Assistance Programs (assistance + program)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Effect of an Expenditure Cap on Low-Income Seniors' Drug Use and Spending in a State Pharmacy Assistance Program

HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
Christine E. Bishop
Objective. To estimate the impact of a soft cap (a ceiling on utilization beyond which insured enrollees pay a higher copayment) on low-income elders' use of prescription drugs. Data Sources and Setting. Claims and enrollment files for the first year ( June 2002 through May 2003) of the Illinois SeniorCare program, a state pharmacy assistance program, and Medicare claims and enrollment files, 2001 through 2003. SeniorCare enrolled non-Medicaid-eligible elders with income less than 200 percent of Federal Poverty Level. Minimal copays increased by 20 percent of prescription cost when enrollee expenditures reached $1,750. Research Design. Models were estimated for three dependent variables: enrollees' average monthly utilization (number of prescriptions), spending, and the proportion of drugs that were generic rather than brand. Observations included all program enrollees who exceeded the cap and covered two periods, before and after the cap was exceeded. Principle Findings. On average, enrollees exceeding the cap reduced the number of drugs they purchased by 14 percent, monthly expenditures decreased by 19 percent, and the proportion generic increased by 4 percent, all significant at p<.01. Impacts were greater for enrollees with greater initial spending, for enrollees without one of five chronic illness diagnoses in the previous calendar year, and for enrollees with lower income. Conclusions. Near-poor elders enrolled in plans with caps or coverage gaps, including Part D plans, may face sharp declines in utilization when they exceed these thresholds. [source]


Calibration accuracy of a judgmental process that predicts the commercial success of new product ideas

JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL DECISION MAKING, Issue 4 2007
Thomas Åstebro
Abstract We examine the accuracy of forecasts of the commercial potential of new product ideas by experts at an Inventor's Assistance Program (IAP). Each idea is evaluated in terms of 37 attributes or cues, which are subjectively rated and intuitively combined by an IAP expert to arrive at a forecast of the idea's commercialization prospects. Data regarding actual commercialization outcomes for 559 new product ideas were collected to examine the accuracy of the IAP forecasts. The intensive evaluation of each idea conducted by the IAP produces forecasts that accurately rank order the ideas in terms of their probability of commercialization. The focus of the evaluation process on case-specific evidence that distinguishes one idea from another, however, and the corresponding neglect of aggregate considerations such as the base rate (BR) and predictability of commercialization for new product ideas in general, yields forecasts that are systematically miscalibrated in terms of their correspondence to the actual probability of commercialization. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


An analysis of the neighborhood impacts of a mortgage assistance program: A spatial hedonic model

JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2010
Wenhua Di
Down payment or closing cost assistance is an effective program in addressing the wealth constraints of low-and moderate-income homebuyers. However, the spillover effect of such programs on the neighborhood is unknown. This paper estimates the impact of the City of Dallas Mortgage Assistance Program (MAP) on nearby home values using a hedonic model of home sales from 1990 to 2006. We define neighborhoods of 1,000 feet around each sale and estimate the average differences in sales prices between neighborhoods with various numbers of MAP properties before and after their appearance. We find that MAP properties tend to locate in neighborhoods with lower property values; however, unless a concentration of MAP properties forms, the infusion of MAP properties has little detrimental impact on neighboring property values. Moreover, low concentration of MAP properties has a modest positive impact on surrounding property values. © 2010 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]


Developmental Considerations for Substance Use Interventions From Middle School Through College

