengths of motile melanosomes ranged from 9 to 37 ,m. Melanosome motility in the sliding filament assay was much more variable, ranging from 0.4,33 ,m/min; 70% of velocities ranged from 1,15 ,m/min. Latex beads coated with skeletal muscle myosin II and added to Nitella filets moved in the same direction as RPE melanosomes, indicating that the motility is barbed-end directed. Immunoblotting using antibodies against myosin VIIa and rab27a revealed that both proteins are enriched on melanosome membranes, suggesting that they could play a role in melanosome transport within apical projections of fish RPE. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 58:71,82, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Dark Side of Information and Market Efficiency in E-Markets,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2006
    Varun Grover
    ABSTRACT Price dispersion reflects the differences in prices for identical products. While in physical markets such dispersion is prevalent due to high search costs, many researchers argue that search costs and price dispersion will be much lower in electronic markets (e-markets). Empirical evidence does not support this contention, and researchers have studied search costs, market factors, and service-quality factors to explain this dispersion. Previous research has largely assumed that more information is better. By ignoring the dark side of information, we argue that only a partial understanding of price dispersion is possible. In this article, information overload and equivocality are studied as two dark attributes of information that lead sellers to different pricing decisions in e-markets. Hypotheses relating these attributes to price dispersion are supported through analysis of 161 product markets. This work opens up new avenues in the study of e-markets and discusses the implications of these findings for research and practice on consumer and seller decisions. [source]

    The Attentional Resource Allocation Scale (ARAS): psychometric properties of a composite measure for dissociation and absorption,

    R. N. Carleton M.A.
    Abstract Background: Differences in attentional processes have been linked to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Shifts in such processes have been described by the constructs Dissociation and Absorption. Dissociation occurs when external and/or internal stimuli are excluded from consciousness due to discrepant, rather than unitary, manifestations of cognitive awareness [Erdelyi MH. 1994: Int J Clin Exp Hypnosis 42:379,390]. In contrast, absorption can be conceptualized by a focus on limited stimuli, to the exclusion of other stimuli, because of unifying, rather than discrepant, manifestations of cognitive awareness. The Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES; Bernstein EM, Putnam FW. 1986: J Nerv Ment Dis 174:727,735] and Tellegen Absorption Scale [TAS; Tellegen A, Atkinson G. 1974: J Abnorm Psychol 83:268,277] are common measures of each construct; however, no factor analyses are available for the TAS and despite accepted overlap, no one has assessed the DES and TAS items simultaneously. Previous research suggests the constructs and factor structures need clarification, possibly including more parsimonious item inclusion [Lyons LC, Crawford HJ. 1997: Person Individ Diff 23:1071,1084]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the DES and TAS and create a psychometrically stable measure of Dissociation and Absorption. Methods: This study included data from an undergraduate (n=841; 76% women) and a community sample (n=233; 86% women) who each completed the DES and TAS. Results: Exploratory factor analyses [Osborne JW (ed). 2008: Best Practices in Quantitative Methods. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc.] with all DES and TAS items suggested a 15-item 3-factor solution (i.e., imaginative involvement, dissociative amnesia, attentional dissociation). Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in excellent fit indices for the same solution. Conclusions: The items and factors were conceptualized in line with precedent research as the Attentional Resource Allocation Scale (ARAS). Comprehensive results, implications, and future research directions are discussed. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The impact of panic-agoraphobic comorbidity on suicidality in hospitalized patients with major depression

