Assistants

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Assistants

  • care assistant
  • digital assistant
  • health care assistant
  • healthcare assistant
  • nursing assistant
  • personal digital assistant
  • physician assistant
  • research assistant
  • teaching assistant
  • trained research assistant

  • Terms modified by Assistants

  • assistant professor
  • assistant role

  • Selected Abstracts


    A computer-based free body diagram assistant

    COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION, Issue 4 2006
    Robert J. Roselli
    Abstract We developed an online Free Body Diagram (FBD) Assistant that allows students to construct 2-D FBDs and to receive constructive feedback for a wide range of practice problems. The system's architecture allows for interoperability between learning management systems and interactive student simulations designed to improve both learning and assessment. The system gathers useful information about students' decision processes as they construct FBDs. This information can be used with a diagnostic module we have developed to reliably, and dynamically, construct appropriate feedback that is specific to the diagram submitted by the student. Students use this asynchronous system to gain practice in constructing FBDs at their own pace, and their records can be analyzed to indicate progress over time. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 281,290, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20088 [source]


    Re: The Platform Forceps as a "No-Touch" Surgical Assistant

    DERMATOLOGIC SURGERY, Issue 12p2 2004
    FIACS, Lawrence M. Field MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Lay food and health worker involvement in community nutrition and dietetics in England: definitions from the field

    JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 3 2008
    L. A. Kennedy
    Abstract Background, Community-based food initiatives have developed in recent years with the aim of engaging previously ,hard to reach' groups. Lay workers engaged in community nutrition activities are promoted as a cost-effective mechanism for reaching underserved groups. The primary objective of the study was to explore perceptions and definitions of lay helping within the context of National Health Service (NHS) community nutrition and dietetic services to identify existing terms and definitions and propose an overarching term. Methods, Interpretive qualitative inquiry; semi-structured interviews with lay food and health worker (LFHW) and NHS professionals employed by community-based programmes, serving ,hard-to-reach' neighbourhoods, across England. Results, In total, 29 professionals and 53 LFHWs were interviewed across 15 of the 18 projects identified. Across all the projects, there was a preference for the use of one of two terms, either Community Food Worker or Community Nutrition Assistant, in reference to lay workers. There was no consensus in terms of a unifying term or definition for this new role. Conclusions, Current variation in the terms and definitions used for this role is problematic and is hindering development and effective utilization of lay helping within the broad remit of community food and health and dietetics. The umbrella term ,Lay Food and Health Worker' is proposed based upon definitions and interpretations from the field. [source]


    Vital signs for vital people: an exploratory study into the role of the Healthcare Assistant in recognising, recording and responding to the acutely ill patient in the general ward setting

    JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 5 2010
    JAYNE JAMES RN., Ortho.
    james j., butler-williams c., hunt j. & cox h. (2010) Journal of Nursing Management18, 548,555 Vital signs for vital people: an exploratory study into the role of the Healthcare Assistant in recognising, recording and responding to the acutely ill patient in the general ward setting Aim, To examine the contribution of the Healthcare Assistant (HCA) as the recogniser, responder and recorder of acutely ill patients within the general ward setting. Background, Concerns have been highlighted regarding the recognition and management of the acutely ill patient within the general ward setting. The contribution of the HCA role to this process has been given limited attention. Methods, A postal survey of HCAs was piloted and conducted within two district general hospitals. Open and closed questions were used. Results, Results suggest that on a regular basis HCAs are caring for acutely ill patients. Contextual issues and inaccuracies in some aspects of patient assessment were highlighted. It would appear normal communication channels and hierarchies were bypassed when patients' safety was of concern. Educational needs were identified including scenario-based learning and the importance of ensuring mandatory training is current. Conclusions and implications for nursing management, HCAs play a significant role in the detection and monitoring of acutely ill patients. Acknowledgement is needed of the contextual factors in the general ward setting which may influence the quality of this process. The educational needs identified by this study can assist managers to improve clinical supervision and educational input in order to improve the quality of care for acutely ill patients. [source]


    Patient safety and quality of care: the role of the health care assistant

    JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 6 2004
    AdvDipEd, DipN (Lond), FEANS, FRCN, FRCSI, Hugh P. McKenna BSc (Hons)
    The role of the Health Care Assistant emerged primarily to support the professional nurse and to undertake perceived ,non-nursing' duties under the direction and supervision of qualified nurses. Health Care Assistants are employed in a variety of clinical settings and carry out a range of tasks and procedures. While they represent a substantial proportion of the health care workforce, the growth of their role has taken place without regulation, clear boundaries, or systematic education and training. This has raised serious concerns, especially with regard to the issues of patient safety and quality of care. For health professionals, regulations, role clarity and validated education and training are key elements of ensuring the safety of the public. This paper explores these issues with regard to the Health Care Assistant role and finds them wanting. [source]


    Surface-mount loop antenna for AMPS/GSM/DCS/PCS operation in the PDA phone

    MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 9 2007
    Wei-Yu Li
    Abstract A surface-mount loop antenna very suitable for application in the mobile devices such as the PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) phone for quad-band operation is presented. The antenna comprises of a loop metal pattern for generating two wideband resonant modes at about 900 and 1800 MHz to cover the AMPS/GSM/DCS/PCS bands and a central coupling stub as the feed structure. Although quad-band operation is obtained, the antenna occupies a small volume of 7 × 8 × 60 mm3 or about 3.4 cm3 only and is easy to be embedded inside the PDA phone as an internal antenna. Details of the proposed surface-mount loop antenna are presented and discussed. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 49: 2250,2254, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.22700 [source]


    Handbook for Care Assistants, 6th edition.

