Assisted Reproductive Technology (assisted + reproductive_technology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts


Monica Sharma
In the midst of a genetic revolution in medicine, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has become a well-established technique to help infertile women achieve pregnancy. But many women are now turning to ART not just to circumvent infertility, but consciously to shape their families by determining the sex of their children. Many patriarchal cultures have a gender preference for males and to date have used technological advances in reproductive medicine to predetermine the sex of the child being born. Women have sought sex-selective abortions, where the pregnancy was being terminated solely on the basis of the sex of the unborn fetus. The combination of ART advances and gender preference has led to the disappearance of at least 100 million girls from the world's population leading to a mass gendercide. This article examines the societal impact of unbalanced gender ratios and the need to regulate sex selection to avoid nations of bachelors. [source]

Complex Adoption & Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Developmental Approach to Clinical Practice, by Vivian B. Shapiro, Janet R. Shapiro, and Isabel H. Paret

Article first published online: 24 MAR 2010
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Assisted reproductive technologies and birth defects

Kohei Shiota
ABSTRACT In vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are effective treatments for infertility and are widely provided at infertility clinics. Although IVF and related ART procedures are generally considered safe, some studies have suggested an excess occurrence of major malformations, low birth-weight and other perinatal complications in babies conceived by ART. Further, it was recently reported that IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are associated with imprinting disorders in the offspring such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. Here we review the human and animal studies investigating the potential risks of ART, and discuss the need for further investigation. [source]

Maternal and neonatal outcomes in 54 triplet pregnancies managed in an Australian tertiary centre

Abstract Background:, To provide current data on maternal and neonatal outcomes in triplet pregnancies in an Australian population. Methods:, Retrospective case note review of all triplet pregnancies managed within a single Australian tertiary centre. Results:, Fifty-four sets of triplets were managed from January 1996 to October 2002. A total of 59% resulted from the use of assisted reproductive technologies. The median gestation at delivery was 32.5 weeks (range: 21,36 weeks); 14% delivered prior to 28 weeks and 43% delivered before 32 weeks. Preterm labour and preterm rupture of membranes were the most common antenatal complications occurring in 57 and 22% of pregnancies, respectively. A total of 93% of pregnancies were delivered by Caesarean section and 37% of mothers experienced at least one post-partum complication. A total of 96% of neonates were liveborn, with a median birthweight of 1644 g (range: 165,2888 g). The two most common neonatal complications were jaundice and hypoglycaemia in 52 and 43% of liveborn neonates, respectively. A total of 28% of neonates were below the 10th centile for gestational age and sex. A total of 8% of neonates demonstrated congenital anomalies. The perinatal mortality at a gestational age of 20,24 weeks was 100%, 22% at 25,28 weeks and zero for those babies born at 29 weeks or beyond. Conclusion:, Assisted reproductive technologies contribute significantly to the incidence of triplet pregnancies. Gestational age at delivery and perinatal mortality is comparable to published international data. Triplets born in a tertiary centre beyond 28 weeks gestation have a very favourable prognosis in the newborn period. [source]

Assisted reproductive technologies and birth defects

Kohei Shiota
ABSTRACT In vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are effective treatments for infertility and are widely provided at infertility clinics. Although IVF and related ART procedures are generally considered safe, some studies have suggested an excess occurrence of major malformations, low birth-weight and other perinatal complications in babies conceived by ART. Further, it was recently reported that IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are associated with imprinting disorders in the offspring such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Angelman syndrome. Here we review the human and animal studies investigating the potential risks of ART, and discuss the need for further investigation. [source]

Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies: Bright and dark sides

Kaoru Suzumori
ABSTRACT, Infertility is defined as a couples failure to conceive following 2 years of unprotected sexual intercourse, affects 10% of reproductive age couples in Japan. There are 3 main causes: (1) ovarian failure-anovulation (29%); (2) tubal factor-anatomic defects of the female genital tract (36%); (3) male factor-abnormal spermatogenesis (31%). The goal of the infertility evaluation are to determine the probable cause of infertility regarding prognosis and to provide guidance regarding options for treatment In the event an obstruction of the fallopian tubes is discovered or spermatogenesis cannot be improved, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT) and in vitro fertilization with embryo transfer (IVF-ET) are recommended. Since the successful birth of Louise Brown by this IVF-ET, an explosion of ART has occurred all over the world in the last decade. In this review we discuss the revolution brought about by ART focusing on results in Japan, and clarify ethical issues that must be resolved. [source]