    Lily A. Brown B.S.
    Abstract Background: Previous research in outpatient samples suggests that panic and agoraphobic comorbidity is related to suicidality in outpatients with major depression. The purpose of the study was to further investigate this relationship specifically in a hospitalized sample. Method: This study examined the severity of current suicidal ideation and behaviors in a psychiatric hospital sample diagnosed with major depressive disorder alone (MDD; n=28) versus MDD plus panic-agoraphobic spectrum disorders (MDD+PAS; n=69). Results: Members of the MDD+PAS group were significantly more likely to have had a suicide attempt history, higher current depression severity, and higher current suicidal severity compared with individuals in the MDD alone group. The relationship between the current suicidality and comorbid PAS remained significant after controlling for the overall depression severity and other clinical factors. Conclusions: These findings suggest that panic-agoraphobic comorbidity is associated with a greater risk for suicidality in hospitalized patients, which cannot be adequately explained by the level of current depression alone. The clinical and research implications for these findings are discussed. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Impaired selection of relevant positive information in depression

    Sara M. Levens Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: A hallmark characteristic of depression is the inability to regulate the effect of emotional material on cognition. Previous research has demonstrated that depressed individuals are less able than are nondepressed persons to expel irrelevant negative information from working memory (WM), thereby exacerbating the effects of negative content on cognition. The primary goal of this study was to examine whether depressed individuals are also impaired at selecting relevant positive content in the context of representations competing for resources in WM; such an impairment would limit depressed persons' ability to use positive material to ameliorate the cognitive effects of negative information. Methods: We administered a Recency-probes task with neutral, positive, and negative words to 20 currently depressed and 22 never-depressed participants. This task assesses the selection of relevant content in WM by inducing interference between current and prior representations of a stimulus in WM. Reaction times to interference and noninterference trials were compared across valence and group to assess how effectively depressed individuals select task-relevant emotional content to resolve interference. Results: Compared to never-depressed controls, depressed individuals were impaired in selecting task-relevant positive stimuli; the performance of the two groups was comparable for selecting task-relevant neutral and negative stimuli. Conclusions: Findings indicate that a valence-specific deficit in WM may contribute to the inability of depressed individuals to regulate emotion, and provide empirical support for formulations that implicate positive insensitivity in the maintenance of depression. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine in nursing home residents with non-major depression

    Adam B. Burrows M.D.
    Abstract Depression is common across a broad spectrum of severity among nursing home residents. Previous research has demonstrated the effectiveness of antidepressants in nursing home residents with major depression, but it is not known whether antidepressants are helpful in residents with less severe forms of depression. We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 8-week trial comparing paroxetine and placebo in very old nursing home residents with non-major depression. The main outcome measure was the primary nurse's Clinical Impression of Change (CGI-C). Additional outcome measures were improvement on the interview-derived Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Cornell Scale for Depression (CS) scores. Twenty-four subjects with a mean age of 87.9 were enrolled and twenty subjects completed the trial. Placebo response was high, and when all subjects were considered, there were no differences in improvement between the paroxetine and placebo groups. Two subjects that received paroxetine developed delirium, and subjects that received paroxetine were more likely to experience a decrease in Mini Mental State Exam scores (P = .03). There were no differences in serum anticholinergic activity between groups. In a subgroup analysis of 15 subjects with higher baseline HDRS and CS scores, there was a trend toward greater improvement in the paroxetine group in an outcome measure that combined the CGI-C and interview-based measures (P = .06). Paroxetine is not clearly superior to placebo in this small study of very old nursing home residents with non-major depression, and there is a risk of adverse cognitive effects. Because of the high placebo response and the trend towards improvement in the more severely ill patients, it is possible that a larger study would have demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect for paroxetine as compared with placebo. The study also illustrates the discordance between patient and caregiver ratings, and the difficulties in studying very elderly patients with mood disorders. Depression and Anxiety 15:102,110, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Greater hippocampal neuronal recruitment in food-storing than in non-food-storing birds