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2005
    Edited by Lynne Phair, Sue Benson.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Patient safety and quality of care: the role of the health care assistant

    JOURNAL OF NURSING MANAGEMENT, Issue 6 2004
    AdvDipEd, DipN (Lond), FEANS, FRCN, FRCSI, Hugh P. McKenna BSc (Hons)
    The role of the Health Care Assistant emerged primarily to support the professional nurse and to undertake perceived ,non-nursing' duties under the direction and supervision of qualified nurses. Health Care Assistants are employed in a variety of clinical settings and carry out a range of tasks and procedures. While they represent a substantial proportion of the health care workforce, the growth of their role has taken place without regulation, clear boundaries, or systematic education and training. This has raised serious concerns, especially with regard to the issues of patient safety and quality of care. For health professionals, regulations, role clarity and validated education and training are key elements of ensuring the safety of the public. This paper explores these issues with regard to the Health Care Assistant role and finds them wanting. [source]


    Pediatric Skills for Occupational Therapy Assistants

    JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 7-8 2006
    Lin Oke MS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    The Effects of Instructional Training on University Teaching Assistants

    PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT QUARTERLY, Issue 4 2003
    Patricia L. Hardré
    ABSTRACT This study addressed the need for empirical tests of the global instructional design (ID) model as a toolkit for classroom teachers in authentic settings; and the performance improvement challenge of finding effective, efficient methods of professional development for preparing graduate assistants to teach. Participants were eighteen teaching assistants (TAs) with primary instructional responsibilities at a large Midwestern university. Twelve were given a training intervention in instructional design, while the other six served as a control group. The intervention was based on the iterative, five-phase ADDIE model, and principles from educational psychology. Dependent measures were TAs' ID knowledge, teaching self-efficacy, satisfaction with knowledge and strategies, perceived teaching competence, teaching performance and teaching effectiveness, and their students' engagement and perceived learning. All of the study's seven hypothesized relationships were found statistically significant. The intervention, though brief, measurably increased the ID knowledge of participating TAs, along with their teaching-related self-perceptions, and student outcomes. Instructional design emerges as a potentially powerful training tool for organizing teachers' and trainers' knowledge related to the complex practice of classroom instruction. [source]


    Rural generalist nurses' perceptions of the effectiveness of their therapeutic interventions for patients with mental illness

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 4 2005
    Chanelle Clark
    Abstract Objective:,To explore generalist nurses' perceptions of their efficacy in caring for mentally ill clients in rural and remote settings, and their educational needs in the area of mental health care. Design:,A self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Mental Health Problems Perception Questionnaire; a Likert scale used to rate the perceptions of nursing staff of their own ability to adequately treat and care for patients experiencing mental illness. Setting:,The Roma and Charleville Health Service Districts, Queensland, Australia. Subjects:,Nurses (Registered Nurses, Assistants in Nursing and Enrolled Nurses) in the Roma and Charleville health service districts (n = 163). Main outcome measures:,Generalist nurses' perceptions regarding their therapeutic commitment, role competency and role support. Results:,Seventy per cent of respondents indicated that limited knowledge of mental health problems was an issue preventing nursing staff in rural and remote settings from providing optimum care to patients with mental illness. Twenty-nine per cent of respondents indicated that they had never received or undertaken training or education in relation to the care, treatment or assessment of patients with mental illness. Conclusion:,Rural nurses do not feel competent, nor adequately supported, to deal with patients with mental health problems. In addition, the nurses' education and ongoing training do not adequately prepare them for this sphere. [source]


    Computer-based management environment for an assembly language programming laboratory

    COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION, Issue 1 2007
    Santiago Rodríguez
    Abstract This article describes the environment used in the Computer Architecture Department of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) for managing small laboratory work projects and a specific application for an Assembly Language Programming Laboratory. The approach is based on a chain of tools that a small team of teachers can use to efficiently manage a course with a large number of students (400 per year). Students use this tool chain to complete their assignments using an MC88110 CPU simulator also developed by the Department. Students use a Delivery Agent tool to send files containing their implementations. These files are stored in one of the Department servers. Every student laboratory assignment is tested by an Automatic Project Evaluator that executes a set of previously designed and configured tests. These tools are used by teachers to manage mass courses thereby avoiding restrictions on students working on the same assignment. This procedure may encourage students to copy others' laboratory work and we have therefore developed a complementary tool to help teachers find "replicated" laboratory assignment implementations. This tool is a plagiarism detection assistant that completes the tool-chain functionality. Jointly, these tools have demonstrated over the last decade that important benefits can be gained from the exploitation of a global laboratory work management system. Some of the benefits may be transferable to an area of growing importance that we have not directly explored, i.e. distance learning environments for technical subjects. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 15: 41,54, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20094 [source]


