Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Precipitation

  • acetone precipitation
  • acid precipitation
  • ammonium sulphate precipitation
  • annual precipitation
  • calcite precipitation
  • convective precipitation
  • daily precipitation
  • ethanol precipitation
  • extreme precipitation
  • heavy precipitation
  • increased precipitation
  • increasing precipitation
  • isoelectric precipitation
  • mean annual precipitation
  • mean precipitation
  • observed precipitation
  • orographic precipitation
  • oxygen precipitation
  • protein precipitation
  • reduced precipitation
  • seasonal precipitation
  • selective precipitation
  • simulated precipitation
  • spring precipitation
  • subsequent precipitation
  • sulphate precipitation
  • summer precipitation
  • total precipitation
  • winter precipitation

  • Terms modified by Precipitation

  • precipitation amount
  • precipitation analysis
  • precipitation anomaly
  • precipitation change
  • precipitation climatology
  • precipitation condition
  • precipitation data
  • precipitation distribution
  • precipitation estimate
  • precipitation event
  • precipitation field
  • precipitation forecast
  • precipitation forecasting
  • precipitation gradient
  • precipitation increase
  • precipitation index
  • precipitation inhibitor
  • precipitation intensity
  • precipitation kinetics
  • precipitation mechanism
  • precipitation method
  • precipitation pattern
  • precipitation period
  • precipitation polymerization
  • precipitation procedure
  • precipitation process
  • precipitation rate
  • precipitation reaction
  • precipitation record
  • precipitation regime
  • precipitation series
  • precipitation step
  • precipitation time series
  • precipitation total
  • precipitation variability
  • precipitation variation

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT The method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stepwise ammonium sulfate (AS) purification (AS-ELISA) was developed and used to detect genetically modified (GM) rape of GT73 containing glyphosate oxidoreductase (Gox). Gox protein encoded by the Gox gene from Achromobacter sp. was highly expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified to homogeneity by Ni2+affinity chromatography. A simple and efficient extraction and purification procedure of Gox protein from the seeds and leaves of GM rape was developed by means of stepwise AS precipitation. Purified polyclonal antibodies against Gox was produced and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures were established further on to measure the Gox protein. AS-ELISA allowed 5% GMOs to be detected in the seeds of GT73 and 0.5% GMOs to be detected in the leaves of GT73 rape, which makes this method an acceptable method to access Gox protein in GM rape of GT73. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Many GMOs containing Gox gene have been approved worldwide such as GT73 rape, 1,445 cotton and Mon832 maize. Protein based methods were more important than DNA based methods, because protein performs a specific and concrete function and is closely interconnected with crop traits. AS-ELISA method can be used in the screening of GM plant, Gox protein expression assay and quantitative detection for GMO labeling. AS-ELISA Gox detecting method was established in this paper and was being evaluated of Inter-laboratory Comparison in some of Chinese GMO detection and assessment centers. With the knowledge of ELISA, ELISA method will be the national standards and international and will be a beneficial supplement for the DNA based GMO detecting methods. [source]


    H. Rahimpour-Bonab
    Dolomitization and related anhydrite cementation can complicate the characterization of carbonate reservoirs. Both processes have affected the Permo-Triassic Upper Dalan , Kangan carbonates, the main reservoir at the South Pars gasfield, offshore Iran. The carbonates were deposited in a shallow-marine ramp or epeiric platform and, according to previous studies, underwent intense near-surface diagenesis and minor burial modification. Detailed petrographical and geochemical analyses indicate that dolomitization and anhydrite precipitation can be explained in terms of the sabkha/seepage-reflux models. The early dolomites then re-equilibrated or re-crystallized in a shallow burial setting. Evaluation of poroperm values in different reservoir intervals indicates that replacive dolomitization in the absence of anhydrite precipitation or with only patchy anhydrite has enhanced the reservoir quality. Where anhydrite cement is pervasive and has plugged the rock fabric, poroperm values are significantly decreased. As emphasized in previous studies and confirmed here, dolomitization and anhydrite cementation, together with original facies type, are the major factors controlling reservoir quality in the Dalan , Kangan carbonates at South Pars. When associated with minor anhydrite cementation, replacive dolomitization has enhanced reservoir quality by increasing permeability. However, porosity in fabric-retentive dolomite was apparently inherited from the precursor rock and therefore reflects the original depositional environment. Low-temperature dolomitization is commonly fabric-selective and partially fabric-retentive. Whole rock stable isotope thermometry indicates that fabric-destructive dolomites in the reservoir rocks formed at temperatures above 22°C, whereas fabric-retentive dolomites and associated anhydrites formed in surface and near-surface conditions. Fabric-destructive dolomite or dolomite neomorphism post-date fabric-retentive dolomite and continued to form in deep burial conditions (,1400m). These observations may explain why fabric-retentive dolomite and anhydrite fabrics are traversed by stylolites. [source]


