Pregnancy Rate (pregnancy + rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Pregnancy Rate

  • clinical pregnancy rate
  • ongoing pregnancy rate


  • Selected Abstracts


    Number of Follicular Waves and Their Effect on Pregnancy Rate in the Cow

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 2 2005
    HA Çelik
    Contents In the study, the relationship of follicular growth waves, oestradiol and pregnancy rates were investigated during oestrus cycle in cows. A total of 22, Brown Swiss cows (3,5 years old) were used for the study. The ovaries of animals were examined from sixth day of cycle to next oestrus by ultrasound. The follicles that were present in the ovarium were recorded. Follicular growth was observed every day by means of ultrasound examination. The blood samples were taken for analysis of oestradiol simultaneously with ultrasound examinations. The oestrus animals were inseminated. Each animal that inseminated was examined by ultrasound on day 28 after insemination for pregnancy diagnosis. Two follicular growth waves were observed in nine of 22 (40.9%), three waves in 13 of 22 (59.1%) animals. The oestradiol was found in the same concentration but in different release patterns between two and three waves animals. Pregnancy rate in cows with three and two follicular waves did not differ. In conclusion, emergence of three waves of follicular growth was higher in Brown Swiss cows, the analysis of oestradiol could be used for determination of the wave numbers and the animals with different waves may have had the same pregnancy rates. [source]


    Higher Black Adolescent Pregnancy Rates Linked to Contraception Methods

    NURSING FOR WOMENS HEALTH, Issue 2 2002
    Carolyn Davis Cockey
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Treatment with Adalimumab (Humira®) and Intravenous Immunoglobulin Improves Pregnancy Rates in Women Undergoing IVF,

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF REPRODUCTIVE IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Edward E. Winger
    Problem, The purpose of this study was to investigate whether treatment with TNF-, inhibitors and/or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) increases in vitro fertilization (IVF) success rates among young (<38 years) women with infertility and T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine elevation. Method of study, Seventy-five sub-fertile women with Th1/Th2 cytokine elevation were divided into four groups: Group I: Forty-one patients using both IVIG and Adalimumab (Humira®), Group II: Twenty-three patients using IVIG, Group III: Six patients using Humira®, and Group IV: Five patients using no IVIG or Humira®. Results, The implantation rate (number of gestational sacs per embryo transferred, with an average of two embryos transferred by cycle) was 59% (50/85), 47% (21/45), 31% (4/13) and 0% (0/9) for groups I, II, III and IV respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate (fetal heart activity per IVF cycle started) was 80% (33/41), 57% (13/23), 50% (3/6) and 0% (0/5) and the live birth rate was 73% (30/41), 52% (12/23), 50% (3/6) and 0% (0/5) respectively. There was a significant improvement in implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates for group I versus group IV (P = 0.0007, 0.0009, and 0.003, respectively) and for group II versus group IV (P = 0.009, 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). Conclusion, The use of a TNF-, inhibitor and IVIG significantly improves IVF outcome in young infertile women with Th1/Th2 cytokine elevation. [source]


    Number of Follicular Waves and Their Effect on Pregnancy Rate in the Cow

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 2 2005
    HA Çelik
    Contents In the study, the relationship of follicular growth waves, oestradiol and pregnancy rates were investigated during oestrus cycle in cows. A total of 22, Brown Swiss cows (3,5 years old) were used for the study. The ovaries of animals were examined from sixth day of cycle to next oestrus by ultrasound. The follicles that were present in the ovarium were recorded. Follicular growth was observed every day by means of ultrasound examination. The blood samples were taken for analysis of oestradiol simultaneously with ultrasound examinations. The oestrus animals were inseminated. Each animal that inseminated was examined by ultrasound on day 28 after insemination for pregnancy diagnosis. Two follicular growth waves were observed in nine of 22 (40.9%), three waves in 13 of 22 (59.1%) animals. The oestradiol was found in the same concentration but in different release patterns between two and three waves animals. Pregnancy rate in cows with three and two follicular waves did not differ. In conclusion, emergence of three waves of follicular growth was higher in Brown Swiss cows, the analysis of oestradiol could be used for determination of the wave numbers and the animals with different waves may have had the same pregnancy rates. [source]


    Pregnancy rates in mares after a single fixed time hysteroscopic insemination of low numbers of frozen-thawed spermatozoa onto the uterotubal junction

