Preventative Care (preventative + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Decubitus ulcers: A review of the literature

Cheryl Bansal BA
Decubitus ulcers are a worldwide health care concern affecting tens of thousands of patients and costing over a billion dollars a year. Susceptibility to pressure ulcers comes from a combination of external factors (pressure, friction, shear force, and moisture), and internal factors (e.g. fever, malnutrition, anaemia, and endothelial dysfunction). Often, enough damage is done to create the basis for a decubitus ulcer after as little as 2 h of immobility, a situation which may be difficult to avoid if the patient must undergo prolonged surgery or remain bedridden. Damage owing to pressure may also occur hours before the patient receives medical attention, especially if the patient falls or becomes immobilized owing to a vascular event. Several classification systems for decubitus ulcers have been described, based on where injury first occurs. The histologic progression of decubitus ulcers is a dynamic process involving several stages, each having characteristic histologic features. A team-focused approach integrating all aspects of care, including pressure relief, infection control, nutrition, and surgery, may improve healing rates. With accurate risk assessment and preventative care, we can hope to minimize complications and mortality owing to decubitus ulcers. [source]

Effectiveness of nurse-led cardiac clinics in adult patients with a diagnosis of coronary heart disease

Tamara Page RN BN HyperbaricNursCert GradDipNSc(HighDep) MNSc
Executive summary Background, Coronary heart disease is the major cause of illness and death in Western countries and this is likely to increase as the average age of the population rises. Consumers with established coronary heart disease are at the highest risk of experiencing further coronary events. Lifestyle measures can contribute significantly to a reduction in cardiovascular mortality in established coronary heart disease. Improved management of cardiac risk factors by providing education and referrals as required has been suggested as one way of maintaining quality care in patients with established coronary heart disease. There is a need to ascertain whether or not nurse-led clinics would be an effective adjunct for patients with coronary heart disease to supplement general practitioner advice and care. Objectives, The objective of this review was to present the best available evidence related to nurse-led cardiac clinics. Inclusion criteria, This review considered any randomised controlled trials that evaluated cardiac nurse-led clinics. In the absence of randomised controlled trials, other research designs such as non-randomised controlled trials and before and after studies were considered for inclusion. Participants were adults (18 years and older) with new or existing coronary heart disease. The interventions of interest to the review included education, assessment, consultation, referral and administrative structures. Outcomes measured included adverse event rates, readmissions, admissions, clinical and cost effectiveness, consumer satisfaction and compliance with therapy. Results, Based on the search terms used, 80 papers were initially identified and reviewed for inclusion; full reports of 24 of these papers were retrieved. There were no papers included that addressed cost effectiveness or adverse events; and none addressed the outcome of referrals. A critical appraisal of the 24 remaining papers identified a total of six randomised controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria. Two studies addressed nurse-led clinics for patients diagnosed with angina, one looked at medication administration and the other looked at educational plans. A further four studies compared secondary preventative care with a nurse-led clinic and general practitioner clinic. One specifically compared usual care versus shared care introduced by nurses for patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting. Of the remaining three studies, two have been combined in the results section, as they are an interim report and a final report of the same study. Because of inconsistencies in reporting styles and outcome measurements, meta-analysis could not be performed on all outcomes. However, a narrative summary of each study and comparisons of specific outcomes assessed from within each study has been developed. Although not all outcomes obtained statistical significance, nurse-led clinics were at least as effective as general practitioner clinics for most outcomes. Recommendations, The following recommendations are made: ,The use of nurse-led clinics is recommended for patients with coronary heart disease (Level II). ,Utilise nurse-led clinics to increase clinic attendance and follow-up rates (Level II). ,Nurse-led clinics are recommended for patients who require lifestyle changes to decrease their risk of adverse outcomes associated with coronary heart disease (Level II). [source]

Medication usage among young adult women: A comparison between Sweden, the USA, and Greece

Evy Lidell rn
Abstract This study evaluated whether or not medication usage among young adult women differed across three countries. An additional aim was to evaluate the association between medication use and sociodemographic factors and exercise habits. A sample of 1098 young adult women were selected in Sweden, the USA, and Greece. Consistent medication usage by young adult women in the three countries related to oral contraceptives and vitamins; nevertheless, there were differences. The main differences were found in the use of laxatives, iron supplements, analgesics, antidepressants, and antacid medication. The most outstanding differences were the frequent use of laxatives in Sweden and vitamins in the USA. Different association patterns were found between medication use and culture, sociodemographic factors, and exercise. The assessment of medication use among young adult women can be performed very easily and provides an immediate indication of their well-being and needs for preventative care. [source]

Development and Implementation of a Model to Improve Identification of Patients Infected with HIV Using Diagnostic Rapid Testing in the Emergency Department

Jason S. Haukoos MD
Objectives Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to expand in nontraditional risk groups, and the prevalence of undiagnosed infection remains relatively high in the patient populations of urban emergency departments (EDs). Unfortunately, HIV testing in this setting remains uncommon. The objectives of this study were 1) to develop a physician-based diagnostic rapid HIV testing model, 2) to implement this model in a high-volume urban ED, and 3) to prospectively characterize the patients who were targeted by physicians for testing and determine the proportions who completed rapid HIV counseling, testing, and referral; tested positive for HIV infection; and were successfully linked into medical and preventative care. Methods An interdisciplinary group of investigators developed a model for performing physician-based diagnostic rapid HIV testing in the ED. This model was then evaluated using a prospective cohort study design. Emergency physicians identified patients at risk for undiagnosed HIV infection using clinical judgment and consensus guidelines. Testing was performed by the hospital's central laboratory, and clinical social workers performed pretest and posttest counseling and provided appropriate medical and preventative care referrals, as defined by the model. Results Over the 30-month study period, 105,856 patients were evaluated in the ED. Of these, 681 (0.64%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60% to 0.69%) were identified by physicians and completed rapid HIV counseling, testing, and referral. Of the 681 patients, 15 (2.2%; 95% CI = 1.2% to 3.6%) patients tested positive for HIV infection and 12 (80%; 95% CI = 52% to 96%) were successfully linked into care. Conclusions A physician-based diagnostic HIV testing model was developed, successfully implemented, and sustained in a high-volume, urban ED setting. While the use of this model successfully identified patients with undiagnosed HIV infection in the ED, the overall level of testing remained low. Innovative testing programs, such as nontargeted screening, more specific targeted screening, or alternative hybrid methods, are needed to more effectively identify undiagnosed HIV infection in the ED patient population. [source]