    Wayne M. Wendland
    ABSTRACT: Illinois data from 168 months (1986,1999) were investigated to determine the responses of surface-water and ground-water resources to precipitation. Such responses were generally within the month of occurrence or one to two months later, with recovery being reached another one to three months into the future, depending on season of the year. Although the drought of 1988 immediately impacted surface-water and ground-water resources, the time of recovery was substantially longer compared to those of individual dry months, generally continuing for several months. The extremely wet summer of 1993 resulted in elevated responses in water resources almost immediately, but in this instance continued through the following fall and winter, into the spring of 1994. [source]

    Spread and current potential distribution of an alien grass, Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees, in the southwestern USA: comparing historical data and ecological niche models

    Heather Schussman
    ABSTRACT The potential distribution of alien species in a novel habitat often is difficult to predict because factors limiting species distributions may be unique to the new locale. Eragrostis lehmanniana is a perennial grass purposely introduced from South Africa to Arizona, USA in the 1930s; by the 1980s, it had doubled its extent. Based on environmental characteristics associated with its introduced and native range, researchers believed that E. lehmanniana had reached the limits of its distribution by the early 1990s. We collected data on E. lehmanniana locations from various land management agencies throughout Arizona and western New Mexico and found new records that indicate that E. lehmanniana has continued to spread. Also, we employed two modelling techniques to determine the current potential distribution and to re-investigate several environmental variables related to distribution. Precipitation and temperature regimes similar to those indicated by past research were the most important variables influencing model output. The potential distribution of E. lehmanniana mapped by both models was 71,843 km2 and covers a large portion of southeastern and central Arizona. Logistic regression (LR) predicted a potential distribution of E. lehmanniana more similar to this species current distribution than GARP based on average temperature, precipitation, and grassland species composition and recorded occurrences. Results of a cross-validation assessment and extrinsic testing showed that the LR model performed as well or better than GARP based on sensitivity, specificity, and kappa indices. [source]

    Runoff and soil loss under individual plants of a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland: influence of plant morphology and rainfall intensity

    E. Bochet
    Abstract The influence of plant morphology and rainfall intensity on soil loss and runoff was determined at the plant scale for three representative species of a semi-arid patchy shrubland vegetation of east Spain, representing contrasting canopy structures and plant phenologies (Rosmarinus officinalis, Anthyllis cytisoides and Stipa tenacissima). Twenty-seven microplots of less than 1 m2, each containing one single plant, were built to quantify runoff volume and sediment yield under the canopies of the three species. Runoff and rates of soil loss measured in these plots under natural rainfall conditions were compared with control microplots built in the bare inter-plant areas. Precipitation was automatic-ally recorded and rainfall intensity calculated over a two-year period. Results indicated that individual plants played a relevant role in interrill erosion control at the microscale. Compared with a bare soil surface, rates of soil loss and runoff reduction varied strongly depending on the species. Cumulative soil loss was reduced by 94·3, 88·0 and 30·2 per cent, and cumulative runoff volume was reduced by 66·4, 50·8 and 18·4 per cent under the Rosmarinus, Stipa and Anthyllis canopies, respectively, compared with a bare surface. Anthyllis was significantly less efficient than the two other species in reducing runoff volume under its canopy. Differences between species could only be identified above a rainfall intensity threshold of 20 mm h,1. The different plant morphologies and plant compon-ents explained the different erosive responses of the three species. Canopy cover played a major role in runoff and soil loss reduction. The presence of a second layer of protection at the soil surface (litter cover) was fundamental for erosion control during intense rainfall. Rainfall intensity and soil water status prior to rainfall strongly influenced runoff and soil loss rates. The possible use of these species in restoration programmes of degraded areas is discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Moisture controls on carbon dioxide dynamics of peat- Sphagnum monoliths

    ECOHYDROLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    M. Strack
    Abstract Sphagnum moss is the major peat-forming vegetation component in boreal peatlands. The relationship between Sphagnum productivity and moss moisture content has been documented; however, the link between moss moisture content and conditions in the underlying peat column is less clear. We conducted a pilot study in which we monitored volumetric moisture content with depth and gravimetric water content of Sphagnum capitula and CO2 exchange for two peat monoliths with intact moss layer dominated by Sphagnum fuscum and S. magellanicum. Measurements were made under drying conditions and rewetting from below and following simulated precipitation events. Capitulum moisture content was related to water table position but varied between species. Both capitulum moisture content and water table position could be used to explain net CO2 exchange and respiration during drying and rewetting from below, although hysteresis was apparent where respiration was lower on rewetting than drying for the same water table position. Precipitation complicated these relationships because small events (<5 mm) rewetted the upper few centimeters of moss resulting in a change in capitulum moisture content equivalent to a rise in water table position of ,20 cm. This change in capitulum moisture content resulted in substantial shifts in both photosynthesis and respiration rates without affecting water table position or subsurface volumetric water contents as shallow as 5 cm below the surface. While these small events will be difficult to measure in the field, this study suggests they are essential to effectively track or model Sphagnum productivity because they may contribute significantly to seasonal carbon balance. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Complex Formation in the Region of Metal Hydrolysis and M(OH)2 Precipitation.