    Jennifer S. Hoshooley
    Abstract Previous research has shown heightened recruitment of new neurons to the chickadee hippocampus in the fall. The present study was conducted to determine whether heightened fall recruitment is associated with the seasonal onset of food-storing by comparing neurogenesis in chickadees and a non-food-storing species, the house sparrow. Chickadees and house sparrows were captured in the wild in fall and spring and received multiple injections of the cell birth marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Birds were held in captivity and the level of hippocampal neuron recruitment was assessed after 6 weeks. Chickadees showed significantly more hippocampal neuronal recruitment than house sparrows. We found no seasonal differences in hippocampal neuronal recruitment in either species. In chickadees and in house sparrows, one-third of new cells labeled for BrdU also expressed the mature neuronal protein, NeuN. In a region adjacent to the hippocampus, the hyperpallium apicale, we observed no significant differences in neuronal recruitment between species or between seasons. Hippocampal volume and total neuron number both were greater in spring than in fall in chickadees, but no seasonal differences were observed in house sparrows. Enhanced neuronal recruitment in the hippocampus of food-storing chickadees suggests a degree of neurogenic specialization that may be associated with the spatial memory requirements of food-storing behavior. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007. [source]

    The role of competition in word learning via referent selection

    Jessica S. Horst
    Previous research suggests that competition among the objects present during referent selection influences young children's ability to learn words in fast mapping tasks. The present study systematically explored this issue with 30-month-old children. Children first received referent selection trials with a target object and either two, three or four competitor objects. Then, after a short delay, children were tested on their ability to retain the newly fast-mapped names. Overall, the number of competitors did not affect children's ability to form the initial name,object mappings. However, only children who encountered few competitors during referent selection demonstrated significant levels of retention. Results and implications are discussed in terms of the role of competition in studies of children's fast mapping. The relationship between referent selection and full word learning is also discussed. [source]

    Twelve- to 14-month-old infants can predict single-event probability with large set sizes

    Stephanie Denison
    Previous research has revealed that infants can reason correctly about single-event probabilities with small but not large set sizes (Bonatti, 2008; Teglas et al., 2007). The current study asks whether infants can make predictions regarding single-event probability with large set sizes using a novel procedure. Infants completed two trials: A preference trial to determine whether they preferred pink or black lollipops and a test trial where infants saw two jars, one containing mostly pink lollipops and another containing mostly black lollipops. The experimenter removed one occluded lollipop from each jar and placed them in two separate opaque cups. Seventy-eight percent of infants searched in the cup that contained a lollipop from the jar with a higher proportion of their preferred color object, significantly better than chance. Thus infants can reason about single-event probabilities with large set sizes in a choice paradigm, and contrary to most findings in the infant literature, the prediction task used here appears a more sensitive measure than the standard looking-time task. [source]

    What are you looking at?

    Infants' neural processing of an adult's object-directed eye gaze
    Previous research suggests that by 4 months of age infants use the eye gaze of adults to guide their attention and facilitate processing of environmental information. Here we address the question of how infants process the relation between another person and an external object. We applied an ERP paradigm to investigate the neural processes underlying the perception of the direction of an adult's eye gaze in 4-month-old infants. Infants showed differential processing of an adult's eye gaze, which was directed at a simultaneously presented object compared to non-object-directed eye gaze. This distinction was evident in two ERP components: The Negative component, reflecting attentional processes, and the positive slow wave, which is involved in memory encoding. The implications of these findings for the development of joint attention and related social cognitive functions are discussed. [source]

    Preferences for colours and colour--emotion combinations in early childhood

    Marcel R. Zentner
    Previous research has shown that, by the age of 3 to 4 years, children rely not only on perceptual similarity but also on shared category or other underlying structures to draw analogies. The present study extends this work by showing that children as young as 3 years old detect consistent relationships between colours and facial expressions of emotions , two phenomena that share no physical characteristics, violate conventional categories and have no obvious environmental contiguity. Two explanatory hypotheses are put forward: (a) learning by convention, which is explored against the standard of adults' and older children's matching patterns, and (b) reliance upon a common underlying but perceptually unavailable dimension , operationalized in terms of emotion and colour preferences in the context of the present study. Both explanatory approaches are discussed and avenues for future work are suggested. [source]