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
    L. H. A. MORRIS
    Summary Reasons for performing study: To compensate for the wide variation in the freezability of stallion spermatozoa, it has become common veterinary practice to carry out repeated ultrasonography of the ovaries of oestrous mares in order to be able to inseminate them within 6,12 h of ovulation with a minimum of 300,500 × 106 frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Furthermore, in order to achieve satisfactory fertility, this requirement for relatively high numbers of spermatozoa currently limits our ability to exploit recently available artificial breeding technologies, such as sex-sorted semen, for which only 5,20 × 106 spermatozoa are available for insemination. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of hysteroscopic vs. conventional insemination when low numbers of spermatozoa are used at a single fixed time after administration of an ovulation-inducing agent. Methods: In the present study, pregnancy rates were compared in 86 mares inseminated once only with low numbers of frozen-thawed spermatozoa (3,14 × 106) at 32 h after treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), either conventionally into the body of the uterus or hysteroscopically by depositing a small volume of the inseminate directly onto the uterotubal papilla ipsilateral to the ovary containing the pre-ovulatory follicle. Results: Pregnancy rates were similarly high in mares inseminated conventionally or hysteroscopically with 14 × 106 motile frozen-thawed spermatozoa (67% vs. 64%). However, when the insemination dose was reduced to 3 × 106 spermatozoa, the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the mares inseminated hysteroscopically onto the uterotubal junction compared to those inseminated into the uterine body (47 vs. 15%, P<0.05). Conclusions: When inseminating mares with <10 × 106 frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa, hysteroscopic uterotubal junction deposition of the inseminate is the preferred method. Potential clinical relevance: Satisfactory pregnancy rates are achievable after insemination of mares with frozen-thawed semen from fertile stallions 32 h after administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (Chorulon)1. Furthermore, these results were obtained when mares were inseminated with 14 × 106 progressively motile frozen-thawed spermatozoa from 2 stallions of proven fertility. [source]


    In Vitro Production of Equine Embryos: State of the Art

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 2010
    K Hinrichs
    Contents In vitro embryo production is possible in the horse both clinically and for research applications. Oocytes may be collected from excised ovaries post-mortem, or from either immature follicles or stimulated pre-ovulatory follicles in the live mare. In vitro maturation of immature oocytes typically yields approximately 60% mature oocytes. As standard in vitro fertilization is not yet repeatable in the horse, fertilization is performed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryo culture requires medium with high glucose, at least during blastocyst development, and rates of blastocyst development similar to those for cattle (25% to 35%) may be obtained. Pregnancy rates after transfer of in vitro -produced blastocysts are similar to those for embryos recovered ex vivo. [source]


    The effect of elevated serum estradiol levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin injection on pregnancy outcomes in an assisted reproduction program

    AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Tevfik YOLDEMIR
    Background: Women who have a high estradiol level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin injection are considered to have their in vitro fertilisation treatments compromised. How this really affects the pregnancy rates needs to be questioned. Aim: To determine if elevated serum estradiol levels on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin injection have a deleterious effect on clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates in an assisted reproduction program. Methods: A retrospective analysis was done of women with estradiol levels higher than 10 000 pmol/L and women with estradiol levels between 8000,10 000 pmol/L on the day of ovulation trigger undergoing in vitro fertilisation treatment at the Fertility Unit of the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, University of Sydney, Australia. Pregnancy rates were compared for those having fresh embryo transfers and those having frozen thawed embryo transfers in subsequent cycles. Results: There was no difference between the groups in terms of clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates. Conclusion:, Frozen thawed embryos obtained from controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles resulted in similar clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates as those obtained in previous fresh embryo transfer cycles. [source]


    Comparison of three single doses of mifepristone as emergency contraception: a randomised controlled trial

    AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 6 2005
    Jie JIN
    Abstract Background:, This is an analysis of the Australian component of a large World Health Organization multicentre dose-finding study of mifepristone for emergency contraception and the first clinical study of this controversial drug in Australia. Aims:, To compare the effectiveness and side-effects of three single doses of mifepristone taken within 120 h after unprotected coitus as emergency contraception. Design:, Double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Subjects and methods:, One hundred fifty healthy women with regular menstrual cycles who requested emergency contraception. Participants were allocated randomly to one of the three doses (10, 50 and 600 mg). The primary outcome was confirmed pregnancy, and secondary outcome measures included side-effects and delay in the onset of the next menses. Results:, Pregnancy rates for mifepristone 10, 50 and 600 mg were 2.0, 2.1 and 2.1%, respectively, with no significant difference between groups. No major side-effects occurred, except an unpredictable delay in the onset of the next menses. Mifepristone 600 mg caused a significantly longer delay in the onset of the next menses than either the 10 or the 50 mg dose. Conclusion:, Lowering the dose of mifepristone from 600 to 10 mg did not significantly impair its effectiveness as an emergency contraceptive, and caused less delay in the onset of the next menses. Therefore, a dose as low as 10 mg may be preferable to 600 mg for emergency contraception. This is very much lower than the dose required to terminate a pregnancy. [source]


    Levonorgestrel-releasing (20 ,g/day) intrauterine systems (Mirena) compared with other methods of reversible contraceptives

