Present Guidelines (present + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Current clinical selection strategies for identification of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families are inadequate: a meta-analysis

W Kievit
Present guidelines to identify hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families are criticized for limitations in accuracy. The Amsterdam criteria I and II (AC I and AC II) are used to predict a germline mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes. In families not fulfilling the AC I and AC II criteria, individual indications to test cancer specimens for microsatellite instability (MSI) are guided by the Bethesda Guidelines (BG). Germline mutation testing is then performed in patients who conform to the BG and show MSI. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of AC I, AC II, and BG. A meta-analysis of studies on the value of the AC I and AC II criteria for predicting germline mutation, as well as a meta-analysis of BG for the detection of MSI was performed. For the AC I, sensitivity varied from 54 to 91% and specificity varied from 62 to 84%. For the AC II, the pooled sensitivity was 78% and specificity ranged between 46 and 68%. Post-test probabilities of a positive test result were 0.61 and 0.46 for the AC I and AC II, respectively. Post-test probabilities of a negative test result were 0.17 and 0.21 for the AC I and AC II, respectively. For the BG, the pooled sensitivity was 89% and pooled specificity was 53%. Post-test probability of a positive test result was 41%, and post-test probability of a negative test result was 9%. The sensitivity and specificity of the Amsterdam criteria for predicting a germline mutation that causes HNPCC is not sufficient. The BG are useful for the detection of MSI in a group of patients suspected of having familial colorectal cancer (CRC), but sensitivity is very low in the total group of newly diagnosed CRC patients. Therefore, a new strategy is needed for the identification of HNPCC. [source]

Nitrous oxide as an adjunct in tumescent liposuction

Garrett Bird
Summary Background, Nitrous oxide (N2O) has been used as an anesthetic for over 300 years. It is safe, easy to use, and effective. In this article we will document N2O use as an adjunct to tumescent liposuction. The history, mechanism of action, use, and safety in ambulatory surgery of N2O are reviewed. Objective, The authors intend to review the history of both tumescent liposuction and N2O in surgery, discuss the possible adverse reactions, and present guidelines for the use of N2O during tumescent liposuction. Methods, A Medline review of articles, 1966,2004, related to N2O was performed, using the search terms nitrous, oxide, safety, toxicity, mechanism, anesthetic, surgery, risks, and delivery. Articles that were cited by the authors of this subset of original articles were also used when appropriate. Articles were rated and included based on date of publication, level of evidence, and applicability to tumescent liposuction. Results and conclusions, Nitrous oxide is safe, easily administered, inexpensive, and is an effective adjunct to tumescent liposuction. It provides a high level of pain control, and is patient controlled, while not putting the patient at risk of full anesthesia. When used correctly, with proper equipment, it poses little risk to either patients or healthcare workers. [source]

Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis in East European countries

M Domeika
Abstract The laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in many Eastern European countries remains suboptimal. The main objective of the present evidence-based guidelines is to provide comprehensive information regarding the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in East European countries. In particular, the present guidelines recommend: (i) to encourage examination of the wet mounts of vaginal exudates, instead of stained smears, at all clinical settings; (ii) nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture could be employed if no trichomonads are detected on microscopic examination of the wet preparation and there is a strong indication of infection and (iii) the use of NAATs is encouraged in screening, using non-invasive specimens, or high volume testing situations. In the absence of internationally recognized commercial NAAT systems, tests developed in-house should be validated using obtainable international standards and quality assured strictly. Individual East European countries may be required to make minor national adjustments to these guidelines as a result of lack of accessibility to some reagents or equipment, or laws in a specific country. [source]

Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis

M Caproni
Abstract Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rare disease that should be considered the cutaneous expression of a gluten-sensitive enteropathy indistinguishable from celiac disease. Dermatitis herpetiformis is often misdiagnosed and to date no guidelines for the management of dermatitis herpetiformis have been published in Literature. The present guidelines have been prepared for dermatologists by the Group for Cutaneous Immunopathology of the Italian Society of Dermatology and Venereology. They reflect the best data available at the time of preparation and the clinical experience of the authors and the members of the Italian Group for Cutaneous Immunopathology. The diagnosis of dermatitis herpetiformis is established clinically, histologically, immunopathologically and serologically. A gluten-free diet (GFD) is the treatment of choice for patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. Dapsone and/or other drugs should be used during the period until the GFD is effective. In conclusion, the present guidelines provide evidence-based guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis. Conflicts of interest None declared. [source]

Guidelines for practical use of MAL-PDT in non-melanoma skin cancer

E Christensen
Abstract Methyl aminolaevulinate photodynamic therapy is increasingly practiced in the treatment of actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinomas. This method is particularly suitable for treating multiple lesions, field cancerization and lesions in areas where a good cosmetic outcome is of importance. Good treatment routines will contribute to a favourable result. The Norwegian photodynamic therapy (PDT) group consists of medical specialists with long and extensive PDT experience. With support in the literature, this group presents guidelines for the practical use of topical PDT in non-melanoma skin cancer. [source]

Review article: Perioperative care of patients with epidermolysis bullosa: proceedings of the 5th international symposium on epidermolysis bullosa, Santiago Chile, December 4,6, 2008

Summary Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) has become recognized as a multisystem disorder that poses a number of pre-, intra-, and postoperative challenges. While anesthesiologists have long appreciated the potential difficult intubation in patients with EB, other systems can be affected by this disorder. Hematologic, cardiac, skeletal, gastrointestinal, nutritional, and metabolic deficiencies are foci of preoperative medical care, in addition to the airway concerns. Therefore, multidisciplinary planning for operative care is imperative. A multinational, interdisciplinary panel of experts assembled in Santiagio, Chile to review the best practices for perioperative care of patients with EB. This paper presents guidelines that represent a synthesis of evidence-based approaches and the expert consensus of this panel and are intended to aid physicians new to caring for patients with EB when operative management is indicated. With proper medical optimization and attention to detail in the operating room, patients with EB can have an uneventful perioperative course. [source]