    Planform dynamics of the Lower Mississippi River

    Oliver P. Harmar
    Abstract This paper presents an analysis of the planform behaviour of the Lower Mississippi River (LMR) using a series of maps and hydrographic surveys covering the period 1765,1975. Data allow analysis at various time and space scales, using fixed and statistically defined reaches, both before and after extensive channel modification. Previous research has interpreted planform change in relation to geomorphological or engineering regime-type analyses of channel length and width for the LMR as a ,single system'. The analysis here is broadly consistent with these approaches, but highlights the importance of meander geometry, in the form of the radius of curvature:width ratio. This neglected factor helps resolve paradoxes relating to observed changes in sediment transport and channel stability. When viewed over smaller time and space scales, analysis of dynamics using fixed reach boundaries reveals a downstream trend in the pattern of planform behaviour, which is closely related to the distribution of valley floor deposits, and which also reflects neotectonic influences. Analysis of changes using statistically determined reach boundaries shows that, over shorter time scales, meander trains are continually formed and modified over a period of approximately 120 years. Zones of more-or-less dynamic behaviour thus move through the LMR. The research also provides a context for 20th century engineering interventions to the river. These have constrained the magnitude of planform adjustment, but also altered the kind of response that is now possible in relation to changes in discharge and sediment load, and as a consequence of internal feedbacks within the LMR system. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Applicability of pushover methods for the seismic analysis of single-column bent viaducts

    Tatjana Isakovi
    Abstract An overview of the applicability of a typical single-mode pushover method (the N2 method) and two typical multi-mode pushover methods (the modal pushover analysis (MPA) and incremental response spectrum analysis (IRSA) methods) for the analysis of single column bent viaducts in the transverse direction is presented. Previous research, which was limited to relatively short viaducts supported by few columns, has been extended to longer viaducts with more bents. The single-mode N2 method is accurate enough for bridges where the effective modal mass of the fundamental mode is at least 80% of the total mass. The applicability of this method depends on (a) the ratio of the stiffness of the superstructure to that of the bents and (b) the strength of the bents. In short bridges with few columns, the accuracy of the N2 method increases as the seismic intensity increases, whereas in long viaducts (e.g. viaducts with lengths greater than 500,m) the method is in general less effective. In the case of the analyzed moderately irregular long viaducts, which are common in construction design practice, the MPA method performed well. For the analysis of bridges where the modes change significantly, depending on the seismic intensity, the IRSA method is in principle more appropriate, unless a viaduct is torsionally sensitive. In such cases, all simplified methods should be used with care. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Correlated morphological and colour differences among females of the damselfly Ischnura elegans

    Abstract 1.,The female-limited colour polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans has proven to be an interesting study organism both as an example of female sexual polymorphism, and in the context of the evolution of colour polymorphism, as a model of speciation processes. 2.,Previous research suggests the existence of correlations between colour morph and other phenotypic traits, and the different female morphs in I. elegans may be pursuing alternative phenotypically integrated strategies. However, previous research on morphological differences in southern Swedish individuals of this species was only carried out on laboratory-raised offspring from a single population, leaving open the question of how widespread such differences are. 3.,The present study therefore analysed multi-generational data from 12 populations, investigating morphological differences between the female morphs in the field, differences in the pattern of phenotypic integration between morphs, and quantified selection on morphological traits. 4.,It was found that consistent morphological differences indeed existed between the morphs across populations, confirming that the previously observed differences were not simply a laboratory artefact. It was also found, somewhat surprisingly, that despite the existence of sexual dimorphism in body size and shape, patterns of phenotypic integration differed most between the morphs and not between the sexes. Finally, linear selection gradients showed that female morphology affected fecundity differently between the morphs. 5.,We discuss the relevance of these results to the male mimicry hypothesis and to the existence of potential ecological differences between the morphs. [source]

    The influence of host plant variation and intraspecific competition on oviposition preference and offspring performance in the host races of Eurosta solidaginis