    BJOG : AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNAECOLOGY, Issue 10 2000
    R. S. French Research Fellow
    Objective To assess the relative contraceptive effectiveness, tolerability and acceptability of the levonorgestrel-releasing (20 ,g per day) intrauterine system (LNG-20) compared with reversible contraceptive methods in women of reproductive age. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Identification Studies were identified through seven databases, and by contacting investigators and organisations working in the contraceptive field. Main outcome measures Unplanned pregnancy and continuation of contraceptive method. Results Five of the seven randomised controlled trials which met the inclusion criteria were included in the meta-analyses; four were comparisons of the LNG-20 intrauterine system with nonhormonal intrauterine devices. LNG-20 intrauterine systems were compared with intrauterine devices divided into two categories, those > 250 mm3 (Copper T 380 Ag and Copper T 380 A intrauterine devices) and those , 250 mm3 (Nova-T, Copper T 220C and Copper 200 intrauterine devices). Pregnancy rates for the LNG-20 intrauterine system users were significantly less likely to become pregnant compared with users of intrauterine devices , 250 mm3, and significantly less likely to have an ectopic pregnancy. LNG-20 intrauterine system users were more likely to experience amenorrhoea and device expulsion than women using intrauterine devices > 250 mm3. LNG-20 intrauterine system users were significantly more likely than all the intrauterine device users to discontinue because of hormonal side effects and amenorrhoea. When the LNG-20 intrauterine system was compared with Norplant-2, the LNG-20 users were significantly more likely to experience oligo-amenorrhoea, but significantly less likely to experience prolonged bleeding and spotting. Conclusions The effectiveness of the LNG-20 intrauterine system was similar to or better than other contraceptive methods with which it was compared. Amenorrhoea was the main reason for the discontinuation of the LNG-20 intrauterine system, usually unnecessarily, since this end-organ suppression of bleeding is benign, associated with normal oestrogen levels. Women choosing this method should be informed of potential amenorrhoea when having pre-contraceptive counselling and that absent bleeding may be viewed as a positive outcome. [source]


    Effects of oyster extract on the reproductive function of zinc-deficient mice: Bioavailability of zinc contained in oyster extract

    CONGENITAL ANOMALIES, Issue 4 2003
    Yoshikazu Matsuda
    ABSTRACT Zinc is a vital nutrient in the normal reproductive function and embryonic development of mammals, and it is well known that oyster extract contains significant amounts of zinc. The effects of oyster extract on reproductive function, such as embryonic development, serum levels of zinc and sperm maturation were examined in zinc-deficient mice. Zinc deficiency in dams during pregnancy induced a decrease in the successful pregnancy rate, maternal weight gain, the number of live fetuses and fetal body weight. Zinc deficiency for 12 weeks in male mice induced a decrease in body weight, testis weight and sperm count in the epididymis. However, reproductive failure, embryonic defects and decreased sperm motility in zinc-deficient mice were improved by supplementation with oyster extract. Some nutrients contained in oyster extract, such as taurine and glycogen, may be related to the recovery of reproductive function. There were significantly lower serum concentrations of zinc in dams fed a zinc-deficient diet However, the serum zinc concentration was normal in the oyster extract-supplemented group. No difference in the concentration of serum zinc was observed between the oyster extract- and zinc carbonate-supplemented groups. From these findings, it is suggested that oyster extract is a useful supplement that can prevent reproductive defects from zinc deficiency, and the bioavailability of zinc may be identical to zinc carbonate. [source]


    The influence of early postbreeding uterine lavage on pregnancy rate in mares with intrauterine fluid accumulations after breeding

    EQUINE VETERINARY EDUCATION, Issue 5 2000
    B. Knutti
    First page of article [source]


    Pregnancy rates in mares after a single fixed time hysteroscopic insemination of low numbers of frozen-thawed spermatozoa onto the uterotubal junction

    EQUINE VETERINARY JOURNAL, Issue 2 2003
    L. H. A. MORRIS
    Summary Reasons for performing study: To compensate for the wide variation in the freezability of stallion spermatozoa, it has become common veterinary practice to carry out repeated ultrasonography of the ovaries of oestrous mares in order to be able to inseminate them within 6,12 h of ovulation with a minimum of 300,500 × 106 frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Furthermore, in order to achieve satisfactory fertility, this requirement for relatively high numbers of spermatozoa currently limits our ability to exploit recently available artificial breeding technologies, such as sex-sorted semen, for which only 5,20 × 106 spermatozoa are available for insemination. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of hysteroscopic vs. conventional insemination when low numbers of spermatozoa are used at a single fixed time after administration of an ovulation-inducing agent. Methods: In the present study, pregnancy rates were compared in 86 mares inseminated once only with low numbers of frozen-thawed spermatozoa (3,14 × 106) at 32 h after treatment with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), either conventionally into the body of the uterus or hysteroscopically by depositing a small volume of the inseminate directly onto the uterotubal papilla ipsilateral to the ovary containing the pre-ovulatory follicle. Results: Pregnancy rates were similarly high in mares inseminated conventionally or hysteroscopically with 14 × 106 motile frozen-thawed spermatozoa (67% vs. 64%). However, when the insemination dose was reduced to 3 × 106 spermatozoa, the pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the mares inseminated hysteroscopically onto the uterotubal junction compared to those inseminated into the uterine body (47 vs. 15%, P<0.05). Conclusions: When inseminating mares with <10 × 106 frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa, hysteroscopic uterotubal junction deposition of the inseminate is the preferred method. Potential clinical relevance: Satisfactory pregnancy rates are achievable after insemination of mares with frozen-thawed semen from fertile stallions 32 h after administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (Chorulon)1. Furthermore, these results were obtained when mares were inseminated with 14 × 106 progressively motile frozen-thawed spermatozoa from 2 stallions of proven fertility. [source]