    A computer-based free body diagram assistant

    COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN ENGINEERING EDUCATION, Issue 4 2006
    Robert J. Roselli
    Abstract We developed an online Free Body Diagram (FBD) Assistant that allows students to construct 2-D FBDs and to receive constructive feedback for a wide range of practice problems. The system's architecture allows for interoperability between learning management systems and interactive student simulations designed to improve both learning and assessment. The system gathers useful information about students' decision processes as they construct FBDs. This information can be used with a diagnostic module we have developed to reliably, and dynamically, construct appropriate feedback that is specific to the diagram submitted by the student. Students use this asynchronous system to gain practice in constructing FBDs at their own pace, and their records can be analyzed to indicate progress over time. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 281,290, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae.20088 [source]


    Pre-operative screening for excessive alcohol consumption among patients scheduled for elective surgery

    DRUG AND ALCOHOL REVIEW, Issue 2 2007
    SWATI SHOURIE
    Abstract Pre-operative intervention for excessive alcohol consumption among patients scheduled for elective surgery has been shown to reduce complications of surgery. However, successful intervention depends upon an effective and practical screening procedure. This study examines current screening practices for excessive alcohol consumption amongst patients scheduled for elective surgery in general hospitals. It also examines the appropriateness of potential sites and staff for pre-operative screening. Forms used routinely to assess alcohol consumption in the pre-admission clinics (PAC) of eight Sydney hospitals were examined. In addition, the appropriateness of six staff categories (surgeons, surgeons' secretaries, junior medical officer, anaesthetists, nurses and a research assistant) and of two sites (surgeons' office and PAC) in conducting additional screening was assessed at two hospitals. Outcomes included observed advantages and disadvantages of sites and personnel, and number of cases with excessive drinking identified. There was duplication in information collected routinely on alcohol use in the PACs in eight Sydney Hospitals. Questions on alcohol consumption in patient self-completion forms were not validated. The PAC provided for efficient screening but time to surgery was typically too short for successful intervention in many cases. A validated tool and efficient screening procedure is required to detect excessive drinking before elective surgery. Patients often present to the PAC too close to the time of surgery for any change in drinking to reverse alcohol's effects. The role of the referring general practitioner and of printed advice from the surgeon in preparing patients for surgery needs further investigation. [source]


    Impact of Scribes on Performance Indicators in the Emergency Department

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 5 2010
    Rajiv Arya MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to quantify the effect of scribes on three measures of emergency physician (EP) productivity in an adult emergency department (ED). Methods:, For this retrospective study, 243 clinical shifts (of either 10 or 12 hours) worked by 13 EPs during an 18-month period were selected for evaluation. Payroll data sheets were examined to determine whether these shifts were covered, uncovered, or partially covered (for less than 4 hours) by a scribe; partially covered shifts were grouped with uncovered shifts for analysis. Covered shifts were compared to uncovered shifts in a clustered design, by physician. Hierarchical linear models were used to study the association between percentage of patients with which a scribe was used during a shift and EP productivity as measured by patients per hour, relative value units (RVUs) per hour, and turnaround time (TAT) to discharge. Results:, RVUs per hour increased by 0.24 units (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10 to 0.38, p = 0.0011) for every 10% increment in scribe usage during a shift. The number of patients per hour increased by 0.08 (95% CI = 0.04 to 0.12, p = 0.0024) for every 10% increment of scribe usage during a shift. TAT was not significantly associated with scribe use. These associations did not lose significance after accounting for physician assistant (PA) use. Conclusions:, In this retrospective study, EP use of a scribe was associated with improved overall productivity as measured by patients treated per hour (Pt/hr) and RVU generated per hour by EPs, but not as measured by TAT to discharge. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:490,494 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


    Extramural clinic in comprehensive care education

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 2 2003
    K. Petersson
    In the Malmo model, the students' experience of their future professional context is a basic principle. Therefore, comprehensive care education includes one day per week in the public dental health service during the 9th and 10th semesters. There are three main objectives of this clinical module that the students should be able to, namely: ,,Further develop insights in general dentistry and its pre-requisites in Sweden. ,,Identify themselves as a member of the professional team. ,,,Think like a dentist'. A questionnaire was given to final year students and their clinical supervisors in the public dental health service. The students were asked to self-assess to which extent they had achieved the objectives and to list the most valuable experiences of their practice. The supervisors assessed the students' fulfilment of the objectives and were asked on their experience of the co-operation with the dental school and their perception of the students' clinical competence. On a 9-grade rating scale both students and supervisors rated the fulfilment of the objectives high (7,9). The supervisors rated somewhat higher than the students did. The students mentioned that it was most valuable to take full responsibility, work closely together with a dental assistant and to experience a ,real' professional context. The supervisors' most frequent comment was that the co-operation with the faculty could be improved considerably. Our conclusion is that both the dental students and their clinical supervisors considered this model for extramural clinical training most valuable. [source]