Modalities for Treatment of Antisperm Antibody Mediated Infertility: Novel Perspectives

Rajesh K. Naz
Immunoinfertility because of antisperm antibodies (ASA) is an important cause of infertility in humans. The incidence of ASA in infertile couples is 9,36% depending on the reporting center. Early claims regarding the incidence and involvement of ASA in involuntary infertility were probably overemphasized, which has resulted in subsequent confusion, doubt, and underestimation of their clinical significance. No immunoglobulin that binds to sperm should be called an antisperm antibody in a strict sense unless it is directed against a sperm antigen that plays a role in fertilization and fertility. ASA directed against the fertilization-related antigens are more relevant to infertility than the immunoglobulins that bind to sperm associated antigens. Several methods have been reported for treatment of immunoinfertility. These include: immunosuppressive therapies using corticosteroids or cyclosporine; assisted reproductive technologies such as intrauterine insemination, gamete intrafallopian transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection; laboratory techniques such as sperm washing, immunomagnetic sperm separation, proteolytic enzyme treatment, and use of immunobeads. Most of the available techniques have side effects, are invasive and expensive, have low efficacy, or provide conflicting results. Recent findings using defined sperm antigens that have a role in fertilization/fertility have provided animal models and innovative novel perspectives for studying the mechanism of immunoinfertility and possible modalities for treatment. The better understanding of local immunity and latest advances in hybridoma and recombinant technologies, proteomics and genomics leading to characterization of sperm antigens relevant to fertility will help to clarify the controversy and to establish the significance of ASA in infertility. [source]

Influence of cigarette smoking on spermatozoa via seminal plasma

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 4 2005
M. Arabi
Summary Numerous investigations have been conducted on the relationship between cigarette smoking and male infertility, however, the exact molecular mechanisms are not well understood in most of the cases. Few studies have indicated the direct effect of seminal plasma (SP) [in different dilutions with phosphate buffer solution (PBS)] from smokers (SM) on the sperm functional parameters from nonsmokers (non-SM). The aim of this study was to provide evidence that cigarette smoking affects male fertility via altering the sperm quality. Our results indicated that exposure of spermatozoa from the non-SM to the SP from the SM yielded a significant reduction in the sperm motility and acrosome reaction and an elevation in the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), in a certain time course. Exposure of spermatozoa from the SM to the SP from the non-SM or with PBS resulted in the nonsignificant improvement in the altered sperm functional parameters indicating removal of SM's SP and then subsequent reconstitution with physiological media could be of clinical significance in the various assisted reproductive technologies applied for SM. However, the detrimental effect of SM's SP on non-SM's spermatozoa was prominent. In addition, as spermatozoa in SM's SP are susceptible to peroxidative damages, men with such cells who wish to have children should especially benefit from quitting smoking. [source]

Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors

Kirsten Louise Tryde Schmidt
Summary The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. [source]

Microsurgical vasoepididymostomy with sperm cryopreservation for future assisted reproduction

Hatsuki Hibi
Abstract Background Although obstructive azoospermia is treatable with microscopic seminal reconstruction, the number of patients who choose to undergo vasoepididymostomy is limited because of recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART). We attempted to define the outcome of surgical reconstruction in patients with suspected epididymal obstruction and no previous history of vasectomy. Methods We described 40 eligible end-to-side vasoepididymostomy procedures performed on 24 azoospermic patients who had either bilateral or unilateral epididymal obstruction. Results The overall patency rate following surgery was 54% (13/24) and for four patients (17%), natural intercourse resulted in pregnancy. Two pregnancies were initiated with intracytoplasmic sperm injections using frozen sperm collected during vasoepididymostomy. Conclusions In the era of modern ART, microsurgical vasoepididymostomy with cryopreservation of sperm collected during the operation is recommended for patients with epididymal obstructions. [source]