    Adolescent Sexuality and Parent-Adolescent Processes: Promoting Healthy Teen Choices,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2000
    Laurie L. Meschke
    Trends in adolescent sexual health, the relation between parenting and adolescent sexual outcomes, and adolescent sexuality interventions with a parent component are reviewed. American adolescents have higher rates of unprotected sex and STI contraction than adults and nine times the teen pregnancy rate of their European counterparts. Parenting efforts are related to adolescent sexual behavior. The review of 19 relevant programs supports the incorporation of theory and the ecological model in program design and evaluation. [source]


    Fertility among female hodgkin lymphoma survivors attempting pregnancy following ABVD chemotherapy

    HEMATOLOGICAL ONCOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    David C. Hodgson
    Abstract Although ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy is infrequently associated with premature amenorrhea, little is known about the success rate of women attempting pregnancy following ABVD. In the present study females treated for HL with ABVD chemotherapy without pelvic radiation therapy (RT) and who were alive without relapse ,3 years after treatment were identified from a clinical database and screened for inclusion. Using a standardized questionnaire, we determined the pregnancy rate (i.e. time-to-pregnancy, TTP) among survivors who had become pregnant, tried to become pregnant, or who had been sexually active for over 2 months without using contraception at any time following ABVD. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy was calculated using the Kaplan,Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to compare the pregnancy rate among HL survivors to that reported by friend or sibling controls. Thirty-six female HL survivors, who had attempted pregnancy after ABVD treatment, and 29 controls, completed the survey. Eighteen patients (50%) received 2,4 cycles of ABVD, 16 (44%) received 4,6 cycles, and 2 (6%) received >6 cycles. The median TTP among both HL survivors and controls was 2.0 months. The 12-month pregnancy rates were 70% and 75%, respectively. The fertility ratio (FR) for HL survivors versus controls was 0.94 (95%CI,=,0.53,1.66; p,=,0.84) after adjusting for age and frequency of intercourse (where FR <,1 indicates subfertility). Age at treatment and the number of cycles of chemotherapy were not associated with pregnancy rate among HL survivors. Female HL patients who had survived without recurrence ,3 years and who had attempted pregnancy after ABVD did not experience significant sub-fertility. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Varicocelectomy: semen parameters and protamine deficiency

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    M. H. Nasr-Esfahani
    Summary Different methods have been used to evaluate the beneficial effect of varicocelectomy; these include semen parameters and pregnancy rate. Because of high biological variability of semen parameters, sperm functional tests have been considered as an efficient end point in assessment of fertility. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of varicocelectomy on semen parameters and sperm protamine deficiency in 192 patients. The results of the present study show that all the three semen parameters and percentage of sperms with normal protamine content have improved post-surgery. The cumulative pregnancy rate was 34.6%. Comparing the results of the semen parameters and protamine content between patients whose partner became pregnant to those who did not benefit from varicocelectomy before and 6 months after surgery, show that patients may benefit from varicocelectomy that had higher initial semen density and better sperm morphology prior to surgery. Detailed analyses of sperm morphology, along with aforementioned results reveal that the factors which account for pregnancy difference are: (i) improvement in early events of spermatogenesis, possibly during spermatocytogensis and reduction division; and (ii) late spermiogenesis events. Thus, it can be suggested that patients with low initial sperm count may benefit more from assisted reproductive techniques or varicocelectomy followed by assisted reproduction. [source]


    Comparison of the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia in the first cycle: a report of case series and meta-analysis

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    MOHAMED GHANEM
    Summary To investigate the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh and cryopreserved-thawed testicular spermatozoa in the first cycle in patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA) and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), a total of 90 cases, 48 OA and 42 NOA were studied. All patients underwent sperm retrieval by testicular sperm extraction (TESE) while their wives received conventional ovarian hyperstimulation. The hormone levels, testicular histology, the rates of sperm retrieval, fertilization, implantation and pregnancy were analysed and evaluated. This study and other four similar studies were subjected to meta-analysis. Sperm retrieval was successful in 100% OA and 61% NOA. Fresh spermatozoa were used in 87.5% and 92.4% of OA and NOA cases respectively; while cryopreserved-thawed spermatozoa were used in 12.5% and 7.6% of OA and NOA, respectively. The fertilization, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were 65.5%, 15% and 25% respectively in OA group, and 54.2%, 5% and 23.1% respectively in NOA group. Sperm status (fresh or thawed), male partner's age, female age and male serum follicle-stimulating hormone had no significant effect upon fertilization rate, implantation rate, or pregnancy rate per embryo transfer. The results of meta-analysis indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in clinical pregnancy rates between the two groups. There was a significantly higher fertilization rate among OA patients in all analysed studies (95% CI = 14.29,15.71, d.f. 832, T = 1.96). In conclusion, although the fertilization rate was significantly higher in the OA group in our study and from the given meta-analysis, there were some differences as regards pregnancy rates. Although the overall effect was more or less similar pregnancy rates in both subtypes of azoospermia, this may not be true if non-male infertility variables were controlled for in all studies. [source]