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 7 2006
    (AMPSO)x, (OH)y, (OH)y Systems, A Glass Electrode Potentiometric, Polarographic Study of Cd
    Abstract The interaction between cadmium or zinc and AMPSO was investigated by DCP and GEP, at fixed total ligand to total metal concentration ratios and various pH values, at 25.0,°C and 0.1,M KNO3 ionic strength. For Cd,(AMPSO)x,(OH)y system, CdL and CdL(OH) species, were identified, with stability constants values set to (as log,,): 2.1±0.1 and 6.2±0.2, respectively. For Zn,(AMPSO)x,(OH)y system, the proposed final model with stability constants set to (as log,,) is: ZnL=2.5±0.1 and ZnL(OH)2=12.9±0.2. For both systems, the fact that AMPSO deprotonation occurs in the metal hydrolysis and M(OH)2 precipitation and the complexes formed are not too strong added a real challenge to data interpretation. [source]

    Treatment of Process Water Containing Heavy Metals with a Two-Stage Electrolysis Procedure in a Membrane Electrolysis Cell

    R. Fischer
    Abstract The capability of a two-stage electrochemical treatment for the regeneration of acidic heavy-metal containing process water was examined. The process water came from sediment bioleaching and was characterized by a wide spectrum of dissolved metals, a high sulfate content, and a pH of about 3. In the modular laboratory model cell used, the anode chamber and the cathode chamber were separated by a central chamber fitted with an ion exchanger membrane on either side. The experiments were carried out applying a platinum anode and a graphite cathode at a current density of 0.1,A/cm2. The circulation flow of the process water in the batch process amounted to 35,L/h, the electrolysis duration was 5.5,h at maximum and the total electrolysis current was about 1,A. In the first stage, the acidic process water containing metals passed through the cathode chamber. In the second stage, the cathodically pretreated process water was electrolyzed anodically. In the cathode chamber the main load of dissolved Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb was eliminated. The sulfuric acid surplus of 3,4,g/L decreased to about 1,g/L, the pH rose from initially 3.0 to 4,5, but the desired pH of 9,10 was not achieved. Precipitation in the proximity to the cathode evidently takes place at a higher pH than farther away. The dominant process in the anode chamber was the precipitation of amorphous MnO2 owing to the oxidation of dissolved Mn(II). The further depletion of the remaining heavy metals in the cathodically pretreated process water by subsequent anodic treatment was nearly exhaustive, more than 99,% of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were removed from the leachate. The high depletion of heavy metals might be due to both the sorption on MnO2 precipitates and/or basic ferrous sulfate formed anodically, and the migration of metal ions through the cation exchanger membrane via the middle chamber into the cathode chamber. In the anode chamber, the sulfuric acid content increased to 6,7,g/L and the pH sank to 1.7. All heavy metals contained, with the exception of Zn, were removed to levels below the German limits for discharging industrial wastewaters into the receiving water. Moreover, the metal-depleted and acid-enriched process waters could be returned to the leaching process, hence reducing the output of wastewater. The results indicated that heavy metals could be removed from acidic process waters by two-stage electrochemical treatment to a large extent. However, to improve the efficiency of metal removal and to establish the electrochemical treatment in practice, further work is necessary to optimize the operation of the process with respect to current density, energy consumption, discharging of metal precipitates deposited in the electrode chambers and preventing membrane clogging. [source]

    A Bayesian hierarchical model for local precipitation by downscaling large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 7 2006
    Jorge M. Mendes
    Abstract Precipitation over the Western part of Iberian Peninsula is known to be related to the large-scale sea level pressure field and thus to advection of humidity into this area. The major problem is to downscale this synoptic atmospheric information to local daily precipitation patterns. One way to handle this problem is by weather-state models, where, based on the pressure field, each day is classified into a weather state and precipitation is then modeled within each weather state via multivariate distributions. In this paper, we propose a spatiotemporal Bayesian hierarchical model for precipitation. Basic objective and novelty of the paper is to capture and model the essential spatiotemporal relationships that exist between large-scale sea level pressure field and local daily precipitation. A specific local spatial ordering that mimics the essential large-scale patterns is used in the likelihood. The model is then applied to a network of rain gauge stations in the river Tagus valley. The inference is then carried out using appropriate MCMC methods. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Towards Understanding of the Selective Precipitation of Alkali Metal Cations in Presence of Dipicrylamine Anion

