Practical Implications (practical + implication)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Practical Implications

  • important practical implication

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Taking Stock of Corporate Governance Research While Looking to the Future

    Igor Filatotchev
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Editorial Research Question/Issue: This essay identifies some key issues for the analysis of corporate governance based on the articles within this special review issue coupled with our own perspectives. Our aim in this issue is to distil some research streams in the field and identify opportunities for future research. Research Findings/Results: We summarize the eight papers included in this special issue and briefly highlight their main contributions to the literature which collectively deal with the role and impact of corporate boards, codes of corporate governance, and the globalization of corporate governance systems. In addition to the new insights offered by these reviews, we attempt to offer our own ideas on where future research needs to be targeted. Theoretical Implications: We highlight a number of research themes where future governance research may prove fruitful. This includes taking a more holistic approach to corporate governance issues and developing an inter-disciplinary perspective by building on agency theory while considering the rich new insights offered by complementary theories, such as behavioral theory, institutional theory and the resource-based views of the firm. In particular, future corporate governance research needs to be conducted in multiple countries, particularly in emerging economies, if we want to move closer to the journal's aim of producing a global theory of corporate governance. Practical Implications: Our analysis suggests that analytic and regulatory approaches to corporate governance issues should move from a "one-size-fits-all" template to taking into account organizational, institutional and national contexts. [source]

    Maturation of Corporate Governance Research, 1993,2007: An Assessment

    Boris Durisin
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Review Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to investigate whether governance research in fact is a discipline or whether it is rather the subject of multi-disciplinary research. We map the intellectual structure of corporate governance research and its evolution from 1993,2007. Research Findings/Results: Based on the analysis of more than 1,000 publications and 48,000 citations in Corporate Goverance: An International Review (CGIR) and other academic journals, our study identifies the most influential works, the dominant subfields, and their evolution. Our study assesses the maturation of corporate governance research as a discipline; it finds increasing sophistication, depth and rigor, and consistency in its intellectual structure. Theoretical Implications: There is a large body of accumulated corporate governance research in the US, yet there is an empirical gap on cross-national studies in the literature. Furthermore, hardly any of the top cited works undertake their study in a cross-national setting. Thus, corporate governance research and CGIR in its quest to contribute to a global theory of corporate governance might benefit if articles have a cross-national methodological approach and empirical grounding in their research design and if articles explicitly aim at stating the theoretical underpinnings they draw on. Practical Implications: Globalists find in CGIR an outlet addressing economics and finance (e.g., whether and how compensation or dismissal of CEOs is related to board characteristics), management (e.g., whether and how best practice codes adoption is related to board characteristics and performance), and accounting (e.g., whether and how earnings manipulations is related to board characteristics) issues globally. [source]

    Is CEO Duality Always Negative?

    An Exploration of CEO Duality, Ownership Structure in the Arab IPO Context
    ABSTRACT Manuscript type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This paper examines the relationships between initial public offering (IPO) underpricing, CEO duality, and strategic ownership in 12 Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Research Findings/Results: Using all IPOs from January 2000 until the end of July 2007, we document an average IPO underpricing of 184.1 per cent. Underpricing is higher in IPO firms that have CEO duality. However, strategic shareholders, such as corporations and other industry-related investors, are likely to play a monitoring role whereas underpricing is found to be lower in firms with both CEO duality and strategic shareholder ownership. Moreover, the negative relation between underpricing and strategic blockholding is greater for foreign strategic ownership than it is for domestic strategic ownership. Theoretical Implications: This paper examines the level and determinants of IPO underpricing in the MENA region. It provides evidence on the role played by foreign strategic owners in reducing agency conflicts and information asymmetries within an environment where firms may be affected by the cultural issues related to political ties and family involvement. Practical Implications: Our results contribute to the existing debate on the appropriate regulations for an effective and stable financial system in Arab countries. They offer policy-makers additional evidence on the positive impact of market openness to foreign shareholders. [source]

    The Effect of National Governance Codes on Firm Disclosure Practices: Evidence from Analyst Earnings Forecasts