    Occupational exposures occurring in students in a UK dental school,

    EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF DENTAL EDUCATION, Issue 3 2002
    D. A. Stewardson
    Background:, Students whilst training may encounter a number of incidents where infection from patient body fluids may occur, especially as their manual skills are underdeveloped and their clinical experience is limited. Purpose of study:, (a) To assess the nature of the occupational exposures occurring to students in a UK dental school, (b) to assess the rate of reporting of incidents, and (c) to evaluate the association of various factors with these exposures. Students in the third, fourth and final years of the 5-year undergraduate dental course at the University of Birmingham were asked to complete a questionnaire that enquired into personal details, number and nature of incidents, their reporting and follow-up. A 100% response rate was achieved. Results:, Across the years, there was no significant correlation (p > 0.01) between sex, dominant hand, use of protective glasses or time of day. Slightly more exposures occurred in males, right-handed students, and in the afternoon. A significant decrease in exposures (p < 0.01) occurred within final year, and when an assistant was employed. Significantly more incidents occurred while a patient was being treated than during operational clean-up procedures. A substantial number of dental students had experienced one or more occupational exposures during training. Of these, percutaneous injuries predominated. Junior students appear to be more likely to experience exposures, and in these students, needlestick injuries are the most common source. Conclusions:, To reduce the incidence of these exposures, more instruction and training may be required in the earlier clinical years and more chairside assistance. Improvements are required in the monitoring of post-screening for seroconversion after HBV immunization, and in the reporting of test results in the event of an exposure incident. Under-reporting of incidents is common and ways to encourage and facilitate reporting should be sought. [source]


    Parents and Practitioners Are Poor Judges of Young Children's Pain Severity

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 6 2002
    Adam J. Singer MD
    Objective: Visual analog pain scales are reliable measures in older children and adults; however, pain studies that include young children often rely on parental or practitioner assessments for measuring pain severity. The authors correlated patient, parental, and practitioner pain assessments for young children with acute pain. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive study of a convenience sample of 63 emergency department patients aged 4-7 years, with acute pain resulting from acute illness or painful invasive procedures. A trained research assistant administered a structured pain survey containing demographic and historical features to all parents/guardians. Children assessed their pain severity using a validated ordinal scale that uses five different faces with varying degrees of frowning (severe pain) or smiling (no pain). Each face was converted to a numeric value from 0 (no pain) to 4 (severe pain). Parents and practitioners independently assessed their child's pain using a validated 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) marked "most pain" at the high end. Pairwise correlations between child, parent, and practitioner pain assessments were performed using Spearman's or Pearson's test as appropriate. The association between categorical data was assessed using ,2 tests. Results: Sixty-three children ranging in age from 4 to 7 were included. Mean age (±SD) was 5.7 (±1.1); 42% were female. Fifty-seven successfully completed the face scale. The distribution of the children's scores was 0-17%, 1-9%, 2-30%, 3-14%, and 4-30%. Mean parental and practitioner scores (±SD) on the VAS were 61 (±26) mm and 37 (±26) mm, respectively (maximal = 100 mm). Correlation between child and parent scores was 0.47 (p < 0.001). Correlation between child and practitioner scores was 0.08 (p = 0.54). Correlation between parent and practitioner scores was 0.04 (p = 0.001). Conclusions: There is poor agreement between pain ratings by children, parents, and practitioners. It is unclear which assessment best approximates the true degree of pain the child is experiencing. [source]


    Emergency Medicine Resident Patient Care Documentation Using a Hand-held Computerized Device

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 12 2001
    Steven B. Bird MD
    Abstract Objective: To determine whether emergency medicine (EM) resident documentation of procedures, patient encounters, and patient follow-ups improved after implementation of a personal digital assistant (PDA) hand-held recording system. Methods: All first-year EM residents were provided a PalmV (Palm, Inc., Santa Clara, CA) PDA. A customized patient procedure and encounter program was constructed using Pendragon Forms (Pendragon Software Corporation, Libertyville, IL) and loaded into each PDA. Residents were instructed to enter information on patients who had any of 21 procedures performed or were considered to be clinically unstable. These data were downloaded to the residency coordinator's desktop computer. The mean number of procedures, encounters, and follow-ups performed per resident were then compared with those of a group of 36 historical controls from the three previous first-year resident classes who recorded the same information using a handwritten card system. Data from the historical controls were combined and the means of each group were compared by Student's t-test. Results: Mean documentation of three procedures was significantly increased in the PDA group versus the index card system: conscious sedation 5.8 vs. 0.03 (p < 0.000005), thoracentesis 2.2 vs. 0.0 (p = 0.002), ultrasound 6.3 vs. 0.0 (p = 0.002). The mean numbers of pericardiocenteses and unstable pediatric surgical patient evaluations were significantly decreased in the hand-held group [from 1.2 to 0.4 (p = 0.03) and from 9.1 to 2.2 (p = 0.02), respectively]. Patient follow-up documentations were not statistically different between the two groups. Conclusions: Use of a hand-held PDA was associated with an increase in first-year EM resident documentation in three of 20 procedures and a decrease in one procedure and the number of unstable surgical pediatric patient resuscitations. The overall time savings in constructing a resident procedure database, as well as the other uses of the PDAs, may make transition to a hand-held computer-based procedure log an attractive option for EM residencies. [source]