    Suresh Eringathodi
    Abstract Dipicrylamine anion (DPA,) precipitates out [K(DPA)] with high selectivity from salt bitterns containing Na+, K+, and Mg2+, whereas the same ligand shows poor selectivity towards K+ , and much higher selectivity towards Cs+ , in studies conducted with a mixture of K+, Rb+, and Cs+. Their single-crystal structures reveal that the K+ and Rb+ salts have similar layered structures, with 8 oxygen atoms from seven DPA, anions encapsulating the metal cation, whereas the Cs+ salt possesses a channel-like structure with the metal ion encapsulated by ten oxygen atoms from six DPA,. The conformation of DPA, in the [Cs(DPA)] single crystal matches closely that of DPA in crystalline state. M···O and intermolecular C,H···O interactions together stabilize the structures. The 133Cs NMR spectrum of the poorly soluble [Cs(DPA)] shows an upfield shift of the peak with respect to CsCl as a result of the interaction with the oxygen atoms of DPA,, whereas 23Na NMR spectrum of the highly soluble [Na(DPA)] shows no such upfield shift compared to NaCl. Powder XRD patterns of bulk [M(DPA)] (M = K+, Rb+, and Cs+) precipitates show that these are similar to the patterns obtained by simulation of the single-crystal X-ray data. The selectivity of precipitation correlates qualitatively with the size and hydration enthalpies of the ions. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2005) [source]

    Suppression of Ni4Ti3 Precipitation by Grain Size Refinement in Ni-Rich NiTi Shape Memory Alloys,

    Egor A. Prokofiev
    Severe plastic deformation (SPD) processes, such as equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) and high pressure torsion (HPT), are successfully employed to produce ultra fine grain (UFG) and nanocrystalline (NC) microstructures in a Ti,50.7,at% Ni shape memory alloy. The effect of grain size on subsequent Ni-rich particle precipitation during annealing is investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAD, SAED), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is observed that Ni4Ti3 precipitation is suppressed in grains of cross-sectional equivalent diameter below approximately 150,nm, and that particle coarsening is inhibited by very fine grain sizes. The results suggest that fine grain sizes impede precipitation processes by disrupting the formation of self-accommodating particle arrays and that the arrays locally compensate for coherency strains during nucleation and growth. [source]

    Interactions of ferricyanide with humic soils and charred straw

    T. Rennert
    Summary The iron-cyanide complexes ferricyanide, [FeIII(CN)6]3,, and ferrocyanide, [FeII(CN)6]4,, are anthropogenic contaminants in soil. We studied the interactions of ferricyanide with humic soils and charred straw (maize and rye, both charred at 300, 400 and 500°C) by batch experiments and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. All soil samples sorbed ferricyanide (up to 8.4 g kg,1). Precipitation of a manganese ferrocyanide after reduction of ferricyanide in the moderately acidic to neutral soils was deduced from both FTIR spectroscopy (CN absorption bands at 2069,2065 cm,1) and geochemical modelling. Ferricyanide was also adsorbed onto the charred straw. The amounts of iron-cyanide complexes adsorbed increased with increasing charring temperature, with a maximum of 1.71 g kg,1. An absorption band at 2083 cm,1 indicated weakly adsorbed intermediates of the reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide. This band disappeared in the samples charred at higher temperature, whereas a band at 2026 cm,1 was present in all spectra and became intensified in the high-temperature straw. We attribute this band to ferrocyanide forming inner-sphere complexes, presumably with quinone species of the organic matter. The band at 2026 cm,1 was also present in the spectra of the soils, indicating that soil organic matter also adsorbs ferrocyanide. However, in humic soils the main processes of ferricyanide interaction include reduction to ferrocyanide and precipitation as manganese ferrocyanide. Quantitatively, adsorption on highly aromatic substances plays only a less important role as compared with precipitation. [source]

    A Novel Fe-Mn-Si Shape Memory Alloy With Improved Shape Recovery Properties by VC Precipitation

    Zhizhong Dong
    In this work, a nominally new Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloy with a small amount of VC was designed. After an optimized thermo-mechanical treatment, a shape recovery of more than 90% after an elongation of 4% could be achieved when the alloys were heated up to 225°C. In addition, high recovery stresses of up to 380 MPa could be obtained after heating to 225°C, whereas 330 MPa were obtained after heating to 160°C. [source]

    Atom Probe Tomography I. Early Stages of Precipitation of NbC and NbN in Ferritic Steels,

    F. Danoix
    Abstract The results reported in this paper give new information regarding the early stages of precipitation in model low niobium steels. It clearly appears that the kinetic paths for carbides and nitrides precipitation in the investigated model alloys are very different, more continuous in the case of carbides, and through GP zones formation in the case of nitrides. [source]

    Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Precipitation,

    E. Clouet
    Abstract We present some recent applications of the atomistic diffusion model and of the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm to systems of industrial interest, i.e. Al-Zr-Sc and Fe-Nb-C alloys, or to model systems. These applications include study of homogeneous and heterogeneous precipitation as well as of phase transformation under irradiation. The KMC simulations are also used to test the main assumptions and limitations of more simple models and classical theories used in the industry, e.g. the classical nucleation theory. [source]

    The Joint Research Program "CPR Precipitation" , Towards More Powerful Computer Assisted Metallurgy Codes,

    P. Maugis
    Computer Assisted Metallurgy (CAM) is developed and used by both Alcan and Arcelor to predict material properties, optimize processing and accelerate the development of new innovative solutions. These CAM codes describe the microstructure evolution of an alloy from solidification to the final step of the transformation schedule and predict usage properties from the simulated end product microstructure. The accuracy of the predictions requires a reliable laboratory or plant experimental database and robust physical laws. [source]

    The Joint Research Program "CPR Precipitation" , Breakthroughs in the Understanding of Kinetic Pathways for the Early Stages of Phase Separation,

    G. Martin
    The CNRS joint research program, "CPR Precipitation", has been carefully prepared by the industrial initiators. Very significant results were obtained: they are summarized in the following and presented in this meeting. As for the future, the CPR has catalyzed the formation of a community of promising scientific interest: it would be of common benefit to stabilize this community by an appropriate further support. [source]

    Characterisation and Modelling of Non-Isothermal Precipitation in Metallic Systems,

    A. Deschamps
    During the process of most age hardening metallic alloys, non-isothermal precipitation plays a key role. The non-isothermal nature of precipitation processes can be either imposed by constraints of the process route (e.g. precipitation during coiling of NbC in steels, or precipitation in weld heat affected zones), or it can be found as the optimal pathway to the desired properties (e.g. multi-step heat treatments of aluminium alloys). The presented work addresses both on an experimental and on a modelling point of view some of these effects, both in aluminium alloys (the Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Zr-Sc systems) and in a Fe-Cu alloy. [source]

    Isolation and characterization of novel inducible serine protease inhibitors from larval hemolymph of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 7 2000
    Andreas C. Fröbius
    Three inducible serine protease inhibitors (ISPI-1, 2, 3) have been purified from larval hemolymph of greater wax moth larvae, Galleria mellonella, and characterized at a molecular level. These inhibitors were synthesized after larvae were injected with a yeast polysaccharide, zymosan preparation. ISPI-1,2,3 were active against various serine proteases including trypsin and toxic proteases released by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Precipitation by trichloroacetic acid and heat, followed by FPLC and HPLC separation steps were used for purification of the protease inhibitors from cell-free hemolymph samples. The molecular masses of purified proteins were determined by MS to be 9.2 kDa (ISPI-1), 6.3 kDa (ISPI-2) and 8.2 kDa (ISPI-3) with isoelectric points ranging between 7.2 and 8.3. The N-terminal amino-acid sequences of ISPI-1 and ISPI-3 are not similar to other known proteins, whereas that of ISPI-2 exhibits extensive similarity to known Kunitz-type protease inhibitors. [source]

    Crystallization and Grain Growth Kinetics for Precipitation-Based Ceramics: A Case Study on Amorphous Ceria Thin Films from Spray Pyrolysis

    Jennifer L. M. Rupp
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Crystallization and Grain Growth Kinetics for Precipitation-Based Ceramics: A Case Study on Amorphous Ceria Thin Films from Spray Pyrolysis

    Jennifer L. M. Rupp
    Abstract The introductory part reviews the impact of thin film fabrication, precipitation versus vacuum-based methods, on the initial defect state of the material and microstructure evolution to amorphous, biphasic amorphous-nanocrystalline, and fully nanocrystalline metal oxides. In this study, general rules for the kinetics of nucleation, crystallization, and grain growth of a pure single-phase metal oxide thin film made by a precipitation-based technique from a precursor with one single organic solvent are discussed. For this a complete case study on the isothermal and non-isothermal microstructure evolution of dense amorphous ceria thin films fabricated by spray pyrolysis is conducted. A general model is established and comparison of these thin film microstructure evolution to kinetics of classical glass-ceramics or metallic glasses is presented. Knowledge on thermal microstructure evolution of originally amorphous precipitation-based metal oxide thin films allows for their introduction and distinctive microstructure engineering in devices-based on microelectromechanical (MEMS) technology such as solar cells, capacitors, sensors, micro-solid oxide fuel cells, or oxygen separation membranes on Si-chips. [source]

    Precipitation of lead,zinc ores in the Mississippi Valley-type deposit at Trèves, Cévennes region of southern France