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2005
Elizabeth J. D'Amico
This article summarizes a symposium organized by Dr. Elizabeth D'Amico and presented at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Vancouver, Canada. The four presentations illustrate the importance of creating substance use interventions that are developmentally appropriate for youth. They represent innovative approaches to working with preteens, teenagers, and young adults. Dr. D'Amico's paper describes her research on the development of a voluntary brief intervention targeting alcohol use among middle school students. Findings indicated that by using school and community input, she was able to obtain a diverse a sample of youth across grades, sex, ethnicity, and substance use status. Dr. Ellickson's paper describes her research on Project ALERT, a school-based prevention program for middle school youth. Her findings indicate that Project ALERT worked for students at all levels of risk (low, moderate, and high) and for all students combined. Dr. Wagner's Teen Intervention Project was a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a standardized Student Assistance Program for treating middle and high school students with alcohol and other drug problems. The study provided a unique opportunity to begin to examine how development may impact response to an alcohol or other drug intervention. Dr. Turrisi's paper examined processes underlying the nature of the effects of a parent intervention on college student drinking tendencies. Findings suggested that the parent intervention seems to have its impact on student drinking by reducing the influence of negative communications and decreasing the susceptibility of influences from closest friends. Dr. Kim Fromme provided concluding remarks. [source]


Real Estate Brokerage, Homebuyer Training, and Homeownership Sustainability for Housing Assistance Programs

FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
Wayne Archer
This study examines a previously overlooked factor in the rate of default on home loans by marginal first-time homebuyers; namely, the purchase transaction process. In particular, the study examines the potential for the type of initial contact in a homebuyer assistance program to affect the likelihood of default on a subsequent home loan. Using data from 41 state funded local assistance programs in Florida, the study is able to examine the relationship of program default rates to the source of applicant for assistance. Specifically, it examines the explanatory capacity of the percentage of applicants who had a contract to purchase prior to applying for assistance, indicated that the applicant already has engaged with a broker or lender. It finds that the percentage of applicants for assistance who already have engaged with a broker or lender is very significantly and positively relate to the program default rate. [source]


Some Additional Comments on the Sources and Measurement of the Benefits of Small Business Assistance Programs

JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2002
James J. Chrisman
This article continues a longstanding debate between the authors and Dr. William C. Wood on the usefulness of a particular application of cost-benefit analysis to evaluate small business assistance programs. We provide further discussions of the measurement of primary and secondary benefits with specific reference to the illustrative cases Wood presented in his 1999 article. We then review Wood's suggestions for improvements to small business program evaluations and discuss the progress made in recent evaluations of small business assistance programs. Finally, we reiterate the importance of innovation as an additional source of "secondary" benefits to the economy. [source]


Real Estate Brokerage, Homebuyer Training, and Homeownership Sustainability for Housing Assistance Programs

FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
Wayne Archer
This study examines a previously overlooked factor in the rate of default on home loans by marginal first-time homebuyers; namely, the purchase transaction process. In particular, the study examines the potential for the type of initial contact in a homebuyer assistance program to affect the likelihood of default on a subsequent home loan. Using data from 41 state funded local assistance programs in Florida, the study is able to examine the relationship of program default rates to the source of applicant for assistance. Specifically, it examines the explanatory capacity of the percentage of applicants who had a contract to purchase prior to applying for assistance, indicated that the applicant already has engaged with a broker or lender. It finds that the percentage of applicants for assistance who already have engaged with a broker or lender is very significantly and positively relate to the program default rate. [source]


A Successful Peer Writing Assistant Program

FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS, Issue 6 2001
Bonnie L. Youngs PhD
Since then, writing assistants have been used across three levels (elementauy, intemediate, advanced)of language learning in all seven languages taught at Carnegie Mellon University. Student feedback on the program has been gathered and assessed, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Students indicated that out-of-class peer review is beneficial to them. The writing assistants themselves feel their skills also improve when working with their peers. Instructors appreciate the flexibility of integrating a writing assistant according to the needs and requirements of their particular language(s). In addition to explanations of the data, we offer suggestions for the development, coordination, implementation, and integration of a successful peer writing assistance program. [source]


Small,Scale Entrepreneurship and Access to Capital in Peripheral Locations: An Empirical Analysis

GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 2 2002
Daniel Felsenstein
This paper presents an analysis of a public assistance program for small,scale entrepreneurship in peripheral areas. Public assistance compensates for market inefficiencies where the decision rules of financial institutions discriminate against otherwise viable small firms in capital markets. Lending institutions perceive high risk in providing debt capital when little information is present. Using empirical data from Israel, the determinants of this risk are estimated and the role of location in creating this information asymmetry is stressed. These results empirically establish that (1) location matters in determining the risk profile of the firm, (2) locationally targeted programs can reduce the information asymmetries that make peripheral firms unattractive to lenders, and (3) these programs can also generate positive welfare effects. Finally, there is speculation on the potential role of ICT (information and communications technology) in increasing the visibility of small firms in remote locations and creating a more symmetrical flow of information. [source]


Effect of an Expenditure Cap on Low-Income Seniors' Drug Use and Spending in a State Pharmacy Assistance Program

HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH, Issue 3 2009
Christine E. Bishop
Objective. To estimate the impact of a soft cap (a ceiling on utilization beyond which insured enrollees pay a higher copayment) on low-income elders' use of prescription drugs. Data Sources and Setting. Claims and enrollment files for the first year ( June 2002 through May 2003) of the Illinois SeniorCare program, a state pharmacy assistance program, and Medicare claims and enrollment files, 2001 through 2003. SeniorCare enrolled non-Medicaid-eligible elders with income less than 200 percent of Federal Poverty Level. Minimal copays increased by 20 percent of prescription cost when enrollee expenditures reached $1,750. Research Design. Models were estimated for three dependent variables: enrollees' average monthly utilization (number of prescriptions), spending, and the proportion of drugs that were generic rather than brand. Observations included all program enrollees who exceeded the cap and covered two periods, before and after the cap was exceeded. Principle Findings. On average, enrollees exceeding the cap reduced the number of drugs they purchased by 14 percent, monthly expenditures decreased by 19 percent, and the proportion generic increased by 4 percent, all significant at p<.01. Impacts were greater for enrollees with greater initial spending, for enrollees without one of five chronic illness diagnoses in the previous calendar year, and for enrollees with lower income. Conclusions. Near-poor elders enrolled in plans with caps or coverage gaps, including Part D plans, may face sharp declines in utilization when they exceed these thresholds. [source]


An analysis of the neighborhood impacts of a mortgage assistance program: A spatial hedonic model

JOURNAL OF POLICY ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2010
Wenhua Di
Down payment or closing cost assistance is an effective program in addressing the wealth constraints of low-and moderate-income homebuyers. However, the spillover effect of such programs on the neighborhood is unknown. This paper estimates the impact of the City of Dallas Mortgage Assistance Program (MAP) on nearby home values using a hedonic model of home sales from 1990 to 2006. We define neighborhoods of 1,000 feet around each sale and estimate the average differences in sales prices between neighborhoods with various numbers of MAP properties before and after their appearance. We find that MAP properties tend to locate in neighborhoods with lower property values; however, unless a concentration of MAP properties forms, the infusion of MAP properties has little detrimental impact on neighboring property values. Moreover, low concentration of MAP properties has a modest positive impact on surrounding property values. © 2010 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. [source]


Environmental influences on food security in high-income countries

NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 1 2010
Delvina Gorton
Food security is a fundamental human right yet many people are food insecure, even in high-income countries. Reviewed here is the evidence for the physical, economic, sociocultural, and political environmental influences on household food security in high-income countries. The literature was evaluated using the ANGELO framework, which is a lens developed for understanding the environmental factors underpinning the obesity pandemic. A review of the literature identified 78 articles, which mostly reported on cross-sectional or qualitative studies. These studies identified a wide range of factors associated with food security. Foremost among them was household financial resources, but many other factors were identified and the complexity of the issue was highlighted. Few studies were prospective and even fewer tested the use of interventions other than the supplemental nutrition assistance program to address food security. This indicates a solution-oriented research paradigm is required to identify effective interventions and policies to enhance food security. In addition, comprehensive top-down and bottom-up interventions at the community and national levels are urgently needed. [source]