    Timothy P. Craig
    Summary 1. A series of experiments was conducted to measure the impact of plant genotype, plant growth rate, and intraspecific competition on the oviposition preference and offspring performance of the host races of Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae), a fly that forms galls on Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea (Asteraceae). Previous research has shown that both host races prefer to oviposit on their own host plant where survival is much higher than on the alternate host plant. In this study, neither host race showed any relationship between oviposition preference and offspring performance in choosing among plants of their natal host species. 2. The larval survival of both host races differed among plant genotypes when each host race oviposited on its natal host species. In one experiment, altissima host race females showed a preference among plant genotypes that was not correlated with offspring performance on those genotypes. In all other experiments, neither the altissima nor gigantea host race demonstrated a preference for specific host plant genotypes. 3. Eurosta solidaginis had a preference for ovipositing on rapidly growing ramets in all experiments, however larval survival was not correlated with ramet growth rate at the time of oviposition. 4. Eurosta solidaginis suffered high mortality from intraspecific competition in the early larval stage. There was little evidence, however, that females avoided ovipositing on ramets that had been attacked previously. This led to an aggregated distribution of eggs among ramets and strong intraspecific competition. 5. There was no interaction among plant genotype, plant growth rate, or intraspecific competition in determining oviposition preference or offspring performance. [source]

    Effects of a community intervention to reduce the serving of alcohol to intoxicated patrons

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Katariina Warpenius
    ABSTRACT Aims To assess the effects of an alcohol prevention programme to reduce the serving of alcoholic beverages to intoxicated clients on licensed premises. Research design A controlled pre- (2004) and post-intervention study (2006) design. Intervention A community-based programme combining law enforcement, responsible beverage service training, information campaigns and policy initiatives in one Finnish town (Jyväskylä). Participants and measurements A male actor pretended to be clearly under the influence of alcohol and tried to buy a pint of beer at licensed premises. For the baseline measurement, every bar and nightclub was visited in the intervention and the control areas (94 licensed premises in total). Post-intervention data were gathered with the same principles (100 licensed premises in total). A researcher observed every visit and documented the results. Results In the post-intervention study there was a statistically significant increase in refusals to serve denials alcohol to the actor in the intervention area (from 23% to 42% of the licensed premises) compared to refusals in the control area (from 36% to 27% of the licensed premises). Conclusion Previous research has documented that multi-component community-based interventions can have a significant impact on over-serving of alcohol when training and house policies are combined with effective law enforcement. The present findings also demonstrate that comprehensive Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) interventions applied at a local community level can be effective in decreasing service to intoxicated clients in a Nordic context. [source]

    A General Formula for Valuing Defaultable Securities

    ECONOMETRICA, Issue 5 2004
    P. Collin-Dufresne
    Previous research has shown that under a suitable no-jump condition, the price of a defaultable security is equal to its risk-neutral expected discounted cash flows if a modified discount rate is introduced to account for the possibility of default. Below, we generalize this result by demonstrating that one can always value defaultable claims using expected risk-adjusted discounting provided that the expectation is taken under a slightly modified probability measure. This new probability measure puts zero probability on paths where default occurs prior to the maturity, and is thus only absolutely continuous with respect to the risk-neutral probability measure. After establishing the general result and discussing its relation with the existing literature, we investigate several examples for which the no-jump condition fails. Each example illustrates the power of our general formula by providing simple analytic solutions for the prices of defaultable securities. [source]

