Prevalent Disorders (prevalent + disorders)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Therapeutic Effects of Vitamin E on Cyclic Mastalgia

Sousan Parsay PhD
Abstract:, Cyclic mastalgia is one of the most prevalent disorders among fertile women. To date, hormonal agents, despite their side effects, have been widely used for treatment of this ailment. This study was performed to clarify the therapeutic effects of Vitamin E (Vit E) as a safe treatment for cyclic mastalgia among fertile women. This study was conducted as a double blind clinical trial; 150 women with cyclic mastalgia, referred by three public health centers in Qazvin City in Iran, were enrolled in the trial and randomly divided into two distinct case and control groups; each containing 75 patients. The severity and duration of breast pain were measured according to both the Cardiff Breast Pain Chart and the Visual Analog Scale. Simple, chewable tablets of either Vit E or a placebo were prescribed twice a day for 4 months for case and control participants, respectively. Follow-up was performed at the end of both the second and the fourth months and, at that time, the severity, duration and side effects of intervention were evaluated. The administration of Vit E had significant curative results as tested at both the 2- and 4-month benchmarks. Chi-square testing indicated that after both 2 and 4 months of therapy, the efficacy demonstrated by the Vit E recipient case group was superior to that of the group that received a placebo. Applying the Mc Nemar Test, it also was shown that there was no significant difference in the benefits received between treatment courses of 2 versus 4 months. A 2-month prescription of Vit E has positive therapeutic effects on cyclic mastalgia. Given its lack of significant side effects, Vit E, therefore, can be considered a safe alternative to hormonal therapies currently being used in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia. [source]

Cost of disorders of the brain in Norway

L. J. Stovner
Stovner LJ, Gjerstad L, Gilhus NE, Storstein A, Zwart JA. Cost of disorders of the brain in Norway. Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 122 (Suppl. 190): 1,5. 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background,,, Little is known about the cost of neurological disorders in Norway. Objectives,,, To estimate the cost of disorders of the brain, including the main psychiatric, neurological and neurosurgical conditions in Norway. Methods,,, Most of the data are extrapolations from a large European cost study that collected the best available epidemiological and health economical evidence for the year 2004. Some epidemiological data are available from Norway, but very little on costs. Results,,, Brain disorders seemed to affect 1.5 million Norwegians in 2004, and the total cost amounted to 5.8 billion Euros. The most prevalent disorders are anxiety disorders and migraine, and the most costly are affective disorders, addiction and dementia. Migraine is the most costly of the purely neurological conditions, followed by stroke, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. The indirect costs account for more than half of the total costs. Discussion,,, Although the different brain disorders are very dissimilar in appearance, from health economic and public health perspectives, it is relevant to view them as a whole, since many of them share important pathophysiological mechanisms. This means that new insights into one disorder can have relevance for many other disorders. Conclusion,,, As a result of the high impact on individuals and society, more resources should be allocated to treatment and research into brain disorders. [source]

Hypertension-associated hypalgesia: a clue to the comorbidity of headache and other pain disorders

L. J. Stovner
Background ,, Primary headaches and chronic musculoskeletal pain are prevalent disorders with incompletely known causes. Aims ,, To review the data from the HUNT studies on the comorbidity of these pain disorders, and their relation to blood pressure levels Materials & Methods ,, Cross-sectional and prospective data from more than 50 000 persons participating in the HUNT studies, a large Norwegian population-based health survey Results ,, Headache and chronic musculoskeletal complaints in all parts of the body were comorbid, and the prevalence of pain in all locations was inversely related to blood pressure levels. Discussion ,, A likely cause for this is hypertension-associated hypalgesia, described in both animal and human experimental models, involving interactions between cardiovascular and pain modulating centres at the brainstem level, and probably also peripheral baroreceptor mechanisms. Conclusion ,, Better understanding of these mechanisms may be crucial for enabling better prevention and treatment of these very prevalent, costly and disabling disorders. [source]

Tapetoretinal degenerations: Experiences, experiments and expectations

Berndt Ehinger
ABSTRACT. Tapetoretinal degenerations are a common cause for vision problems, but have until recently not been amenable to rational treatment. With rapidly increasing insights into basic neurobiology and pathobiology this has now begun to change. From having been a relatively small group of largely unknown yet fairly prevalent disorders, they are rapidly forming a large set of well defined diseases, and it is easy to predict that our knowledge about them will continue to increase for many years to come. Vitamin A (15 ,000 IU daily) is currently the only rational treatment available. However, in experimental animals, therapy strategies are now actively being developed along several different lines. Apoptotic photoreceptor cell death can be delayed with different drugs, and at least one of them, diltiazem, is approved for human use in cardiovascular diseases. It remains to be seen if it has any clinically significant effect in human tapetoretinal degenerations. Other strategies aim at counteracting the production of harmful protein variants, acting either on DNA or mRNA levels. Transgenes can also be used to induce the production of important but missing metabolic components. Finally, cells or retina sheets can be transplanted, either to replace failing cells or as a source for missing trophic factors. Neither of these strategies has yet been transferred to humans, but trials are under way. With the high increase in the flow of new information on tapetoretinal disorders, much more precise diagnoses and much improved treatments are soon to be expected, augmenting considerably the possibilities for ophthalmologists to help patients with such diseases. It is not likely that there will be a single treatment for all the many varieties. Instead, we are most likely going to see pharmacological treatments for some of them, DNA transfers for some, and transplantations for others. [source]