    Ability of Patients to Accurately Recall the Severity of Acute Painful Events

    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 3 2001
    Adam J. Singer MD
    Abstract. Objective: Pain studies require prospective patient enrollment to ensure accurate pain assessment. The authors correlated pain assessments of an acute painful episode over a one-week period and determined the accuracy of patient pain severity recall over time. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive, longitudinal study. Participants were a convenience sample of 50 emergency department patients with acute pain resulting from injuries or painful invasive procedures. A trained research assistant administered a structured pain survey containing demographic and historical features to all patients. Patients sequentially assessed their pain severity using a vertical 100-mm visual analog scale marked "most pain" at the top, a verbal numeric rating scale ranging from 0 to 100 from none to worst (NRS100), and a verbal numeric rating scale ranging from 0 to 10 from none to worst (NRS10). Patients were contacted by phone and asked to reassess their initial pain severity one and seven days later using the two verbal numeric rating scales. Analysis of pain assessments using the various scales at the three time intervals was performed with Pearson's and Spearman's coefficients and repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: There were 50 patients with a mean age of 41 years. Correlation between initial pain assessments on the three scales ranged from 0.83 to 0.92. Correlations between the initial and 24-hour assessments were NRS100-0.98 and NRS10-0.98. Correlations between the initial and one-week assessments were NRS100-0.96 and NRS10-0.97. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed no significant change in pain assessments over time for both verbal numeric scales. Conclusions: Pain severity assessments of acute painful events one and seven days later were similar and highly correlated with initial assessments using both verbal numeric scales. Patients accurately recall the severity of an acute painful episode for at least one week after its occurrence, which may allow retrospective pain assessments. [source]


    A Successful Peer Writing Assistant Program

    FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS, Issue 6 2001
    Bonnie L. Youngs PhD
    Since then, writing assistants have been used across three levels (elementauy, intemediate, advanced)of language learning in all seven languages taught at Carnegie Mellon University. Student feedback on the program has been gathered and assessed, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Students indicated that out-of-class peer review is beneficial to them. The writing assistants themselves feel their skills also improve when working with their peers. Instructors appreciate the flexibility of integrating a writing assistant according to the needs and requirements of their particular language(s). In addition to explanations of the data, we offer suggestions for the development, coordination, implementation, and integration of a successful peer writing assistance program. [source]


    Teaching and Learning Guide for: Memoryscape: How Audio Walks Can Deepen Our Sense of Place by Integrating Art, Oral History and Cultural Geography

