Assisted Conception (assisted + conception)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Jeanette Edwards
This article is about the ways in which residents of an English town explore ever-changing possibilities presented by new reproductive technologies (NRTs). It focuses on the way in which the idiom of incest emerges as a conceptual brake to certain possibilities presented by biotechnological intervention in conception. In this specific ethnographic example, we see that the meaning of incest is neither fixed nor predictable and goes beyond ideas about either biogenetic connection or appropriate and inappropriate sexual relations, even while embracing them. I argue that we need to pay attention to the bodies in which procreative substances that ought not to be mixed are combined and grown into new persons. The article also shows that exploration of NRTs continues to be animated by problematics of kinship. [source]

Fertility needs and funding in couples with blood-borne viral infection

HIV MEDICINE, Issue 1 2010
E Kalu
Background Couples infected with HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are increasingly seeking assisted conception. These couples avoid unprotected intercourse and use condoms at all times in order to minimize the risk of infecting their partner. As this practice inhibits pregnancy, assisted procreation is generally required for safe conception. For many couples, access to such services is restricted on ethical, geographical and financial grounds. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the fertility needs, geographical origin and state funding of patients with blood-borne viral infection. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records of couples referred for fertility treatment between January 1999 and December 2006, where one or both partners were infected with HIV, HBV and/or HCV, was carried out. Results Of the 205 couples included in the study, 44% lived in London, 51% came from elsewhere in the United Kingdom and 5% travelled from outside the United Kingdom to seek treatment. Genitourinary medicine clinics were the main source of referral. 85.8% of couples had HIV infection, 15.1% were infected with HBV and 13.6% had HCV infection. Fertility screening identified a high incidence of male factor infertility (33.3%) in HIV-infected men and tubal disease (40.8%) in HIV-infected women. Only 23.6% of HIV-infected couples, 20% of HBV-infected couples and 12.5% of HCV-infected couples obtained state funding for assisted conception. Conclusion Fertility screening identified a high incidence of male and tubal factor subfertility among couples living with HIV, HBV and HCV. Limited access to specialist clinics equipped to cater for these couples and restricted funding may impact negatively on couples obtaining risk-reducing assisted reproduction treatment. This may have long-term public health implications as individuals attempt to conceive through unprotected intercourse. [source]


METAPHILOSOPHY, Issue 2-3 2007
Abstract: The main objection to human embryonic stem cell research is that it involves killing human embryos, which are essentially beings of the same sort that you and I are. This objection presupposes that we once existed as early embryos and that we had the same moral status then that we have now. This essay challenges both those presuppositions, but focuses primarily on the first. I argue first that these presuppositions are incompatible with widely accepted beliefs about both assisted conception and monozygotic twinning. I then argue that we never existed as embryos. If this last claim is right, killing an embryo does not kill someone like you or me but merely prevents one of us from existing. [source]

Nuchal translucency in dichorionic twins conceived after assisted reproduction

P. W. Hui
Abstract Objectives As opposed to biochemical markers of Down syndrome, nuchal translucency (NT) was once thought to be a more reliable screening marker for high order multiple pregnancies and pregnancies conceived after assisted conception. Recent data suggested that NT in singleton fetuses from assisted reproduction technology (ART) was thicker than those from singleton pregnancies. The present study compared the thickness of NT in dichorionic twins from natural conception and assisted reproduction. Methods A retrospective analysis for comparison of NT thickness on 3319 spontaneous singletons, 19 pairs of spontaneous twins and 27 pairs of assisted reproduction twins was performed. Results The median NT multiple of median (MoM) of spontaneous singletons was 1.00. For twins, the median NT MoM for pregnancies after assisted reproduction and natural conception were 1.02 and 1.07 respectively. There was no statistical difference in the NT thickness among the three pregnancy groups. Conclusion Contrary to the observed increase in NT in singleton pregnancies from assisted reproduction, the NT in dichorionic twins was comparable to the spontaneous ones. The mode of conception appears to impose differential influence on singletons and twins. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Erectile function and male reproduction in men with spinal cord injury: a review

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 3 2010
F. Dimitriadis
Summary Spinal cord injury (SCI) in men results in defects in erectile function, ejaculatory process and male reproductive potential. There are alterations in the capacity of men with SCI to achieve reflexogenic, psychogenic and nocturnal erections. The sexual function in different stages after SCI and the types of erections depend mainly on the completeness of the injury and the level of neurological damage. Furthermore, most of the SCI men demonstrate defects concerning the entrance of semen into the posterior urethra and the expulsion of the semen through the penile urethra and the urethral orifice. In addition, SCI men develop defects in the secretory function of the Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and the male accessory genital glands. The overall result is a decreased quality of the semen is recovered either with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or with electroejaculation. Nowadays the therapeutic andrological approach of SCI men focuses on achievement of erectile function, recovery of spermatozoa and assisted reproductive technology. The first line of therapy recommended for infertility in SCI men is collection of semen via PVS with concomitant evaluation of total motile sperm yields for assisted conception which may include intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Patients failing PVS may be referred for electroejaculation or surgical sperm retrieval. [source]

Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: A case-control study

Abdullah KARAER
Abstract Aim:, To identify the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Methods:, We conducted a prospective case-control study for the role of several risk factors in the occurrence of ectopic pregnancy in Turkey. A total of 225 cases and 375 controls were compared for sociodemographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, obstetric, gynaecological, surgical histories, the presence or absence of assisted conception and contraceptive usage. Results:, The main risk factors for ectopic pregnancy were prior ectopic pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 13.1) and a history of infectious reproductive system (AOR for pelvic inflammatory disease: 6.8). Other risk factors found to be associated with an increased risk for ectopic pregnancy were multisexual partner (AOR: 3.5), history of infertility (AOR: 2.5), induced conception cycle (AOR: 3.4), current intrauterine device usage (AOR: 3.2), prior Caesarean section (AOR: 2.1) and cigarette smoking at the time of conception (AOR = 1.7). On the contrary, barrier methods were protective from ectopic pregnancy (AOR: 0.4). Conclusions:, The increased awareness and knowledge of risk factors have enabled an early and accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. This study has found prior pelvic infection to be a major aetiological factor for ectopic pregnancy. Furthermore, other factors found to be associated with ectopic pregnancy, such as prior ectopic pregnancy, infertility history and induced conception cycle, may be the result of a previous pelvic infection that may cause tubal sequelae. These factors are potential targets for intervention and modification. [source]

The impact of an assisted conception unit on the workload of a general gynaecology unit

Joanne McManus
The burden placed on a hospital by the presence of an assisted conception unit has been emphasised only in terms of its impact on neonatal services. This paper examines the previously neglected subject of the gynaecological workload generated by a tertiary fertility centre that provides treatments by assisted conception. As many IVF units operate independently this additional workload may not be appreciated. It has, however, significant practical and financial implications for neighbouring hospitals and trusts. This is of particular relevance in view of the move towards more uniform health service funding of assisted conception throughout the United Kingdom. [source]

The implications of adoption for donor offspring following donor-assisted conception

Eric Blyth
ABSTRACT In this paper the authors, all experienced social workers with research and practice interests in assisted conception, review practices concerning access to genetic origins information in adoption, and consider to what extent these may be relevant for practice in donor-assisted conception. The paper concludes with policy and practice recommendations that take account of the views of donor offspring and their desire for increased information about their genetic heritage. [source]