Steady-state field-scale gas permeability estimation and pore-gas velocity calculation in a domain open to the atmosphere

REMEDIATION, Issue 4 2000
Dominic C. Digiulio
Field-scale estimation of gas permeability and subsequent computation of pore-gas velocity profiles are critical elements of sound soil venting design. It has been our experience, however, in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) technical assistance program, provided by the Office of Research and Development in support EPA regional offices, that many venting practitioners are unaware of equations and data interpretation methods appropriate for gas permeability estimation and pore-gas velocity computation. To ameliorate this situation, we use data collected at a U.S. Coast Guard Station in Traverse City, Michigan, to demonstrate gets permeability estimation and pore-gas velocity calculation for steady-state, axisymmetric, two-dimensional gas flow in a domain open to the atmosphere. For gas permeability estimation, we use random guesses constrained with decreasing intervals of radial and vertical permeabilityand analysis of root mean square errors to ensure attainment of a global versus local minimum. We demonstrate confidence in permeability estimation by providing plots of observed versus simulated pressure response. Finally, we illustrate how plots of pore-gas velocity as a function of distance and flow rate can be helpful in venting design. [source]


Developmentalism in Korea: A Useful Tool for Explaining the Role of Social Security in the Reduction of Poverty and Inequality

ASIAN SOCIAL WORK AND POLICY REVIEW, Issue 2 2008
Sang Kyun Kim
It is conventional wisdom that universalism is more effective than selectivism in addressing the problems of poverty and inequality. In providing income security for the elderly, retirement pensions calculated on the principle of social insurance represent universalism and social assistance benefits on the basis of means-test selectivism. Korea has both a contributory pension scheme and social assistance program for the elderly. The social assistance began in 1961. The contributory scheme, the National Pension, started belatedly in 1988 and its coverage expanded to the entire population in 1999. We can, therefore, expect that the social security system, especially the universal pension scheme based on social insurance, has some positive impacts on the reduction of poverty and inequality. This paper, however, raises doubt as to the conventional wisdom and thus reviews the developmental process of the Korean social security system for the aged. It was found that the dominant ideological controversy revolved, not around universalism versus selectivism, but around the option between developmentalism and other strategies. Our empirical analysis showed that the public pension had little impact on the reduction of poverty and inequality, particularly in comparison with advanced welfare states. This is not surprising at all, since poverty eradication and redistribution were not major objectives of the Korean social security system. The controversy between universalism and selectivism was relatively unfamiliar in the policy process of the Korean social security system. Even though the redistributive effect is getting larger as the National Pension system becomes mature, the developmentalist model has been proved to be a more useful tool for explaining the limited role of Korean social security. [source]


Real Estate Brokerage, Homebuyer Training, and Homeownership Sustainability for Housing Assistance Programs

FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 4 2009
Wayne Archer
This study examines a previously overlooked factor in the rate of default on home loans by marginal first-time homebuyers; namely, the purchase transaction process. In particular, the study examines the potential for the type of initial contact in a homebuyer assistance program to affect the likelihood of default on a subsequent home loan. Using data from 41 state funded local assistance programs in Florida, the study is able to examine the relationship of program default rates to the source of applicant for assistance. Specifically, it examines the explanatory capacity of the percentage of applicants who had a contract to purchase prior to applying for assistance, indicated that the applicant already has engaged with a broker or lender. It finds that the percentage of applicants for assistance who already have engaged with a broker or lender is very significantly and positively relate to the program default rate. [source]


Use of Public Transfer Programs and Privat Aid by Farm Workers

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, Issue 1 2000
Enrico Moretti
Legal status affects the use of public welfare and insurance and private assistance programs by families of farm workers. Families of unauthorized immigrants are more likely to use public medical assistance and less likely to use other public transfer programs than authorized immigrants and citizens. Unauthorized immigrants with young children in the United States are slightly more likely to use welfare, and welfare recipients are slightly more likely to have young children here. [source]