    GEOGRAPHY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 5 2008
    Toby Butler
    Author's Introduction This article is concerned with the history and practice of creating sound walks or ,memoryscapes': outdoor trails that use recorded sound and spoken memory played on a personal stereo or mobile media to experience places in new ways. It is now possible to cheaply and easily create this and other kinds of located media experience. The development of multi-sensory-located media (,locedia') presents some exciting opportunities for those concerned with place, local history, cultural geography and oral history. This article uses work from several different disciplines (music, sound art, oral history and cultural geography) as a starting point to exploring some early and recent examples of locedia practice. It also suggests how it might give us a more sophisticated, real, embodied and nuanced experience of places that the written word just can not deliver. Yet, there are considerable challenges in producing and experiencing such work. Academics used to writing must learn to work in sound and view or image; they must navigate difficult issues of privacy, consider the power relations of the outsider's ,gaze' and make decisions about the representation of places in work that local people may try and have strong feelings about. Creating such work is an active, multi-sensory and profoundly challenging experience that can offer students the chance to master multi-media skills as well as apply theoretical understandings of the histories and geographies of place. Author Recommends 1.,Perks, R., and Thomson, A. (2006). The oral history reader, 2nd ed. London: Routledge. This is a wonderful collection of significant writing concerned with oral history. Part IV, Making Histories features much of interest, including a thought-provoking paper on the challenges of authoring in sound rather than print by Charles Hardy III, and a moving interview with Graeme Miller, the artist who created the Linked walk mentioned in the memoryscape article. These only feature in the second edition. 2.,Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: a short introduction. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. A refreshingly clear and well-written guide to the different theoretical takes on what makes places , a good starting point for further reading. 3.,Carlyle, A. (ed.). (2008). Autumn leaves: sound and the environment in artistic practice. Paris, France: Double Entendre. This is a collection of short essays and examples of located sonic media art; it includes interviews with practitioners and includes Hildegard Westekamp's Soundwalking, a practical guide to leading students on a mute walk. Lots of thought provoking, applied reading material for students here. 4.,Blunt, A., et al. (eds) (2003). Cultural geography in practice. London: Arnold. A great book for undergraduate and postgraduate students , concepts explained and lots of examples of actually doing cultural geography. The chapter on mapping worlds by David Pinder is particularly useful in this context. 5.,Pinder, D. (2001). Ghostly footsteps: voices, memories and walks in the city. Ecumene 8 (1), pp. 1,19. This article is a thoughtful analysis of a Janet Cardiff sound walk in Whitechapel, East London. Online Materials http://www.memoryscape.org.uk This is my project website, which features two online trails, Dockers which explores Greenwich and the memories of the London Docks that are archived in the Museum of London, and Drifting which is a rather strange experiment-combining physical geography and oral history along the Thames at Hampton Court, but still makes for an interesting trail. Audio, maps and trails can be downloaded for free, so students with phones or iPods can try the trails if you are within reach of Surrey or London. The site features an online version, with sound-accompanying photographs of the location. http://www.portsofcall.org.uk This website has three more trails here, this time of the communities surrounding the Royal Docks in East London. The scenery here is very dramatic and anyone interested in the regeneration of East London and its impact on local communities will find these trails interesting. Like Dockers, the walks feature a lot of rare archive interviews. This project involved a great deal of community interaction and participation as I experimented with trying to get people involved with the trail-making process. The site uses Google maps for online delivery. http://www.soundwalk.com This New York-based firm creates exceptionally high-quality soundwalks, and they are well worth the money. They started by producing trails for different districts of New York (I recommend the Bronx Graffiti trail) and have recently made trails for other cities, like Paris and Varanassi in India. http://www.mscapers.com This website is run by Hewlett Packard, which has a long history of research and development in located media applications. They currently give free licence to use their mscape software which is a relatively easy to learn way of creating global positioning system-triggered content. The big problem is that you have to have a pricey phone or personal digital assistant to run the software, which makes group work prohibitively expensive. But equipment prices are coming down and with the new generations of mobile phones developers believe that the time when the player technology is ubiquitous might be near. And if you ask nicely HP will lend out sets of equipment for teaching or events , fantastic if you are working within reach of Bristol. See also http://www.createascape.org.uk/ which has advice and examples of how mscape software has been used for teaching children. Sample Syllabus public geography: making memoryscapes This course unit could be adapted to different disciplines, or offered as a multidisciplinary unit to students from different disciplines. It gives students a grounding in several multi-media techniques and may require support/tuition from technical staff. 1.,Introduction What is a located mediascape, now and in the future? Use examples from resources above. 2.,Cultural geographies of site-specific art and sound Theories of place; experiments in mapping and site-specific performance. 3.,Walk activity: Westergard Hildekamp , sound walk, or one of the trails mentioned above The best way , and perhaps the only way , to really appreciate located media is to try one in the location they have been designed to be experienced. I would strongly advise any teaching in this field to include outdoor, on-site experiences. Even if you are out of reach of a mediascape experience, taking students on a sound walk can happen anywhere. See Autumn Leaves reference above. 4.,Researching local history An introduction to discovering historical information about places could be held at a local archive and a talk given by the archivist. 5.,Creating located multimedia using Google maps/Google earth A practical exercise-based session going through the basics of navigating Google maps, creating points and routes, and how to link pictures and sound files. 6.,Recording sound and oral history interviews A practical introduction to the techniques of qualitative interviewing and sound recording. There are lots of useful online guides to oral history recording, for example, an online oral history primer http://www.nebraskahistory.org/lib-arch/research/audiovis/oral_history/index.htm; a more in depth guide to various aspects of oral history http://www.baylor.edu/oral%5fhistory/index.php?id=23566 or this simple oral history toolkit, with useful links to project in the North of England http://www.oralhistorynortheast.info/toolkit/chapter1.htm 7.,Sound editing skills Practical editing techniques including working with clips, editing sound and creating multi-track recordings. The freeware software Audacity is simple to use and there are a lot of online tutorials that cover the basics, for example, http://www.wikieducator.org/user:brentsimpson/collections/audacity_workshop 8.,Web page design and Google maps How to create a basic web page (placing pictures, text, hyperlinks, buttons) using design software (e.g. Dreamweaver). How to embed a Google map and add information points and routes. There is a great deal of online tutorials for web design, specific to the software you wish to use and Google maps can be used and embedded on websites free for non-profit use. http://maps.google.com/ 9,and 10. Individual or group project work (staff available for technical support) 11.,Presentations/reflection on practice Focus Questions 1What can sound tell us about the geographies of places? 2When you walk through a landscape, what traces of the past can be sensed? Now think about which elements of the past have been obliterated? Whose past has been silenced? Why? How could it be put back? 3Think of a personal or family story that is significant to you. In your imagination, locate the memory at a specific place. Tell a fellow student that story, and describe that place. Does it matter where it happened? How has thinking about that place made you feel? 4What happens when you present a memory of the past or a located vision of the future in a present landscape? How is this different to, say, writing about it in a book? 5Consider the area of this campus, or the streets immediately surrounding this building. Imagine this place in one of the following periods (each group picks one): ,,10,000 years ago ,,500 years ago ,,100 years ago ,,40 years ago ,,last Thursday ,,50 years time What sounds, voices, stories or images could help convey your interpretation of this place at that time? What would the visitor hear or see today at different points on a trail? Sketch out an outline map of a located media trail, and annotate with what you hear/see/sense at different places. Project Idea small group project: creating a located mediascape Each small group must create a located media experience, reflecting an aspect of the history/geography/culture of an area of their choosing, using the knowledge that they have acquired over the course of the semester. The experience may be as creative and imaginative as you wish, and may explore the past, present or future , or elements of each. Each group must: ,,identify an area of interest ,,research an aspect of the area of the groups choosing; this may involve visiting local archives, libraries, discussing the idea with local people, physically exploring the area ,,take photographs, video or decide on imagery (if necessary) ,,record sound, conduct interviews or script and record narration ,,design a route or matrix of media points The final project must be presented on a website, may embed Google maps, and a presentation created to allow the class to experience the mediascape (either in the classroom or on location, if convenient). The website should include a brief theoretical and methodological explanation of the basis of their interpretation. If the group cannot be supported with tuition and support in basic website design or using Google mapping with sound and imagery, a paper map with locations and a CD containing sound files/images might be submitted instead. For examples of web projects created by masters degree students of cultural geography at Royal Holloway (not all sound based) see http://www.gg.rhul.ac.uk/MA/web-projects.html [source]


    Modeling and simulation of bioheat transfer in the human eye using the 3D alpha finite element method (,FEM)