    Diagnosis and treatment of post-herniorrhaphy vas deferens obstruction

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 2000
    Tadashi Matsuda
    Childhood inguinal herniorrhaphy (IH) is one of the most frequent causes of seminal tract obstruction. The incidence of vasal obstruction was found to be as high as 26.7% in subfertile patients with a history of childhood IH. The distal end of the vas deferens was found at the internal inguinal ring or in the pelvic cavity in 56.7% of cases, more than 3 cm of the vas deferens had been resected in 37.9% of cases, and sperm was found in vasal fluid in 45.5% of cases during corrective surgery. Microsurgical two-layer vasovasostomy resulted in the postoperative appearance of sperm in 39% of patients. In patients with postoperative azoospermia, a secondary epididymal obstruction caused by a long-term vasal obstruction is a highly probable cause. Ipsilateral epididymovasostomy following successful inguinal vasovasostomy results in the postoperative appearance of sperm in the ejaculate in 100% of the patients and a subsequent natural pregnancy rate of 50%. The overall pregnancy rate among couples, following surgery in 18 patients, was 43%, excluding pregnancies achieved by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Microsurgical reanastomosis of the seminal tract resulted in high impregnation rates among partners of patients with seminal tract obstruction caused by childhood IH. After receiving sufficient information on each treatment modality, patients can choose their preferred treatment, either reanastomosis of the seminal tract or assisted reproductive technology using epididymal or testicular sperm. [source]


    The Reproductive Health of Young people in Côte d'Ivoire: Issues and Prospects

    INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, Issue 164 2000
    Aminata Touré
    In Côte d'Ivoire, young people aged between 14 and 24 represent 25% of the population, and this is the age group that is particularly vulnerable to reproductive health problems. Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in the main affect 15 to 18-year-olds; the early pregnancy rate is high; and the widespread recourse to illegal abortion by women at an increasingly young age reflects the emergence of an unfilled need for family planning services among the young. To cope with this situation, the Côte d'Ivoire authorities have adopted several strategies, which include launching wide-ranging information campaigns and making condoms generally available. However, over and beyond such actions, which are beginning to bear fruit, it seems that particular attention needs to be focused on young people not at school and on girls, whose social status is low. The promotion of equality between the sexes and the legalisation of abortion could give added force to strategies to promote the reproductive health of young people. [source]


    Depleted uranium,the growing concern

    JOURNAL OF APPLIED TOXICOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
    Aqel W. Abu-Qare
    Abstract Recently, several studies have reported on the health and environmental consequences of the use of depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is a heavy metal that is also radioactive. It is commonly used in missiles as a counterweight because of its very high density (1.6 times more than lead). Immediate health risks associated with exposure to depleted uranium include kidney and respiratory problems, with conditions such as kidney stones, chronic cough and severe dermatitis. Long-term risks include lung and bone cancer. Several published reports implicated exposure to depleted uranium in kidney damage, mutagenicity, cancer, inhibition of bone, neurological deficits, significant decrease in the pregnancy rate in mice and adverse effects on the reproductive and central nervous systems. Acute poisoning with depleted uranium elicited renal failure that could lead to death. The environmental consequences of its residue will be felt for thousands of years. It is inhaled and passed through the skin and eyes, transferred through the placenta into the fetus, distributed into tissues and eliminated in urine. The use of depleted uranium during the Gulf and Kosovo Wars and the crash of a Boeing airplane carrying depleted uranium in Amsterdam in 1992 were implicated in a health concern related to exposure to depleted uranium. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    JOURNAL OF MEDICAL PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Kenneth G. Gould
    The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is a species phylogenetically very close to man. It was not many years ago that the captive population of chimpanzees (P. troglodytes) was considered at risk because of perceived problems with reproductive success. With the potential need for many individuals for research in a variety of areas, particularly in the areas of parasitic and viral infections, an NIH-funded program was established to promote the breeding of the species. That program, the ,National Chimpanzee Breeding and Research Program', was highly successful, so successful, in fact, that there is now a surplus of animals available for current research programs. This situation has prompted the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) as a method of fertility control. Overall, this method is successful and associated with a failure (of pregnancy) rate similar to that reported in the human. Physical and logistic constraints, however, render the method less than ideal for situations where a pregnancy rate of zero is desired. [source]


    Does a vitrified blastocyst stage embryo transfer program need hormonal priming for endometrial preparation?