Diagnosis and treatment of post-herniorrhaphy vas deferens obstruction

Tadashi Matsuda
Childhood inguinal herniorrhaphy (IH) is one of the most frequent causes of seminal tract obstruction. The incidence of vasal obstruction was found to be as high as 26.7% in subfertile patients with a history of childhood IH. The distal end of the vas deferens was found at the internal inguinal ring or in the pelvic cavity in 56.7% of cases, more than 3 cm of the vas deferens had been resected in 37.9% of cases, and sperm was found in vasal fluid in 45.5% of cases during corrective surgery. Microsurgical two-layer vasovasostomy resulted in the postoperative appearance of sperm in 39% of patients. In patients with postoperative azoospermia, a secondary epididymal obstruction caused by a long-term vasal obstruction is a highly probable cause. Ipsilateral epididymovasostomy following successful inguinal vasovasostomy results in the postoperative appearance of sperm in the ejaculate in 100% of the patients and a subsequent natural pregnancy rate of 50%. The overall pregnancy rate among couples, following surgery in 18 patients, was 43%, excluding pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Microsurgical reanastomosis of the seminal tract resulted in high impregnation rates among partners of patients with seminal tract obstruction caused by childhood IH. After receiving sufficient information on each treatment modality, patients can choose their preferred treatment, either reanastomosis of the seminal tract or assisted reproductive technology using epididymal or testicular sperm. [source]

New frontiers of assisted reproductive technology (Chien Tien Hsu Memorial Lecture 2007)

P. C. Ho
Abstract Many significant advances have been made in assisted reproductive technology since the birth of the first baby conceived with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The development of recombinant gonadotropins and gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists helps to simplify the ovarian stimulation. Excessive ovarian stimulation should be avoided because of the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and reduction in endometrial receptivity. Maturation of oocytes in vitro has been developed in some centers. It is still uncertain whether techniques such as assisted hatching, blastocyst transfer and pre-implantation aneuploidy screening can improve the live birth rates in assisted reproduction. The introduction of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for selection of human lymphocyte antigens (HLA) compatible embryos for treatment of siblings has raised ethical concerns. There is a higher risk of obstetric complications and congenital abnormalities even in singleton pregnancies achieved with assisted reproduction. Because of the risks of multiple pregnancies, elective single embryo transfer is increasingly used in good-prognosis patients. With a good freezing program, the cumulative pregnancy rate (including the pregnancies from subsequent replacement of frozen-thawed embryos) is not adversely affected. Improvement in cryopreservation techniques has made it possible to cryopreserve slices of ovarian tissue or oocytes, thus helping women who have to receive sterilizing forms of anti-cancer treatment to preserve their fertility. It is important that the development of the new techniques should be based on good scientific evidence. Ethical, legal and social implications should also be considered before the introduction of new techniques. [source]

Spontaneous abortion and assisted reproductive technology in the United States

L M Tatham
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Epidemic of plurality and contributions of assisted reproductive technology therein,

Monica Kapoor
Abstract A commentary on contributions of ART to the pandemic of multiple gestations is presented and mechanistic aspects therein are explored. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Comparison of symptomatology in Taiwanese women pregnant with and without assisted reproductive technology

Pi-Chao Kuo
Abstract We compared the symptoms of 91 Taiwanese women, 50 pregnant by assisted reproductive technology (ART), with those of 41 women, pregnant without assistance. They completed a self-administered demographic questionnaire and symptomatology inventory (SI) during each trimester. The ART group had a higher frequency of complications and hospitalizations than the unassisted women. No significant differences were found in physical and affective symptoms in the ART group across three trimesters, but significant differences were found in the unassisted group. In addition, ART and non-ART women differed in types of individual symptoms experienced each trimester. These findings suggest the need for nurses to assess each group for the presence of specific symptoms throughout pregnancy and to provide individualized symptom management. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Res Nurs Health 31:208,216, 2008 [source]

Erectile function and male reproduction in men with spinal cord injury: a review

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 3 2010
F. Dimitriadis
Summary Spinal cord injury (SCI) in men results in defects in erectile function, ejaculatory process and male reproductive potential. There are alterations in the capacity of men with SCI to achieve reflexogenic, psychogenic and nocturnal erections. The sexual function in different stages after SCI and the types of erections depend mainly on the completeness of the injury and the level of neurological damage. Furthermore, most of the SCI men demonstrate defects concerning the entrance of semen into the posterior urethra and the expulsion of the semen through the penile urethra and the urethral orifice. In addition, SCI men develop defects in the secretory function of the Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and the male accessory genital glands. The overall result is a decreased quality of the semen is recovered either with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or with electroejaculation. Nowadays the therapeutic andrological approach of SCI men focuses on achievement of erectile function, recovery of spermatozoa and assisted reproductive technology. The first line of therapy recommended for infertility in SCI men is collection of semen via PVS with concomitant evaluation of total motile sperm yields for assisted conception which may include intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Patients failing PVS may be referred for electroejaculation or surgical sperm retrieval. [source]