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Issue 8 2010
    Eric Li
    Abstract Computational modeling is an effective tool for the detection of eye abnormalities and a valuable assistant to hyperthermia treatments. In all these diagnoses and treatments, predicting the temperature distribution accurately is very important. However, the standard finite element method (FEM) currently used for such purposes has strong reliance on element meshes and the discretized system exhibits the so-called ,overly stiff' behavior. To overcome this shortcoming, this paper formulates an alpha finite element method (,FEM) to compute two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) bioheat transfer in the human eyes. The ,FEM can produce much more accurate results using triangular (2D) and tetrahedron (3D) elements that can be generated automatically for complicated domains and hence is particularly suited for modeling human eyes. In the ,FEM, a scaling factor ,,[0, 1] is introduced to combine the ,overly stiff' FEM model and ,overly soft' node-based finite element method (NS-FEM) model. With a properly chosen ,, the ,FEM can produce models with very ,close-to-exact' stiffness of the continuous system. Numerical results have shown that the present method gives much more accurate results compared with the standard FEM and the NS-FEM. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Autonomy of Artistic Expression for Adult Learners with Disabilities

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ART & DESIGN EDUCATION, Issue 2 2008
    Graham C. Young
    When an art tutor adopts the role of assistant to a disabled artist it is difficult not to move from helping with the physical handling of materials on the one hand into the actual creative process on the other, thus influencing how the artwork looks. Ecas is an Edinburgh-based charity which promotes opportunities for physically disabled people to be self-fulfilled and to participate in all aspects of society. They run, among other things, traditional art classes and computer classes. The use of computer technology (CT) in art seemed to offer the chance for self-fulfilment for disabled artists by increasing control over artistic choices and providing for self expression with only minimal assistance required from others. Ecas decided to fund a research project in the form of a ten-week pilot course and the data collected during the trial confirmed these possibilities and it was clear that adult learners with disabilities could benefit from CT in order to have greater autonomy in the creation of their art than before. In particular the program Corel Painter IX.5 and various graphics tablets proved to be a powerful arsenal for self-expression without having to wait for a tutor to tape paper to a board, replenish paint, change brushes attached to a head pointer or any one of the many and varied problems disabled students had with traditional art materials. [source]


    Examining item bias in the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2008
    Wai-Kwong Tang
    Abstract The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used screening instrument for depression and anxiety in medically compromised patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential item functioning (DIF) of the anxiety subscale of the HADA (HADS-A). A research assistant administered the HADS-A to 166 Chinese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. Although the HADS-A was overall uni-dimensional, there were one mute item and two items with borderline misfit. Only one item had a DIF for arterial oxygen saturation. No item had DIF for other indicators of the severity of COPD. In conclusion, this study found that for one item the HADS-A has significant item bias for the severity of disease in patients with COPD. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Estimated Time and Educational Requirements to Perform NIC Interventions

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING TERMINOLOGIES AND CLASSIFICATION, Issue 2003
    Gloria M. Bulechek
    PURPOSE To estimate the time to perform and type of personnel to deliver each of the 486 interventions listed and described in the third edition of NIC. METHODS Small groups of research team members rated selected interventions in their area of expertise on education and time needed for each intervention. Education needed was defined as the minimal educational level necessary to perform the intervention in most cases in most states. Rating categories were (a) nursing assistant (NA/LPN/LVN/technician), (b) RN (basic education whether baccalaureate, associate degree, or diploma), or (c) RN with post-basic education or certification. Time needed was defined as the average time needed to perform the intervention. Raters selected one of five possible time estimates: (a) <15 minutes, (b) 16,30 minutes, (c) 31,45 minutes, (d) 46,60 minutes, or (e) >1 hour. All ratings were reviewed across groups to ensure overall consistency. FINDINGS Results of this exercise provide beginning estimates of the time and education needed for 486 NIC interventions. Twenty percent required <15 minutes, 30% required 16,30 minutes, 17% required 31,45 minutes, 12% required 46,60 minutes, and 21% required >1 hour. More than 70% of the interventions were judged as needing basic RN education to perform. Raters judged RN post-basic education to be required to performi 16% of the interventions, and 14% were deemed appropriate for personnel with NA/LPN education to perform. A monograph, Estimated Time and Educational Requirements to Perform 486 Nursing Interventions, available from http://www.nursing@uiowa.ed/cnc, includes lists of interventions appropriate for each time and education category, as well as time and education ratings according to NIC domains and classes. DISCUSSION The estimates of time and education provided by expert ratings provide a good beginning for cost estimates, resource planning, and reimbursement. The results of this study add to the small but growing body of literature that demonstrates that estimates of time to perform interventions by nurses who are familiar with the interventions is an accurate and efficient method to determine time values. A description of how this information can be used in a costing model is in the July/August 2001 issue of Nursing Economics. CONCLUSIONS NIC has identified the interventions that nurses perform. This study of time to perform and type of personnel to deliver each of the NIC interventions can help nurse leaders make better-informed decisions about cost-effective nursing care. [source]