Faculty and Staff Health Promotion: Results From the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, Issue 8 2007
Danice K. Eaton PhD
ABSTRACT Background:, US schools employ an estimated 6.7 million workers and are thus an ideal setting for employee wellness programs. This article describes the characteristics of school employee wellness programs in the United States, including state-, district-, and school-level policies and programs. Methods:, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study every 6 years. In 2006, computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were completed by state education agency personnel in 49 states plus the District of Columbia and among a nationally representative sample of school districts (n = 445). Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with personnel in a nationally representative sample of elementary, middle, and high schools (n = 873). Results:, During the 2 years preceding the study, 67.3% of states provided assistance to districts or schools on how to develop or implement faculty and staff health promotion activities or services. Although nearly all schools offered at least 1 health promotion service or activity, few schools offered coordinated activities and services within a comprehensive employee wellness program. During the 12 months preceding the study, none of the health screenings were offered by more than one third of schools; only a few of the health promotion activities and services were offered by more than one third of schools; about one third of schools offered physical activity programs, employee assistance programs, and subsidies or discounts for off-site health promotion activities; and only 1 in 10 schools provided health-risk appraisals for faculty and staff. Conclusions:, More schools should implement comprehensive employee wellness programs to improve faculty and staff health behaviors and health status. [source]


Some Additional Comments on the Sources and Measurement of the Benefits of Small Business Assistance Programs

JOURNAL OF SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2002
James J. Chrisman
This article continues a longstanding debate between the authors and Dr. William C. Wood on the usefulness of a particular application of cost-benefit analysis to evaluate small business assistance programs. We provide further discussions of the measurement of primary and secondary benefits with specific reference to the illustrative cases Wood presented in his 1999 article. We then review Wood's suggestions for improvements to small business program evaluations and discuss the progress made in recent evaluations of small business assistance programs. Finally, we reiterate the importance of innovation as an additional source of "secondary" benefits to the economy. [source]


A Comparison of Perspectives on Breastfeeding Between Two Generations of Black American Women

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF NURSE PRACTITIONERS, Issue 1 2001
Marjaneh M. Fooladi MSN, PhDArticle first published online: 24 MAY 200
PURPOSE To determine differences in breastfeeding perspectives between two generations of black American women with and without access to governmental food assistance programs (i.e., WIC). DATA SOURCES Descriptive, comparative study of a convenience sample of 118 black American women in their childbearing years and beyond conducted in a primary rural health care clinic serving an indigent population. CONCLUSIONS A significant difference was found between breastfeeding perceptions and rate among younger black American women on WIC program and their mothers without access to these programs. The availability of free formula through WIC programs has partially influ-enced the rate of breastfeeding among the young black American women. The other sig-nificant influencing factor was public embarrassment at breastfeeding. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE An extensive educational campaign is needed in order to influence the public's perceptions of breastfeeding as an embarrassment. The success of programs such as WIC must be measured beyond the first six months of an infant's life. [source]


A Community Development Approach to Rural Recruitment

THE JOURNAL OF RURAL HEALTH, Issue 2003
C. Ken Shannon MD
The Recruitable Community Project (RCP) in West Virginia includes community education on recruiting and also assessments of and recommendations to rural communities on broad-based community development, aiming to enhance communities' recruiting potential. The project provides multidisciplinary university-based planning assistance programs for small communities, involving collaborative community visits. The project also uses a project manager as a "community encourager" who participates in community education and in the formulation of sustained community recruiting efforts. From August 1999 through August 2001, 7 underserved rural communities completed the RCP organizational processes and hosted planning assistance teams. Members of community recruitment boards gave high marks to the RCP process, its planning assistance teams, and its usefulness in establishing community ties to state and academic agencies. Since working with the RCP, the 7 communities have recruited 27 providers, success possibly stimulated by their RCP involvement (data current as of September 2002). This model of community training and development to empower rural communities to better recruit health professionals shows early promise. This model could be broadened to include more collaboration of community development and health science disciplines programs for recruitment and retention efforts [source]


ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS: UNDERSTANDING AND ADDRESSING THE "SILENT TSUNAMI"

ANNALS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2009
David Himmelgreen
The food riots and demonstrations that occurred in more than 50 countries in 2008 signaled the oncoming global economic recession. Skyrocketing food and fuel prices spurred on violence in poorer countries where there is no social safety net and in places impacted by food insecurity and malnutrition. Today, while the prices for some food staples have retracted a little, the deepening economic recession poses a threat in wealthier nations including the United States and members of the European Union. For example, the shuttering fall in the U.S. stock market in October 2008 resulted in the loss of billions of dollars not only to individual investors but also to states and local municipalities. In this environment, there is a potentially grave threat to the social safety net in the United States including food assistance programs. The World Food Program (WFP) has cited the increase in world food prices as the biggest challenge in its 45-year history, calling the impact a "silent tsunami" that threatened to plunge millions into hunger. In this volume, practicing and applied anthropologists examine the current global food crisis in a variety of settings including Belize, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Mozambique, Tanzania, and the United States. Further, they use a variety of theoretical orientations and methodological approaches to understand the chronic nature of food insecurity and the ways in which global food policies and economic restructuring have resulted in increasing food inequities across the globe. Throughout this volume, the authors make suggestions for combating the global food crisis through the application of anthropological principles and practices. [source]


LAVICHÈ: HAITI'S VULNERABILITY TO THE GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS

ANNALS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL PRACTICE, Issue 1 2009
John Mazzeo
In April 2008, the global rise in food prices reached a breaking point in Haiti where a series of food riots swept across the country. The majority of Haitians depend on the marketplace for food, especially imported rice. The dependence on the marketplace for food and the rise in prices has caused households to reduce purchases leading to growing hunger especially among the rural poor. Haiti's vulnerability to the food crisis is not a problem of supply; it's because of the high cost of living, lavichè in Haitian Creole. This article poses the question, why is Haiti, a country rooted in peasant agricultural production, vulnerable to the rise in global food prices. I propose that answers to the current crisis come from an understanding of rural livelihoods, strategies for accessing food, and global food policies. Rural households are not subsistence producers. Ironically, they have suffered most from the rise in prices because of their dependence on the marketplace. Changing consumption patterns relying on imported rather than domestic staples have increased vulnerability to rising prices. Additionally, economic policies surrounding the import and marketing of food have further increased Haiti's dependence on imports. Understanding the trends leading to Haiti's current food crisis will help to inform policies and programs aimed at providing temporary food assistance and hopefully lead to more effective development programs. This article is based on research conducted in rural Haiti during the summer of 2008, part of which was for World Vision International as it prepared to mitigate the crisis through food assistance programs. [source]


Modelling recruitment training in mathematical human resource planning

APPLIED STOCHASTIC MODELS IN BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY, Issue 1 2002
A. C. Georgiou
Abstract This paper deals with mathematical human resource planning; more specifically, it suggests a new model for a manpower-planning system. In general, we study a k -classed hierarchical system where the workforce demand at each time period is satisfied through internal mobility and recruitment. The motivation for this work is based on various European Union incentives, which promote regional or local government assistance programs that could be exploited by firms not only for hiring and training newcomers, but also to improve the skills and knowledge of their existing personnel. In this respect, in our augmented mobility model we establish a new ,training/standby' class, which serves as a manpower inventory position for potential recruits. This class, which may very well be internal or external to the system, is incorporated into the framework of a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. Furthermore, cost objectives are employed using the goal-programming approach, under different operating assumptions, in order to minimize the operational cost in the presence of system's constraints and regulations. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]