Assisted Reproduction Techniques (assisted + reproduction_techniques)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in the treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction,

Summary The purpose of this review is to present the current understanding of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and electroejaculation (EEJ) procedures and its clinical use in men with ejaculatory dysfunction. Unfortunately, the record of treating such individuals has been quite poor, but within recent years development and refinement of PVS and EEJ in men with spinal cord injury (SCI) has significantly enhanced the prospects for treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction. The majority of spinal cord injured men are not able to produce antegrade ejaculation by masturbation or sexual stimulation. However, approximately 80% of all spinal cord injured men with an intact ejaculatory reflex arc (above T10) can obtain antegrade ejaculation with PVS. Electroejaculation may be successful in obtaining ejaculate from men with all types of SCI, including men who do not have major components of the ejaculatory reflex arc. Because vibratory stimulation is very simple in use, non-invasive, it does not require anaesthesia and is preferred by the patients when compared with EEJ, PVS is recommended to be the first choice of treatment in spinal cord injured men. Furthermore, EEJ has been successfully used to induce ejaculation in men with multiple sclerosis and diabetic neuropathy. Any other conditions which affect the ejaculatory mechanism of the central and/or peripheral nervous system including surgical nerve injury may be treated successfully with EEJ. Finally, for sperm retrieval and sperm cryopreservation before intensive anticancer therapy in pubertal boys, PVS and EEJ have been successfully performed in patients who failed to obtain ejaculation by masturbation. Nearly all data concerning semen characteristics in men with ejaculatory dysfuntion originate from spinal cord injured men. Semen analyses demonstrate low sperm motility rates in the majority of spinal cord injured men. The data give evidence of a decline in spermatogenesis and motility of ejaculated spermatozoa shortly after (few weeks) an acute SCI. Furthermore, it is suggested that some factors in the seminal plasma and/or disordered storage of spermatozoa in the seminal vesicles are mainly responsible for the impaired semen profiles in men with chronic SCI. Home insemination with semen obtained by penile vibratory and introduced intravaginally in order to achieve successful pregnancies may be an option for some spinal cord injured men and their partners. The majority of men will further enhance their fertility potential when using either penile vibratory or EEJ combined with assisted reproduction techniques such as intrauterine insemination or in-vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. [source]

Present and future therapeutic strategies for idiopathic oligozoospermia

Dimitrios A. Adamopoulos
The effectiveness of medical treatment for idiopathic oligozoospermia (IO) has been at best doubtful until now and a logical consequence of this unsatisfactory situation has been the partial displacement of this approach by assisted reproduction techniques. This state of affairs has resulted from insufficient investigation, inappropriately designed clinical trials and consistent disregard for the principles of evidence-based medicine. Protocol-related shortcomings and wrong interpretation of the data available have also been some of the all too frequent problems encountered in this therapeutic approach. In this rather misty situation, it appears that, of the therapeutic agents used so far, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (mainly FSH-secretagogues) may exert some beneficial effects on a number of biological endpoints related to spermatogenesis and sperm maturation. The short and medium term prospects of medical treatment for IO rest mainly with improvement of investigative procedures to a higher degree of sophistication, with emphasis placed on identifying the causes rather than the results of dysfunction so that a better selection of candidates can be made. Moreover, the introduction of prognostic indices for evaluation of the beneficial effects of a therapeutic agent may be of paramount importance. Finally, a better assessment of the preparations available and, possibly, the introduction of new more specific agents may also be an important step forward in this field. This type of large-scale effort should not be left to individual investigators or special centres working independently, but it may come under the auspices of a central regulating agency so that undisputed results from large, multicentre and uniform studies might be obtained, if medical treatment is to remain a good option. In this context, it may also be emphasized that andrology's main task should always be to treat the male with the problem rather than his healthy female partner, whenever this is possible. [source]

First-trimester serum marker distribution in singleton pregnancies conceived with assisted reproduction

M. A. J. Engels
Abstract Objective To evaluate marker distribution of free ,-human chorionic gonadotrophin (f,-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in singleton pregnancies conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART). Methods In vitro fertilization (IVF) (n = 203) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (n = 192) cases from a database of 14 645 first-trimester combined tests (overall study group) were selected and matched to 1164 controls for gestational age at sample date and maternal age. Results In the IVF group and ICSI group, lnPAPP-A was lower (IVF 6.74 vs 7.08; P = 0.0001; ICSI 6.59 vs 7.07; P = 0.0001) compared with the matched controls. Lnf,-hCG was lower in the IVF group (3.75 vs 3.90; P = 0.005) but not significantly different in the ICSI group (3.87 vs 3.93; P = 0.27). The computed correction factors for PAPP-A and f,-hCG were 1.42 and 1.17 for the IVF group and 1.56 and 1.05 for the ICSI group. The false-positive rate (FPR) in the IVF and ICSI group compared with the matched controls was higher (IVF 10.3% vs 8.6% and ICSI 10.9% vs 7.5%). In the overall age-biased [maternal age significantly lower compared with all ART and control groups] study group the FPR was 6.8%. Conclusion The increase in FPR in the ART groups can be explained by decreased PAPP-A values. Therefore, an adjustment in risk analysis for Down syndrome is suggested. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Lipopolysaccharide Alters the Vaginal Electrical Resistance in Cycling and Pregnant Mice

Varkha Agrawal
Problem, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been postulated to exert harmful biologic effects during pregnancy. The objective of present investigation is to measure the vaginal electrical resistance (VER) in LPS-treated normal cycling and pregnant female mice. Method of study, Minimum dose (MD) of LPS (250 ,g/kg body weight) was injected in pregnant female mice through i.p. route on day 0.5 of pregnancy. VER was measured during different phases of reproductive cycle in female mice, which were pre-exposed to LPS and in untreated cycling female mice. VER was also measured in control pregnant female mice (saline-treated mice) through whole pregnancy and LPS-treated female mice in early stages of pregnancy. Results, Vaginal electrical resistance was significantly higher during proestrous or early estrous stage as compared with any other stages of reproductive cycle in mouse. One peak of VER was observed during peri-implantation period of pregnancy in control female mice. The significant differences in the pattern of VER were found between LPS-treated and control female mice during peri-implantation period of pregnancy, and between cycling female mice, which were pre-exposed to LPS and untreated cycling female mice during proestrus. Conclusion, The presented results demonstrate, for the first time, that LPS exposure during pregnancy may be determined by measuring VER in mothers without any adverse effect on ongoing pregnancy and may help in refining the assisted reproduction techniques. [source]