    John Nowland
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question: This study examines whether voluntary national governance codes have a significant effect on company disclosure practices. Two direct effects of the codes are expected: 1) an overall improvement in company disclosure practices, which is greater when the codes have a greater emphasis on disclosure; and 2) a leveling out of disclosure practices across companies (i.e., larger improvements in companies that were previously poorer disclosers) due to the codes new comply-or-explain requirements. The codes are also expected to have an indirect effect on disclosure practices through their effect on company governance practices. Research Findings/Results: The results show that the introduction of the codes in eight East Asian countries has been associated with lower analyst forecast error and a leveling out of disclosure practices across companies. The codes are also found to have an indirect effect on company disclosure practices through their effect on board independence. Practical Implications: This study shows that a regulatory approach to improving disclosure practices is not always necessary. Voluntary national governance codes are found to have both a significant direct effect and a significant indirect effect on company disclosure practices. In addition, the results indicate that analysts in Asia do react to changes in disclosure practices, so there is an incentive for small companies and family-owned companies to further improve their disclosure practices. [source]

    Competing Rationales for Corporate Governance in France: Institutional Complementarities between Financial Markets and Innovation Systems

    Soo H. Lee
    ABSTRACT Manuscript Type: Conceptual Research Question/Issue: This paper identifies the causes and consequences of corporate governance reform with reference to the French case. By disaggregating institutional complementarities into global and domestic dimensions, we analyze the path of institutional change compelled by financial efficiency and cooperative innovation. Research Findings/Results: Our analysis of the French case shows that both converging and diverging forces of institutional change coexist, shaping selective responses to globalization. While the adoption of the shareholder model is necessary for resource acquirement from the global capital markets, resource allocation in the cooperative innovation systems reinforces the stakeholder model. The French case confirms the sustainability of distinctive institutional complementarities, albeit with selective adaptation based on a sense-making social compromise. Theoretical Implications: The French case reminds us of the importance of distinctive institutional traditions and dominant social rationalities to understand the underlying logic of governance reform. The comparative research on corporate governance needs to address not just the cross-country variations in institutional arrangements and practices, but also the clash of competing rationales for reform explicitly in comparative terms within a single country context. Practical Implications: For foreign investors, it is vital to understand the unique institutional environment of state-centred stakeholder economies if they are to negotiate the best terms of return and to avoid unnecessary conflicts. French managers are expected to devise strategic choices responding to the competing rationales of governance. Managerial sense-making is essential for achieving sound long-term performance, upon which the legitimacy and sustainability of the constellation of selective governance rests. [source]

    Sources and migration of volatile organic compounds in mixed-use buildings

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 5 2010
    C. Jia
    Abstract, We examined concentrations and migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ten mixed-use buildings in southeast Michigan, USA. In an office and work zone in each building, air exchange rates (AERs) were measured using perfluorocarbon tracers, and over 96 VOC species were measured by GC/MS over a 7-day period. VOCs were then apportioned to sources in offices, work zones, and outdoors using a two-zone mass balance model. AERs averaged 3.9 h (0.2,14.2 h) in offices and 1.9 h (0.4,3.5 h) in work zones. The dominant VOCs included aromatics, terpenes and alkanes. VOC concentrations were uniform in the smaller spaces, and more variable in some of the very large spaces. Apportionments depended on the VOC and building, but emissions in industrial zones of buildings often migrated to office areas where they frequently accounted for the bulk of VOC concentrations. Outdoor sources accounted for most benzene and carbon tetrachloride, and a small fraction of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. This study shows that pollutant migration can be a significant and not uncommon problem in mixed-use buildings, and it demonstrates the need for better control of emissions and pollutant migration. Practical Implications Pollutant exposures in industrial, commercial, and institutional buildings arise from indoor and outdoor sources that can be identified, apportioned, and controlled with knowledge of emission sources and building airflows. We show that multi-tracer techniques are an effective and practical means of determining airflows and exchange rates in large buildings. In examining a set of mixed-use buildings, a substantial fraction of VOC exposures in otherwise relatively ,clean' offices is due to pollutant migration from ,dirty' zones of the building. This indicates the need for corrective actions to minimize exposures of office workers that are unwanted and probably unknown to building managers. These actions should include better control of emissions, isolation or control of air and pollutant flows between building zones, and documentation of the effectiveness of such measures when strong emission sources are present. [source]

    Measured concentrations of combustion gases from the use of unvented gas fireplaces