    Reactivity to alcohol assessment measures: an experimental test

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Scott T. Walters
    ABSTRACT Aims Previous research has suggested that alcohol screening and assessment may affect drinking. Design This study was a randomized test of reactivity to alcohol assessment questionnaires among a group of heavy drinking college students. Setting and participants A total of 147 university students completed a screening questionnaire and were randomized to either immediate assessment or delayed assessment. The immediate assessment group completed a set of drinking questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months, while the delayed assessment group completed questionnaires only at 12 months. Measurements Primary outcomes included overall volume of drinking, risky drinking and use of risk reduction behaviors. Findings We found a significant effect of assessment on measures of risky drinking and risk reduction behaviors, but not on overall volume of drinking. Specifically, at 12 months, participants who had previously completed drinking assessments had a lower peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (d = ,0.373), were more likely to report a low score on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; odds ratio = 2.55) and tended to use more strategies to moderate their alcohol consumption (d = 0.352). Risk reduction behaviors that were affected tended to be those that limited alcohol consumption, rather than those that minimized consequences. Conclusions These results may have implications for the development of brief interventions. [source]

    Sutured wounds: Factors associated with patient-rated cosmetic scores

    Tatiana Lowe
    Abstract Objective: To determine the association between wound characteristics, wound management in the ED and patient-rated cosmetic appearance of sutured wounds. Our hypothesis was that practitioner seniority would most strongly predict outcome. Methods: Prospective recruitment of patients with lacerations sutured at the primary ED visit was performed. Data collected included patient demographics, wound characteristics and wound management. A standardized telephone questionnaire was administered 14 days and 3 months later. Scar appearance was scored using a verbal rating scale from zero to 10. Data were obtained about suture removal, antibiotic compliance, infection and dehiscence rates at 2 weeks. Associations of variables with cosmetic scores were analysed using multivariate linear regression. Results: One hundred and thirty-two patients were evaluated. Mean cosmetic scores were not significantly associated with seniority (P = 0.07). Lacerations repaired by senior practitioners were more likely to result from glass or general trauma (P = 0.007), be shorter (P = 0.03), be cleaned with antiseptic (P = 0.03), not to re-open (P = 0.01) or require re-suturing (P = 0.03). Following multivariate regression factors significantly associated with cosmetic scores at 14 days and 3 months were site of injury (P < 0.003) and time from injury to repair (P < 0.009). Wounds of the torso, leg or foot had lower cosmetic scores at both time-points. An association with age (P = 0.04) was present at 3 months. Conclusions: Previous research found improvement between short-term doctor-rated cosmesis and training beyond internship. Our study demonstrated a non-significant trend relationship between seniority and patient-rated outcome, both short and long-term. However, staff seniority was overshadowed by the site of laceration and time from injury to repair. [source]

    Nest Hydrocarbons as Cues for Philopatry in a Paper Wasp

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    A. Sumana
    Philopatric behavior has been demonstrated in a wide taxonomic spread of animals. In temperate environments, overwintered Polistes wasp foundresses often return to their natal nest prior to initiating colony construction. Previous research has shown that these spring foundresses can identify the natal nest in the absence of landmark and gross morphological cues. Hydrocarbons are essential recognition cues for Polistes nest and nestmate discrimination, but cuticular hydrocarbon profiles can become homogenized when foundresses overwinter in mixed colony groups. We examined the hydrocarbon profiles of Polistes dominulus foundresses and nests before and after an overwintering period, and found that the hydrocarbon profiles of nests remain unique over time and that this uniqueness is influenced by the original foundresses. Our data raise the possibility that in returning to the natal nest, foundresses reacquire their colony-specific signature, which may play a role in the formation of cooperative associations. [source]

    Personality disorders in 545 patients with eating disorders

    *Article first published online: 5 DEC 200, Kristine Godt
    Abstract Objective Previous research on the prevalence of personality disorders in patients with eating disorders varies greatly in findings, but a general understanding seem to exist that personality disorders are rather common among eating-disordered patients. The present investigation is aimed at establishing the prevalence of DSM III-R or DSM IV personality disorders in a large population seeking treatment for eating disorders. Method Five hundred and forty-five patients with DSM IV- eating disorders have been evaluated using the structured clinical interview for DSM III-R or IV-Axis II and the eating disorder examination. Results The 29.5% of the population have one or more personality disorders according to DSM III-R or DSM IV criteria. Personality disorders, and specifically borderline personality disorder, are significantly more common in patients with bulimia nervosa. Discussion The proportion of eating-disordered patients with co-morbid personality disorder may not be as large as often found in studies. This challenges the understanding of a strong overall connection between the two groups of disorder; however, the connection seems to exist in subsets of eating disorder samples. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    X chromosome number causes sex differences in gene expression in adult mouse striatum