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1 2006
    D. LEACH
    Abstract The Trèves zinc,lead deposit is one of several Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits in the Cévennes region of southern France. Fluid inclusion studies show that the ore was deposited at temperatures between approximately 80 and 150°C from a brine that derived its salinity mainly from the evaporation of seawater past halite saturation. Lead isotope studies suggest that the metals were extracted from local basement rocks. Sulfur isotope data and studies of organic matter indicate that the reduced sulfur in the ores was derived from the reduction of Mesozoic marine sulfate by thermochemical sulfate reduction or bacterially mediated processes at a different time or place from ore deposition. The large range of ,34S values determined for the minerals in the deposit (12.2,19.2, for barite, 3.8,13.8, for sphalerite and galena, and 8.7 to ,21.2, for pyrite), are best explained by the mixing of fluids containing different sources of sulfur. Geochemical reaction path calculations, based on quantitative fluid inclusion data and constrained by field observations, were used to evaluate possible precipitation mechanisms. The most important precipitation mechanism was probably the mixing of fluids containing different metal and reduced sulfur contents. Cooling, dilution, and changes in pH of the ore fluid probably played a minor role in the precipitation of ores. The optimum results that produced the most metal sulfide deposition with the least amount of fluid was the mixing of a fluid containing low amounts of reduced sulfur with a sulfur-rich, metal poor fluid. In this scenario, large amounts of sphalerite and galena are precipitated, together with smaller quantities of pyrite precipitated and dolomite dissolved. The relative amounts of metal precipitated and dolomite dissolved in this scenario agree with field observations that show only minor dolomite dissolution during ore deposition. The modeling results demonstrate the important control of the reduced sulfur concentration on the Zn and Pb transport capacity of the ore fluid and the volumes of fluid required to form the deposit. The studies of the Trèves ores provide insights into the ore-forming processes of a typical MVT deposit in the Cévennes region. However, the extent to which these processes can be extrapolated to other MVT deposits in the Cévennes region is problematic. Nevertheless, the evidence for the extensive migration of fluids in the basement and sedimentary cover rocks in the Cévennes region suggests that the ore forming processes for the Trèves deposit must be considered equally viable possibilities for the numerous fault-controlled and mineralogically similar MVT deposits in the Cévennes region. [source]

    Interactive effects of water table and precipitation on net CO2 assimilation of three co-occurring Sphagnum mosses differing in distribution above the water table

    Abstract Sphagnum cuspidatum, S. magellanicum and S. rubellum are three co-occurring peat mosses, which naturally have a different distribution along the microtopographical gradient of the surface of peatlands. We set out an experiment to assess the interactive effects of water table (low: ,10 cm and high: ,1 cm) and precipitation (present or absent) on the CO2 assimilation and evaporation of these species over a 23-day period. Additionally, we measured which sections of the moss layer were responsible for light absorption and bulk carbon uptake. Thereafter, we investigated how water content affected carbon uptake by the mosses. Our results show that at high water table, CO2 assimilation of all species gradually increased over time, irrespective of the precipitation. At low water table, net CO2 assimilation of all species declined over time, with the earliest onset and highest rate of decline for S. cuspidatum. Precipitation compensated for reduced water tables and positively affected the carbon uptake of all species. Almost all light absorption occurred in the first centimeter of the Sphagnum vegetation and so did net CO2 assimilation. CO2 assimilation rate showed species-specific relationships with capitulum water content, with narrow but contrasting optima for S. cuspidatum and S. rubellum. Assimilation by S. magellanicum was constant at a relatively low rate over a broad range of capitulum water contents. Our study indicates that prolonged drought may alter the competitive balance between species, favoring hummock species over hollow species. Moreover, this study shows that precipitation is at least equally important as water table drawdown and should be taken into account in predictions about the fate of peatlands with respect to climate change. [source]

    Nitrate leaching from three afforestation chronosequences on former arable land in Denmark

    Abstract In regions dominated by agricultural activities, nitrogen (N) is recognized as a major pollutant in aquatic environments. In north-western Europe, afforestation of agricultural land is part of a strategy to improve water quality. In Denmark, former arable land has been afforested during the past 40,50 years. This study evaluated the effect of afforestation of former arable land on nitrate leaching, based on three afforestation chronosequences. Precipitation, canopy throughfall and soil water were collected and soil moisture was monitored at two Danish locations, Vestskoven (nutrient-rich, medium deposition) and Gejlvang (nutrient-poor, high deposition). Afforestation was performed using Norway spruce [Picea abies (Karst.) L.] and common oak (Quercus robur L.) at Vestskoven and Norway spruce at Gejlvang. The results suggest that afforestation of former arable land initially leads to lower nitrate leaching than that occurring under the former agricultural land use, and largely below the standard of 50 mg NO,3 L,1 for groundwater to be utilized as drinking water. Nitrate concentrations became almost negligible in forest stands of 5,20 years of age. However, after canopy closure (>20 years) nitrate concentrations below the root zone and nitrate leaching tended to increase. This was attributed to increased N deposition with increasing canopy development and decreased N demand once the most N-rich biomass compartments had been built up. Nitrate leaching started to increase at a throughfall deposition level of about 10 kg N ha,1 yr,1. Compared with nutrient-poor sandy soils, nutrient-rich clayey soils appeared more vulnerable to disturbance of the N cycle and to increased N deposition, leading to N saturation and enhanced nitrate leaching. In approximately the first 35 years after afforestation, nitrate leaching below the root zone was generally higher below oak than below Norway spruce. [source]