    The evidence-based supply of non-prescription medicines: barriers and beliefs

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY PRACTICE, Issue 2 2004
    Margaret C. Watson MRC fellow
    ABSTRACT Context The reclassification of prescription only medicines (POMs) to pharmacy only (P) and general sale list (GSL) status is ongoing in the UK. Pharmacy staff need support to ensure the appropriate supply of these non-prescription medicines (NPMs). Objective To investigate the type of evidence used in the decision to supply NPMs and the barriers associated with their supply. Methods A participant observation study was conducted in nine pharmacies in one area of Scotland (Grampian). In-depth interviews were conducted with one pharmacist and one medicine counter assistant (MCA) from each pharmacy to explore and compare their attitudes and beliefs towards evidence-based practice (EBP) and the supply of NPMs. Key findings Most consultations were product requests. Pharmacy staff had little awareness or understanding of the term EBP and no specific evidence was used in the majority of consultations. Pharmacists' attitudes towards EBP varied. Personal experience or feedback from customers were cited as evidence upon which treatment recommendations were based. Many barriers and problems were associated with the supply of NPMs. These included: lack of evidence; MCAs' self-perception of their role; questioning and communication skills; safety; and training needs. There was a gap between pharmacists' and MCAs' perceptions of who should be referred to the pharmacist. Many staff used the WWHAM mnemonic for questioning customers, but this was often used as a matter of rote rather than as a framework to engage the customer in a relevant and constructive consultation. The development of adequate communication skills to allow core information to be obtained to support decision making needs to be addressed. Conclusion An increased awareness of EBP and its role in quality care needs to be promoted to community pharmacists and MCAs. There is currently no formal continuing education provision or requirement for MCAs in the UK. Pharmacy staff, particularly MCAs, require continuing education on the supply of NPMs. [source]


    Complete robotic-assistance during laparoscopic living donor nephrectomies: An evaluation of 38 procedures at a single site

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 11 2007
    Jacques Hubert
    Objective: To evaluate our initial experience with entirely robot-assisted laparoscopic live donor (RALD) nephrectomies. Methods: From January 2002 to April 2006, we carried out 38 RALD nephrectomies at our institution, using four ports (three for the robotic arms and one for the assistant). The collateral veins were ligated, and the renal arteries and veins clipped, after completion of ureteral and renal dissection. The kidney was removed via a suprapubic Pfannenstiel incision. A complementary running suture was carried out on the arterial stump to secure the hemostasis. Results: Mean donor age was 43 years. All nephrectomies were carried out entirely laparoscopically, without complications and with minimal blood loss. Mean surgery time was 181 min. Average warm ischemia and cold ischemia times were 5.84 min and 180 min, respectively. Average donor hospital stay was 5.5 days. None of the transplant recipients had delayed graft function. Conclusions: Robot-assisted laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be safely carried out. Robotics enhances the laparoscopist's skills, enables the surgeon to dissect meticulously and to prevent problematic bleeding more easily. Donor morbidity and hospitalization are reduced by the laparoscopic approach and the use of robotics allows the surgeon to work under better ergonomic conditions. [source]


    Telemedicine and teledermatology: Past, present and future

    JOURNAL DER DEUTSCHEN DERMATOLOGISCHEN GESELLSCHAFT, Issue 2 2008
    Elisabeth M.T. Wurm
    Summary Telemedicine is an emerging field within medicine with potential to revolutionize the delivery of health care. It is defined as the use of telecommunication technologies to transfer medical information.Teledermatology is a category of telemedicine. Early experiments were already made at the beginning of the 20th century, the breakthrough happened in the nineties because of the rapid progress of telecommunication technology. The latest advance is mobile telemedicine which is characterized by the use of mobile devices such as mobile phone and PDA (personal digital assistant).Advantages of telemedicine are the possibility of remote patient-care as well as the easy and fast access to expert opinions and education. This can either happen through exchange of previously stored data/images (store-and-forward method) or in real time. Since our society is increasingly becoming interconnected via technical advances, it is essential that medicine also has an objective understanding of the topic. [source]


    Nursing Time Devoted to Medication Administration in Long-Term Care: Clinical, Safety, and Resource Implications

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 2 2009
    Mary S. Thomson PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To quantify the time required for nurses to complete the medication administration process in long-term care (LTC). DESIGN: Time-motion methods were used to time all steps in the medication administration process. SETTING: LTC units that differed according to case mix (physical support, behavioral care, dementia care, and continuing care) in a single facility in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Regular and temporary nurses who agreed to be observed. MEASUREMENTS: Seven predefined steps, interruptions, and total time required for the medication administration process were timed using a personal digital assistant. RESULTS: One hundred forty-one medication rounds were observed. Total time estimates were standardized to 20 beds to facilitate comparisons. For a single medication administration process, the average total time was 62.0±4.9 minutes per 20 residents on physical support units, 84.0±4.5 minutes per 20 residents on behavioral care units, and 70.0±4.9 minutes per 20 residents on dementia care units. Regular nurses took an average of 68.0±4.9 minutes per 20 residents to complete the medication administration process, and temporary nurses took an average of 90.0±5.4 minutes per 20 residents. On continuing care units, which are organized differently because of the greater severity of residents' needs, the medication administration process took 9.6±3.2 minutes per resident. Interruptions occurred in 79% of observations and accounted for 11.5% of the medication administration process. CONCLUSION: Time requirements for the medication administration process are substantial in LTC and are compounded when nurses are unfamiliar with residents. Interruptions are a major problem, potentially affecting the efficiency, quality, and safety of this process. [source]