    Xuqi Chen
    Abstract Previous research suggests that sex differences in the nigrostriatal system are created by direct effects of the sex chromosomes (XX vs. XY), independent of the action of gonadal hormones. Here we tested for sex chromosome effects on expression of three mRNAs in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of adult mice of the four core genotypes model (XX and XY gonadal males, XX and XY gonadal females). Mice were gonadectomized (GDX) at 47,51 days old to eliminate group differences in the levels of gonadal steroids. Three weeks later, mice were killed and brains collected for in situ hybridization of the striatum, or the striatum was dissected out for quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression in XX and XY mice was measured by in situ hybridization using riboprobes encoding the dynorphin precursor Pdyn (prodynorphin), the substance P precursor Tac1 (preprotachykinin) or dopamine D2 receptor. XX mice had higher expression, relative to XY mice of the same gonadal sex, of Pdyn and Tac1 mRNA in specific striatal regions. Quantitative PCR confirmed that GDX XX mice have higher Pdyn expression in striatum than XY mice, regardless of their gonadal sex. XX had higher Pdyn expression than XY or XO mice, indicating that the sex chromosome effect is the result of XX vs. XY differences in the number of X chromosomes, probably because of sex differences in the expression of X gene(s) that escape inactivation. We detected no sex chromosome effect on D2 receptor mRNA. [source]

    Somatic and visceral afferents to the ,vasodepressor region' of the caudal midline medulla in the rat

    Jason R. Potas
    Abstract Previous research has found that the integrity of a restricted region of the caudal midline medulla (including caudal portions of nucleus raphé obscurus and nucleus raphé pallidus) was critical for vasodepression (hypotension, bradycardia, decreased cardiac contractility) evoked either by haemorrhage or deep pain. In this anatomical tracing study we found that the vasodepressor part of the caudal midline medulla (CMM) receives inputs arising from spinal cord, spinal trigeminal nucleus (SpV) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Specifically: (i) a spinal,CMM projection arises from neurons of the deep dorsal horn, medial ventral horn and lamina X at all spinal segmental levels, with approximately 60% of the projection originating from the upper cervical spinal cord (C1,C4); (ii) a SpV,CMM projection arises primarily from neurons at the transition between subnucleus caudalis and subnucleus interpolaris; (iii) a NTS,CMM projection arises primarily from neurons in ventrolateral and medial subnuclei. In combination, the specific spinal, SpV and NTS regions which project to the CMM receive the complete range of somatic and visceral afferents known to trigger vasodepression. The role(s) of each specific projection is discussed. [source]

    Personality and marital satisfaction: a behavioural genetic analysis

    Erica L. Spotts
    Previous research has found that genetic and nonshared environmental factors influence marital quality (Spotts et al., 2004). The current study explored personality as a source for these genetic and environmental individual differences. A sample of 752 Swedish twin women and their spouses were used. Genetic and environmental influences were found for self-report measures of marital quality, but only environmental factors contributed to the variance of observational measures of marital quality. Wives' personality characteristics accounted for genetic and nonshared environmental variance in the wives' own marital satisfaction, their husbands' marital satisfaction, and the agreement between the spouses on the quality of their marriage. Genetic influences on the correlation between wives' genetically influenced personality characteristics and their husbands' marital satisfaction indicate a gene,environment correlation. Contrary to expectations, husbands' personality did not explain large portions of wives' marital satisfaction beyond that explained by wives' personality. This study emphasizes the importance of spousal personality to the well-being of marriages, and results are discussed within the context of three different theories regarding associations between personality and marital quality. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]