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 5 2010
    P. W. Francisco
    Abstract, Measurements of combustion product concentrations were taken in 30 homes where unvented gas fireplaces were used. Measurements of CO, CO2, NOx, NO2, O2 (depletion), and water vapor were taken at 1-min interval. The analyzers were calibrated with certified calibration gases for each placement and were in operation for 3,4 days at each home. Measured concentrations were compared to published health-based standards and guidelines. The two combustion gases that exceeded published values were NO2 and CO. For NO2, the Health Canada guideline of 250 ppb (1-h average) was exceeded in about 43% of the sample and the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline of 110 ppb (1-h average) was exceeded in 80% of the sample. Carbon monoxide levels exceeded the U.S. EPA 8-h average standard of 9 ppm in 20% of the sample. Moisture problems were not evident in the test homes. An analysis of the distribution of CO showed that the CO is dispersed throughout the home almost immediately upon operation of the fireplace and that the concentrations throughout the home away from the immediate vicinity of the fireplace are 70,80% of the level near the fireplace. Decay analysis of the combustion gases showed that NO was similarly stable to CO and CO2 in the indoor environment but that both NO2 and water vapor were removed from the air at much greater rates. Practical Implications Previous studies on unvented gas fireplaces have made assumptions of how they are operated by users. This article presents the results of field monitoring of 30 unvented gas fireplaces under normal operation, regardless of whether users follow industry recommendations regarding installation, usage patterns, and maintenance. The monitoring found that health-based standards and guidelines were exceeded for CO in 20% of homes and for NO2 in most homes. There were no identified moisture problems in these homes. Nearly, half of the fireplaces were used at least once for longer than 2 h, counter to manufacturers' intended usage as supplemental heating. This demonstrates that given actual usage patterns and compared to current health-based thresholds, these appliances can produce indoor air concentrations considered to be unhealthy to at least sensitive or at-risk individuals. [source]

    Differences between young adults and elderly in thermal comfort, productivity, and thermal physiology in response to a moderate temperature drift and a steady-state condition

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 4 2010
    L. Schellen
    Abstract, Results from naturally ventilated buildings show that allowing the indoor temperature to drift does not necessarily result in thermal discomfort and may allow for a reduction in energy use. However, for stationary conditions, several studies indicate that the thermal neutral temperature and optimum thermal condition differ between young adults and elderly. There is a lack of studies that describe the effect of aging on thermal comfort and productivity during a moderate temperature drift. In this study, the effect of a moderate temperature drift on physiological responses, thermal comfort, and productivity of eight young adults (age 22,25 year) and eight older subjects (age 67,73 year) was investigated. They were exposed to two different conditions: S1-a control condition; constant temperature of 21.5C; duration: 8 h; and S2-a transient condition; temperature range: 17,25C, duration: 8 h, temperature drift: first 4 h: +2 K/h, last 4 h: ,2 K/h. The results indicate that thermal sensation of the elderly was, in general, 0.5 scale units lower in comparison with their younger counterparts. Furthermore, the elderly showed more distal vasoconstriction during both conditions. Nevertheless, TS of the elderly was related to air temperature only, while TS of the younger adults also was related to skin temperature. During the constant temperature session, the elderly preferred a higher temperature in comparison with the young adults. Practical Implications ,Because the stock of fossil fuels is limited, energy savings play an important role. Thermal comfort is one of the most important performance indicators to successfully apply measures to reduce the energy need in buildings. Allowing drifts in indoor temperature is one of the options to reduce the energy demand. This study contributes to the knowledge concerning the effects of a moderate temperature drift and the age of the inhabitants on their thermal comfort. [source]

    Do allergic families avoid keeping furry pets?

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 3 2010
    R. J. Bertelsen
    Abstract, Studies addressing the relationship between pet keeping and development of asthma and allergies may be influenced by pet avoidance in families with a history of allergic disease. Following a cohort of 1019 children in Oslo till 10 years of age, we studied the association of pet keeping with socio-economic factors and allergic disease in the family. A family history of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis was not significantly associated with pet ownership at birth or with pet removal by 10 years. Acquiring cats and dogs was less likely if the child had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas no association was seen with asthma (in any family member). Single parenthood increased the likelihood of acquiring a cat, smoking parents more often had cats or dogs, and having older siblings was associated with keeping dogs and other furry pets. Among 319 families reporting pet avoidance, 70% never had pets, 8% had given up pets, and 22% avoided a particular type of pet only. Twenty-four per cent of the parents failed to retrospectively report pet keeping during the child's first year of life. Overall, allergic rhinitis, but not asthma was associated with actual pet avoidance, whereas the strongest predictors for keeping pets were found to be socio-economic factors. Practical Implications Allergic disease in a child most often does not lead to the removal of the family's furry pet. Pet avoidance is associated with allergic symptoms, but not asthma. Socio-economic factors like parental education, single parenthood and smoking affects the families' decisions on pet keeping, including the type of pets the families will avoid or acquire. The large recall error demonstrated points to the need for prospective data regarding pet keeping. [source]