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2010
    Yong Jin Kim
    Abstract Aim:, To compare the clinical outcomes of a vitrified blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET) program among natural, ovulation induced and artificial cycles. Material & Methods:, The clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in three groups according to endometrial preparation (natural cycle group [n = 34], ovulation induced [n = 21], and artificial cycles [n = 70]) among women that underwent vitrified blastocyst stage ET. Results:, The overall pregnancy rate was 48.8%. There were no significant differences in the duration of endometrial preparation, endometrial thickness on the day of progesterone or human chorionic gonadotropin administration, implantation and clinical pregnancy rates among the three groups. Triple-line endometrial patterns were more frequently observed in the natural and ovulation induced groups than in the artificial cycle group (85.3% vs 64.3%, P = 0.021; 90.5% vs 64.3%, P = 0.016). Conclusion:, Our findings suggest that the types of endometrial preparation may have no significant effect on the clinical outcomes of vitrified blastocyst ET. Hormonal priming does not appear to be a prerequisite for endometrial preparation for vitrified blastocyst ET. [source]


    Long-term outcome, including pregnancy rate, recurrence rate and ovarian reserve, after laparoscopic laser ablation surgery in infertile women with endometrioma

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2010
    Yoshihiko Shimizu
    Abstract Aim:, To retrospectively assess the long-term outcome, including pregnancy rate, recurrence rate and ovarian reserve, after laser ablation surgery in infertile women with endometrioma. Methods:, From March 1997 to June 2007, 45 subfertile women underwent ablation surgery with a potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser for ovarian endometrioma. These patients were reviewed retrospectively. Results:, Of the 45 women, 22 became pregnant spontaneously. Among the 23 women who did not become pregnant after more than 6 months postoperatively, 16 elected to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF), 12 of them became pregnant. The remaining 11 women did not become pregnant. Eleven women had recurrence detected by ultrasound. The mean number of oocytes retrieved per cycle during IVF was 7.3 ± 3.6 and 4.6 ± 2.7 from the ovary treated by ablation surgery and the contralateral ovary, respectively. Conclusion:, The overall long-term pregnancy rate (combining spontaneous pregnancy and IVF) after laparoscopic ablation surgery for endometrioma was 75.6%. Surgery did not have any adverse effect on the ovarian reserve during subsequent IVF. [source]


    Stimulation day-six serum estradiol: A predictive indicator for the probability of embryo cryopreservation in IVF/ICSI cycles

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2009
    Hassan A. El Maghraby
    Abstract Objective:, To evaluate the predictive value of stimulation day six serum estradiol (E2) for the probability of embryo cryopreservation after fresh embryo transfer in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Subjects and Methods:, The study included 282 ICSI cycles for different causes of infertility, provided that the age of the female partner was <40 years and her basal follicle stimulating hormone <10 IU/L. Setting:, Alexandria IVF/ICSI center. Main Outcome Measures:, Primary outcome measures are stimulation day-six serum E2, and rate of embryo cryopreservation, after transfer of three good-quality embryos. Secondary outcome measures are pregnancy rate per fresh embryo transfer, and other intermediate variables of the ICSI cycle. Results:, Patients were stratified into three groups according to day-six serum E2 levels: Group I with values <400 pg/mL; Group II, between 400 and 900; and Group III with values >900. The mean number of oocytes retrieved was 6.3, 8.9, and 12.4; the mean number of obtained embryos was 3.3, 4.8, and 6.7; and pregnancy rates were 18.1, 36.2, and 44.7% in the three groups, respectively. Rate of embryo cryopreservation, after transfer of three good-quality embryos was 70.7% in Group III, and 26.5% in Group I. (P = 0.01). The negative predictive value of day-six E2 < 400 pg/mL for freezing was 83% while day-six serum E2 > 900 pg/mL has a sensitivity of 55%, specificity of 72% and positive predictive value of 50% for embryo freezing. Conclusion:, Higher stimulation day-six estradiol was associated with a higher probability of cryopreservation, and a higher pregnancy rate. [source]


    New frontiers of assisted reproductive technology (Chien Tien Hsu Memorial Lecture 2007)

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2009
    P. C. Ho
    Abstract Many significant advances have been made in assisted reproductive technology since the birth of the first baby conceived with in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The development of recombinant gonadotropins and gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists helps to simplify the ovarian stimulation. Excessive ovarian stimulation should be avoided because of the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and reduction in endometrial receptivity. Maturation of oocytes in vitro has been developed in some centers. It is still uncertain whether techniques such as assisted hatching, blastocyst transfer and pre-implantation aneuploidy screening can improve the live birth rates in assisted reproduction. The introduction of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for selection of human lymphocyte antigens (HLA) compatible embryos for treatment of siblings has raised ethical concerns. There is a higher risk of obstetric complications and congenital abnormalities even in singleton pregnancies achieved with assisted reproduction. Because of the risks of multiple pregnancies, elective single embryo transfer is increasingly used in good-prognosis patients. With a good freezing program, the cumulative pregnancy rate (including the pregnancies from subsequent replacement of frozen-thawed embryos) is not adversely affected. Improvement in cryopreservation techniques has made it possible to cryopreserve slices of ovarian tissue or oocytes, thus helping women who have to receive sterilizing forms of anti-cancer treatment to preserve their fertility. It is important that the development of the new techniques should be based on good scientific evidence. Ethical, legal and social implications should also be considered before the introduction of new techniques. [source]