    A global study of relationships between leaf traits, climate and soil measures of nutrient fertility

    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    Jenny C. Ordoñez
    ABSTRACT Aim This first global quantification of the relationship between leaf traits and soil nutrient fertility reflects the trade-off between growth and nutrient conservation. The power of soils versus climate in predicting leaf trait values is assessed in bivariate and multivariate analyses and is compared with the distribution of growth forms (as a discrete classification of vegetation) across gradients of soil fertility and climate. Location All continents except for Antarctica. Methods Data on specific leaf area (SLA), leaf N concentration (LNC), leaf P concentration (LPC) and leaf N:P were collected for 474 species distributed across 99 sites (809 records), together with abiotic information from each study site. Individual and combined effects of soils and climate on leaf traits were quantified using maximum likelihood methods. Differences in occurrence of growth form across soil fertility and climate were determined by one-way ANOVA. Results There was a consistent increase in SLA, LNC and LPC with increasing soil fertility. SLA was related to proxies of N supply, LNC to both soil total N and P and LPC was only related to proxies of P supply. Soil nutrient measures explained more variance in leaf traits among sites than climate in bivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that climate interacted with soil nutrients for SLA and area-based LNC. Mass-based LNC and LPC were determined mostly by soil fertility, but soil P was highly correlated to precipitation. Relationships of leaf traits to soil nutrients were stronger than those of growth form versus soil nutrients. In contrast, climate determined distribution of growth form more strongly than it did leaf traits. Main conclusions We provide the first global quantification of the trade-off between traits associated with growth and resource conservation ,strategies' in relation to soil fertility. Precipitation but not temperature affected this trade-off. Continuous leaf traits might be better predictors of plant responses to nutrient supply than growth form, but growth forms reflect important aspects of plant species distribution with climate. [source]

    Kinetics of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) Precipitation from a Icel-Yavca Dolomite Leach Solution by a Gas (Carbon Dioxide)/Liquid Reaction

    Mehmet Yildirim
    Abstract The effects of time, CO2 -gas-injection pressure, and bulk temperature on the precipitation of Ca2+ ions as a precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) from a dolomite leach solution were investigated. Precipitation periods from 1 to 7,min were examined, and experiments were run at CO2 -injection pressures of 200,800,kPa. Effects of bulk temperature were studied in the range from 40 to 70°, and precipitation rates of PCC were determined by measuring the Ca2+ concentrations in the initial and effluent solutions. Influences of these parameters on the subsequent incorporation of Mg2+ ions with the precipitate are discussed in detail. Kinetic analysis of the precipitation was performed by considering the rates as a function of CO -ion concentrations. Results obtained by this process clearly show that Ca2+ ions in the solution can successfully be precipitated as a calcium carbonate product containing 54.70% of CaO and 0.77% MgO, at the rate of 2.01,mM h,1. [source]

    Decadal trend of climate in the Tibetan Plateau,regional temperature and precipitation

    Z. X. Xu
    Abstract The Tibetan Plateau has one of the most complex climates in the world. Analysis of the climate in this region is important for understanding the climate change worldwide. In this study, climate patterns and trends in the Tibetan Plateau were analysed for the period from 1961 to 2001. Air temperature and precipitation were analysed on monthly and annual time scales using data collected from the National Meteorological Centre, China Meteorological Administration. Nonlinear slopes were estimated and analysed to investigate the spatial and temporal trends of air temperature and precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau using a Mann,Kendall method. Spatial analysis of air temperature and precipitation variability across the Tibetan Plateau was undertaken. While most trends are local in nature, there are general basinwide patterns. Temperature during the last several decades showed a long-term warmer trend, especially the areas around Dingri and Zogong stations, which formed two increasing centres. Only one of the stations investigated exhibited decreasing trend, and this was not significant. Precipitation in the Tibetan Plateau has increased in most regions of the study area over the past several decades, especially in the eastern and central part, while the western Tibetan Region exhibited a decreased trend over the same period. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hydrology and water quality in two mountain basins of the northeastern US: assessing baseline conditions and effects of ski area development,,