    Some questions on dispersion of human exhaled droplets in ventilation room: answers from numerical investigation

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 2 2010
    C. Chen
    Abstract, This study employs a numerical model to investigate the dispersion characteristics of human exhaled droplets in ventilation rooms. The numerical model is validated by two different experiments prior to the application for the studied cases. Some typical questions on studying dispersion of human exhaled droplets indoors are reviewed and numerical study using the normalized evaporation time and normalized gravitational sedimentation time was performed to obtain the answers. It was found that modeling the transient process from a droplet to a droplet nucleus due to evaporation can be neglected when the normalized evaporation time is <0.051. When the normalized gravitational sedimentation time is <0.005, the influence of ventilation rate could be neglected. However, the influence of ventilation pattern and initial exhaled velocity on the exhaled droplets dispersion is dominant as the airflow decides the droplets dispersion significantly. Besides, the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the dispersion of droplets can be neglected for the droplet with initial diameter <200 ,m; while droplet nuclei size plays an important role only for the droplets with initial diameter within the range of 10 ,m,100 ,m. Practical Implications Dispersion of human exhaled droplets indoor is a key issue when evaluating human exposure to infectious droplets. Results from detailed numerical studies in this study reveal how the evaporation of droplets, ventilation rate, airflow pattern, initial exhaled velocity, and particle component decide the droplet dispersion indoor. The detailed analysis of these main influencing factors on droplet dispersion in ventilation rooms may help to guide (1) the selection of numerical approach, e.g., if the transient process from a droplet to a droplet nucleus due to evaporation should be incorporated to study droplet dispersion, and (2) the selection of ventilation system to minimize the spread of pathogen-laden droplets in an indoor environment. [source]

    Indoor/outdoor concentrations and elemental composition of PM10/PM2.5 in urban/industrial areas of Kocaeli City, Turkey

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 2 2010
    B. Pekey
    Abstract, This study presents indoor/outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations measured during winter and summer in 15 homes in Kocaeli, which is one of the most industrialized areas in Turkey. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations and elemental composition were determined using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Quantitative information was obtained on mass concentrations and other characteristics such as seasonal variation, indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio, PM2.5/PM10 ratio, correlations and sources. Average indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were 29.8 and 23.5 ,g/m3 for the summer period, and 24.4 and 21.8 ,g/m3 for the winter period, respectively. Average indoor and outdoor PM10 concentrations were 45.5 and 59.9 ,g/m3 for the summer period, and 56.9 and 102.3 ,g/m3 for the winter period, respectively. A varimax rotated factor analysis (FA) was performed separately on indoor and outdoor datasets in an effort to identify possible heavy metal sources of PM2.5 and PM10 particle fractions. FA of outdoor data produced source categories comprising polluted soil, industry, motor vehicles, and fossil fuel combustion for both PM fractions, while source categories determined for indoor data for both PM2.5 and PM10 comprised industry, polluted soil, motor vehicles, and smoking, with an additional source category of cooking activities detected for the PM2.5 fraction. Practical Implications In buildings close to industrial areas or traffic arteries, outdoor sources may have an important effect on indoor air pollution. Therefore, indoor and outdoor investigations should be conducted simultaneously to assess the relationship between indoor and outdoor pollution. This study presents the simultaneous measurement of PM fractions (PM2.5 and PM10) and their elemental compositions to determine the sources of respirable PM and the heavy metals bound to these particles in indoor air. Factor analysis of indoor data indicated that the contribution of outdoor pollutant sources to indoor pollution was about 70%, making these sources the most significant for indoor heavy metal pollution, wheras other sources of indoor pollution included smoking and cooking activities. [source]

    Review and comparison between the Wells,Riley and dose-response approaches to risk assessment of infectious respiratory diseases