    Slow programmable and ultra-rapid freezing of human embryos

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 4 2008
    Teraporn Vutyavanich
    Abstract Aim:, To compare the outcomes of slow freezing with ultra-rapid freezing (URF) of cleavage-stage human embryos on aluminum foil. Methods:, Two-cell mouse embryos were used to test our method of ultra-rapid freezing. The embryos were randomly allocated to a non-frozen control (208 embryos), and slow (204 embryos) or ultra-rapid freezing groups (204 embryos). Immediate survival rate, further cleavage and blastocyst formation were compared. After validating our ultra-rapid freezing method on mouse embryos, we applied a similar ultra-rapid freezing protocol to human embryos. Consecutive human frozen/thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles from October 1998 to June 2005 were reviewed. The survival rate, further cleavage rate and the pregnancy outcomes were compared between the URF and slow programmable freezing. Results:, Mouse embryos in the URF group survived the freezing/thawing process better than those in the slow freezing group (93.1% vs 82.8%, P = 0.001). Blastocyst and hatching blastocyst formation of the surviving embryos were comparable in the URF and slow freezing group (59% vs 58.6%, P = 0.944 and 32.6% vs 42%, P = 0.066, respectively). There were 146 human FET cycles in the URF group and 28 cycles in the slow freezing group. The immediate survival of embryos was higher in the URF group than in the slow freezing group (87.9% and 64.3%, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean number of embryos per transfer (3.7 ± 1.3 and 3.3 ± 1.2, P = 0.178), clinical pregnancy rate per transfer (28.5% and 21.4%, P = 0.444) and implantation rate per embryo (10.98% and 10.9%, P = 0.974) in the URF or slow freezing groups. Conclusion:, Our in-house URF method gave comparable results to slow programmable freezing. Although the risk of potential contamination is a major drawback of the present ultra-rapid freezing technique, future refinement will minimize or entirely eliminate this concern. [source]


    The Fimbrio-Ovarian Relation and Its Role on Ovum Picking in Unexplained Infertility: The Fimbrio-Ovarian Accessibility Tests,

    JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2000
    Dr. Saeed Mohamad Ahmad-Thabet
    Abstract Objective: To study the ovum pickup mechanism and the fimbrio-ovarian relation in fertile women and cases of unexplained infertility and to design a method for investigation and anticipation of the state of ovum pickup. Design: Prospective clinical study. Setting: Department of obstetrics and gynecology Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Egypt. Patients: Fifty fertile and 25 cases of unexplained infertility. Interventions: In all of cases the fimbrio-ovarian relation is studied by determining the length of the free ovarian border between the ovarian ligament and the fimbria ovarica that contains the corpus luteum (the ovulation border), the site of ovulation on that border and the length of the fimbria ovarica. It is also determined by a simple test "The fimbrio-ovarian accessibility test." The fimbriae are held by non-traumatizing grasper and their ability to reach and/or to cover the ovulation site are taken as a prove for successful ovum pickup. In addition, cases having suspected failed ovum picking are treated by controlled supero-vulation, also by drilling of the ovary at an accessible site to the fimbria ovarica and by freeing short fimbria ovarica with or without its advancement on the ovulation border. Results: The ovulation site is found to be usually accessible to the fimbrial end of the tube (94%) in the fertile cases and not accessible (92%) in the infertile cases. Correction of the fimbrio-ovarian relation in the infertile cases was associated with a cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate of 68%. Conclusion: Failed ovum pickup should be considered one of the important causes of unexplained infertility. The suggested "fimbrio-ovarian accessiblity" test may be useful for the elucidation of the state of ovum pickup in infertile cases. Correction of the fimbrio-ovarian relation, to make ovum pickup possible, should be considered a method for treating such cases. [source]


    Production of cloned dogs by decreasing the interval between fusion and activation during somatic cell nuclear transfer

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2009
    Sue Kim
    To improve the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in dogs, we evaluated whether or not the interval between fusion and activation affects the success rate of SCNT. Oocytes retrieved from outbred dogs were reconstructed with adult somatic cells from a male or female Golden Retriever. In total, 151 and 225 reconstructed oocytes were transferred to 9 and 14 naturally synchronized surrogates for male and female donor cells, respectively. Chromosomal morphology was evaluated in 12 oocytes held for an interval of 2 hr between fusion and activation and 14 oocytes held for an interval of 4 hr. Three hundred seventy-six and 288 embryos were transferred to 23 and 16 surrogates for the 2 and 4 hr interval groups, respectively. Both the male (two pregnant surrogates gave birth to three puppies) and female (one pregnant surrogate gave birth to one puppy) donor cells gave birth to live puppies (P,>,0.05). In the 2 hr group, significantly more reconstructed oocytes showed condensed, metaphase-like chromosomes compared to the 4 hr group (P,<,0.05). A significantly higher pregnancy rate and a greater number of live born puppies were observed in the 2 hr group (13.0% and 1.1%, respectively) compared to the 4 hr group (0%) (P,<,0.05). In total, three surrogate dogs carried pregnancies to term and four puppies were born. These results demonstrate that decreasing the interval between fusion and activation increases the success rate of clone production and pregnancy. These results may increase the overall efficiency of SCNT in the canine family. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 76: 483,489, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Practitioners' Perspectives on Effective Practices For Hispanic Teenage Pregnancy Prevention

    PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH, Issue 4 2004
    Stephen T. Russell
    CONTEXT: In the United States, the pregnancy rate and birthrate of Hispanic teenagers are higher than those of other races and ethnicities. Although recommendations for culturally appropriate pregnancy prevention programs are commonplace, little is known about how practitioners address such recommendations. METHODS: In individual interviews, 58 teenage pregnancy prevention practitioners who work primarily with Mexican American female teenagers from two regions in California were asked about their understanding of recommendations for best practices and discussed the strategies they have used and challenges they have faced in implementing the recommendations. Qualitative methods were used to categorize responses and identify themes. RESULTS: Practitioners indicated that knowledge and awareness of Hispanic culture are essential, as is commitment to teenagers and their needs. They regard activities that encourage educational and career achievement as critical program components, and view both male partners' and family members' involvement in programs as important but challenging. Furthermore, practitioners feel that the implicit program goals of continued education and female self-sufficiency are often at odds with traditional Hispanic cultural values. CONCLUSIONS: Practitioners have valuable insight into the reality of implementing culturally sensitive programs. Programs need to balance the often competing values and goals of prevention programs with those of Hispanic youth culture and experiences. [source]


    Influence of Ovulation Status, Seasonality and Embryo Transfer Method on Development of Cloned Porcine Embryos

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 5 2010
    OJ Koo
    Contents To improve pig cloning efficiency, the present study evaluated the effect of ovulation status, seasonality and embryo transfer (ET) method on in vivo development of cloned porcine embryos. Cloned embryos were transferred to surrogate mothers on the same day of somatic cell nuclear transfer. In pre-ovulation stage (PO), pregnancy rate (PR) and delivery rate (DR) were 36.3% and 9.4%, respectively. In post-ovulation stage, 22.7% PR and 2.1% DR were recorded (both PR and DR are significantly higher in PO). When ET was performed during winter (December,February), spring (March,May), summer (June,August) and autumn (September,November), the PRs were 13.4%, 37.3%, 24.6% and 51.0%, while DRs were 0%, 12.7%, 4.3% and 7.8%, respectively. The highest PRs were recorded in autumn groups. However, DRs were significantly lower in autumn (7.8%) group compared with spring (12.7%) group. The PR was the lowest and no piglets were born in winter group, which might be because of the effect of low temperature during ET. To overcome the low PR in winter group, 0.25 ml straws were used for ET to minimize exposure time of embryos to ambient temperature. The straw ET group showed significantly higher PR in the winter group (23. 9%) compared with the conventional catheter-loading group (7.7%). We suggest that using PO recipient and ET in spring is the best condition for pig cloning. In addition, alternative method to reduce cold shock during ET in winter is necessary. [source]


    First Service Pregnancy Rates Following Post-AI Use of hCG in Ovsynch and Heatsynch Programmes in Lactating Dairy Cows

    REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 4 2010
    H Karami Shabankareh
    Contents Lactating dairy cows (n = 667) at random stages of the oestrous cycle were assigned to either ovsynch (O, n = 228), heatsynch (H, n = 252) or control (C, n = 187) groups. Cows in O and H groups received 100 ,g of GnRH agonist, i.m. (day 0) starting at 44 ± 3 days in milk (DIM), and 500 ,g of cloprostenol, i.m. (day 7). In O group, cows received 100 ,g of GnRH (day 9) and were artificially inseminated without oestrus detection 16,20 h later. In H group, cows received 1 mg oestradiol benzoate (EB) i.m., 24 h after the cloprostenol injection and were artificially inseminated without oestrus detection 48,52 h after the EB injection. Cows in C group were inseminated at natural oestrus. On the day of artificial insemination (AI), cows in all groups were assigned to subgroups as follows: human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (O-hCG) (n = 112), O-saline (n = 116), H-hCG (n = 123), H-saline (n = 129), C-hCG (n = 94) and C-saline (n = 93) subgroups. Cows in hCG and saline subgroups received 3000 IU hCG i.m. and or 10 ml saline at day 5 post-AI (day 15), respectively. Pregnancy status was assessed by palpation per rectum at days 40 to 45 after AI. The logistic regression model using just main effects of season (summer and winter), parity (primiparous and pluriparous), method1 (O, H and C) and method2 (hCG and saline) showed that all factors, except method1, were significant. Significant effects of season (p < 0.01), hCG and parity (p < 0.01), and a trend of parity and season (p < 0.1) were detected. A clear negative effect of warm period on first service pregnancy rate was noted (p < 0.01). The pregnancy rate was the lowest in the H protocol during warm period (p < 0.05). Treatment with hCG 5 days after AI significantly improved pregnancy rates in those cows that were treated with the H protocol compared with saline treatments (41.5% vs 24.8%; p < 0.01). O and H were more effective in primiparous than in pluriparous cows (46.1% vs 29.9%; p < 0.1 and 43.6% vs 24.6%; p < 0.01). First service pregnancy rates were higher in primiparous hCG-treated than in pluriparous hCG-treated cows (57.9% vs 32.3%; p < 0.01). The pregnancy rate was higher for the hCG-treated cows compared with saline-treated cows during warm period (37.9% vs 23.6%; p < 0.001). [source]