    Beverley Wemple
    Abstract Mountain regions throughout the world face intense development pressures associated with recreational and tourism uses. Despite these pressures, much of the research on bio-geophysical impacts of humans in mountain regions has focused on the effects of natural resource extraction. This paper describes findings from the first 3 years of a study examining high elevation watershed processes in a region undergoing alpine resort development. Our study is designed as a paired-watershed experiment. The Ranch Brook watershed (9·6 km2) is a relatively pristine, forested watershed and serves as the undeveloped ,control' basin. West Branch (11·7 km2) encompasses an existing alpine ski resort, with approximately 17% of the basin occupied by ski trails and impervious surfaces, and an additional 7% slated for clearing and development. Here, we report results for water years 2001,2003 of streamflow and water quality dynamics for these watersheds. Precipitation increases significantly with elevation in the watersheds, and winter precipitation represents 36,46% of annual precipitation. Artificial snowmaking from water within West Branch watershed currently augments annual precipitation by only 3,4%. Water yield in the developed basin exceeded that in the control by 18,36%. Suspended sediment yield was more than two and a half times greater and fluxes of all major solutes were higher in the developed basin. Our study is the first to document the effects of existing ski area development on hydrology and water quality in the northeastern US and will serve as an important baseline for evaluating the effects of planned resort expansion activities in this area. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Runoff and suspended sediment yields from an unpaved road segment, St John, US Virgin Islands

    Carlos E. Ramos-Scharrón
    Abstract Unpaved roads are believed to be the primary source of terrigenous sediments being delivered to marine ecosystems around the island of St John in the eastern Caribbean. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure runoff and suspended sediment yields from a road segment; (2) develop and test two event-based runoff and sediment prediction models; and (3) compare the predicted sediment yields against measured values from an empirical road erosion model and from a sediment trap. The runoff models use the Green,Ampt infiltration equation to predict excess precipitation and then use either an empirically derived unit hydrograph or a kinematic wave to generate runoff hydrographs. Precipitation, runoff, and suspended sediment data were collected from a 230 m long, mostly unpaved road segment over an 8-month period. Only 3,5 mm of rainfall was sufficient to initiate runoff from the road surface. Both models simulated similar hydrographs. Model performance was poor for storms with less than 1 cm of rainfall, but improved for larger events. The largest source of error was the inability to predict initial infiltration rates. The two runoff models were coupled with empirical sediment rating curves, and the predicted sediment yields were approximately 0·11 kg per square meter of road surface per centimetre of precipitation. The sediment trap data indicated a road erosion rate of 0·27 kg m,2 cm,1. The difference in sediment production between these two methods can be attributed to the fact that the suspended sediment samples were predominantly sand and silt, whereas the sediment trap yielded mostly sand and gravel. The combination of these data sets yields a road surface erosion rate of 0·31 kg m,2 cm,1, or approximately 36 kg m,2 year,1. This is four orders of magnitude higher than the measured erosion rate from undisturbed hillslopes. The results confirm the importance of unpaved roads in altering runoff and erosion rates in a tropical setting, provide insights into the controlling processes, and provide guidance for predicting runoff and sediment yields at the road-segment scale. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    ,Distribution of oxygen-18 and deuterium in river waters across the United States

    Carol Kendall
    Abstract Reconstruction of continental palaeoclimate and palaeohydrology is currently hampered by limited information about isotopic patterns in the modern hydrologic cycle. To remedy this situation and to provide baseline data for other isotope hydrology studies, more than 4800, depth- and width-integrated, stream samples from 391 selected sites within the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) were analysed for ,18O and ,2H ( Each site was sampled bimonthly or quarterly for 2·5 to 3 years between 1984 and 1987. The ability of this dataset to serve as a proxy for the isotopic composition of modern precipitation in the USA is supported by the excellent agreement between the river dataset and the isotopic compositions of adjacent precipitation monitoring sites, the strong spatial coherence of the distributions of ,18O and ,2H, the good correlations of the isotopic compositions with climatic parameters, and the good agreement between the ,national' meteoric water line (MWL) generated from unweighted analyses of samples from the 48 contiguous states of ,2H=8·11,18O+8·99 (r2=0·98) and the unweighted global MWL of sites from the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) of ,2H=8·17,18O+10·35. The national MWL is composed of water samples that arise in diverse local conditions where the local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) usually have much lower slopes. Adjacent sites often have similar LMWLs, allowing the datasets to be combined into regional MWLs. The slopes of regional MWLs probably reflect the humidity of the local air mass, which imparts a distinctive evaporative isotopic signature to rainfall and hence to stream samples. Deuterium excess values range from 6 to 15, in the eastern half of the USA, along the northwest coast and on the Colorado Plateau. In the rest of the USA, these values range from ,2 to 6,, with strong spatial correlations with regional aridity. The river samples have successfully integrated the spatial variability in the meteorological cycle and provide the best available dataset on the spatial distributions of ,18O and ,2H values of meteoric waters in the USA. Published in 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]