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 1 2010
    G. N. Sze To
    Abstract, Infection risk assessment is very useful in understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and in predicting the risk of these diseases to the public. Quantitative infection risk assessment can provide quantitative analysis of disease transmission and the effectiveness of infection control measures. The Wells,Riley model has been extensively used for quantitative infection risk assessment of respiratory infectious diseases in indoor premises. Some newer studies have also proposed the use of dose-response models for such purpose. This study reviews and compares these two approaches to infection risk assessment of respiratory infectious diseases. The Wells,Riley model allows quick assessment and does not require interspecies extrapolation of infectivity. Dose-response models can consider other disease transmission routes in addition to airborne route and can calculate the infectious source strength of an outbreak in terms of the quantity of the pathogen rather than a hypothetical unit. Spatial distribution of airborne pathogens is one of the most important factors in infection risk assessment of respiratory disease. Respiratory deposition of aerosol induces heterogeneous infectivity of intake pathogens and randomness on the intake dose, which are not being well accounted for in current risk models. Some suggestions for further development of the risk assessment models are proposed. Practical Implications This review article summarizes the strengths and limitations of the Wells,Riley and the dose-response models for risk assessment of respiratory diseases. Even with many efforts by various investigators to develop and modify the risk assessment models, some limitations still persist. This review serves as a reference for further development of infection risk assessment models of respiratory diseases. The Wells,Riley model and dose-response model offer specific advantages. Risk assessors can select the approach that is suitable to their particular conditions to perform risk assessment. [source]

    Residential air exchange rates in three major US metropolitan areas: results from the Relationship Among Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air Study 1999,2001

    INDOOR AIR, Issue 1 2010
    N. Yamamoto
    Abstract, We report approximately 500 indoor,outdoor air exchange rate (AER) calculations based on measurements conducted in residences in three US metropolitan areas in 1999,2001: Elizabeth, New Jersey; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles County, California. Overall, a median AER across these urban areas and seasons was 0.71 air changes per hour (ACH, or per hour; n = 509) while median AERs measured in California (n = 182), New Jersey (n = 163), and Texas (n = 164) were 0.87, 0.88, and 0.47 ACH, respectively. In Texas, the measured AERs were lower in the summer cooling season (median = 0.37 ACH) than in the winter heating season (median = 0.63 ACH), likely because of the reported use of room air conditioners as Houston is typically hot and humid during the summer. The measured AERs in California were higher in summer (median = 1.13 ACH) than in winter (median = 0.61 ACH). Because the summer cooling season in Los Angeles County is less humid than in New Jersey or Texas, natural ventilation through open windows and screened doors likely increased measured AER in California study homes. In New Jersey, AER were similar across heating and cooling seasons, although the median AER was relatively lower during the spring. Practical Implications Adequate ventilation or air exchange rate (AER) for an indoor environment is important for human health and comfort, and relevant to building design and energy conservation and efficiency considerations. However, residential AER data, especially measured by more accurate non-toxic tracer gas methodologies, are at present quite limited worldwide, and are insufficient to represent the variations across regions and seasons within and between homes, including apartments and condominiums in more densely populated urban areas. The present paper presents quantitative and qualitative data to characterize residential AERs in three US urban areas with different climate attributes. [source]

    Corticosteroid Osteoporosis: Practical Implications of Recent Trials

    Philip N. Sambrook
    Abstract Corticosteroids are widely used and effective agents for control of many inflammatory diseases, but osteoporosis is a common problem associated with their long-term use. Several large double-blind controlled clinical trials in patients with corticosteroid osteoporosis recently have been published, indicating it is possible to prevent or reverse this bone loss. Ultimately, the aim of treatment is to prevent fractures, especially vertebral fractures that are the most common type of fracture associated with corticosteroid therapy, yet it remains unclear exactly which patients should receive prophylaxis. Understanding the differences between these trials is key to interpreting the results, which have important practical implications for patient management. [source]

    Citizen Response to Disasters: a Survey of Literature and Some Practical Implications

    I. Helsloot
    It is most likely that the modern citizen responds to disasters in the same fashion as his ancestor. Contrary to widespread belief, citizens do not panic in disaster situations. In fact, research into different aspects of citizen response shows that most citizens act in a rather rational way. Indeed, citizens often prove to be the most effective kind of emergency personnel. Disaster evaluations invariably show that most lives are actually saved by the ,average' citizen. On the other hand, it seems little can be done to improve citizen preparedness. A modern western citizen is not likely to invest time or money in preparing for ,acceptable' risks. The above results stem for the greater part from research already conducted as long ago as the nineteen-eighties. Limitations and implications however seem as yet unclear. One important limitation is the cultural bias in most studies. One important implication is that in western countries government should step in to improve citizen response by preparing to facilitate it in times of disaster. [source]