Avoidable risk factors in perinatal deaths: A perinatal audit in South Australia

Objectives: To analyse risk factors of perinatal death, with an emphasis on potentially avoidable risk factors, and differences in the frequency of suboptimal care factors between maternity units with different levels of care. Methods: Six hundred and eight pregnancies (2001,2005) in South Australia resulting in perinatal death were described and compared to 86 623 live birth pregnancies. Results: Two hundred and seventy cases (44.4%) were found to have one or more avoidable maternal risk factors, 31 cases (5.1%) had a risk factor relating access to care, while 68 cases (11.2%) were associated with deficiencies in professional care. One hundred and four women (17.1% of cases) presented too late for timely medical care: 85% of these did have a sufficient number of antenatal visits. The following independent maternal risk factors for perinatal death were found: assisted reproductive technology (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.16), preterm labour (AOR 22.05), antepartum haemorrhage (APH) abruption (AOR 6.40), APH other/unknown cause (AOR 2.19), intrauterine growth restriction (AOR 3.94), cervical incompetence (AOR 8.89), threatened miscarriage (AOR 1.89), pre-existing hypertension (AOR 1.72), psychiatric disorder (AOR 1.85) and minimal antenatal care (AOR 2.89). The most commonly found professional care deficiency in cases was the failure to act on or recognise high-risk pregnancies/complications, found in 49 cases (8.1%). Conclusion: Further improvements in perinatal mortality may be achieved by greater emphasis on the importance of antenatal care and educating women to recognise signs and symptoms that require professional assessment. Education of maternity care providers may benefit from a further focus on how to recognise and/or manage high-risk pregnancies. [source]


BIOETHICS, Issue 7 2010
ABSTRACT This essay will focus on the moral issues relating to surrogacy in the global context, and will critique the liberal arguments that have been offered in support of it. Liberal arguments hold sway concerning reproductive arrangements made between commissioning couples from wealthy nations and the surrogates from socioeconomically weak backgrounds that they hire to do their reproductive labor. My argument in this paper is motivated by a concern for controlling harms by putting the practice of globalized commercial surrogacy into the context of care ethics. As I will argue, the unstable situations into which children of global surrogacy arrangements are born is symbolic of the crisis of care that the practice raises. Using the Baby Manji case as my touch point, I will suggest that liberalism cannot address the harms experienced by Manji and children like her who are created through the global practice of assisted reproductive technology. I will argue that, if commissioning couples consider their proposed surrogacy contracts from a care ethics point of view, they will begin to think relationally about their actions, considering the practice from an ethical lens, not just an economic or contractual one. [source]

Population-Based Study of Cesarean Section After In Vitro Fertilization in Australia

BIRTH, Issue 3 2010
Elizabeth A. Sullivan MBBS, FAFPHM
Abstract:, Background:, Decisions about method of birth should be evidence based. In Australia, the rising rate of cesarean section has not been limited to births after spontaneous conception. This study aimed to investigate cesarean section among women giving birth after in vitro fertilization (IVF). Methods:, Retrospective population-based study was conducted using national registry data on IVF treatment. The study included 17,019 women who underwent IVF treatment during 2003 to 2005 and a national comparison population of women who gave birth in Australia. The outcome measure was cesarean section. Results:, Crude rate of cesarean section was 50.1 percent versus 28.9 percent for all other births. Single embryo transfer was associated with the lowest (40.7%) rate of cesarean section. Donor status and twin gestation were associated with significantly higher rates of cesarean section (autologous, 49.0% vs donor, 74.9%; AOR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.80, 2.69) and (singleton, 45.0% vs twin gestations, 75.7%; AOR: 3.81, 95% CI: 3.46, 4.20). The gestation-specific rate (60.1%) of cesarean section peaked at 38 weeks for singleton term pregnancies. Compared with other women, cesarean section rates for assisted reproductive technology term singletons (27.8% vs 43.8%, OR: 2.02 [95% CI: 1.95,2.10]) and twins (62.0% vs 75.7%, OR: 1.92 [95% CI: 1.74,2.11]) were significantly higher. Conclusions:, Rates for cesarean section appear to be disproportionately high in term singleton births after assisted reproductive technology. Vaginal birth should be supported and the indications for cesarean section evidence based. (BIRTH 37:3 September 2010) [source]