    The Legal, Ethical, and Practical Implications of Noncompetition Clauses: What Physicians Should Know Before They Sign

    Derek W. LoeserArticle first published online: 24 JAN 200
    First page of article [source]

    Some Theoretical and Practical Implications of the Attempted Takeover of a Consumer Cooperative Society

    J. Birchall
    The article begins with some observations about the trend towards demutualization of mutual and co-operative businesses, and then presents a case study of one, rather dramatic, example: the attempted takeover of Europe's largest consumer co-operative, CWS. It draws on original research into the takeover bid to provide a summary of what happened and when, and then asks some important questions about whether consumer co-operatives are inherently less efficient than PLCs in the retail sector; whether they can make themselves safe from takeover; if they do survive, how they can justify their existence as member-owned businesses; and whether there are alternative forms such as worker or multi-stakeholder ownership that can achieve the broad aims of the co-operative sector more effectively. It concludes that if CWS and similar organizations are to survive they must integrate the two aspects of a co-operative,the business and the association,and take seriously the opportunities and responsibilities that being a member-owned organization implies. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Recent work (Cook and Ludwig, 2003) has linked local firearm density to increased burglary victimization risk. The current work investigates within-household gun density or household firearm collection size. Previous work has suggested two subcultures of gun owners: protection-minded and sport- or hunting-minded. It also has identified gender gaps in reporting any household guns and in the number reported. None of the earlier work, however, has controlled for selection into gun-owning household status. This limitation raises potential questions about earlier findings. The current research controls for selection. If the two subcultures thesis is correct, protection-minded owners should report smaller household firearm collections. The expected impact is observed in one national survey and is partially replicated in a second. Gender gaps seemed more independent than previously suggested. This study is the first to provide evidence of two partially overlapping subcultures of gun owners even after controlling for selection into gun-owning household status. Practical implications for burglary risk may exist. [source]

    The Role of Gender Stereotypes in Perceptions of Entrepreneurs and Intentions to Become an Entrepreneur

    Vishal K. Gupta
    In this study we examine the role of socially constructed gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship and their influence on men and women's entrepreneurial intentions. Data on characteristics of males, females, and entrepreneurs were collected from young adults in three countries. As hypothesized, entrepreneurs were perceived to have predominantly masculine characteristics. Additional results revealed that although both men and women perceive entrepreneurs to have characteristics similar to those of males (masculine gender-role stereotype), only women also perceived entrepreneurs and females as having similar characteristics (feminine gender-role stereotype). Further, though men and women did not differ in their entrepreneurial intentions, those who perceived themselves as more similar to males (high on male gender identification) had higher entrepreneurial intentions than those who saw themselves as less similar to males (low male gender identification). No such difference was found for people who saw themselves as more or less similar to females (female gender identification). The results were consistent across the three countries. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. [source]

    Facing guilt: Role of negative affectivity, need for reparation, and fear of punishment in leading to prosocial behaviour and aggression

    Gian Vittorio Caprara
    The present study aims to further corroborate and to extend the scope of previous findings regarding the path of influence between negative affectivity, need for reparation and fear of punishment when examining the determinants and the motivational components of guilt. Data were collected from three different European countries (i.e. Italy, Hungary, and the Czech Republic). About 1100 young adolescents were involved in the research. The generalizability of a nomological network linking individual differences in Negative Affectivity to Need for Reparation, Fear of Punishment, Prosocial Behaviour, and Aggression has been investigated across countries and gender, by means of structural equation modelling. Need for Reparation turns out to be positively related to Prosocial Behaviour and negatively related to Aggression. Fear for Punishment turns out to be positively related to Aggression and negatively related to Prosocial Behaviour, with the exception of Hungary. Alternative paths of influence among considered variables have been examined. Practical implications for prevention and education are underlined. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Symbolic Attributes and Organizational Attractiveness: The moderating effects of applicant personality

    Bert Schreurs
    The present study examined the moderating influence of the Big Five personality factors in the relationship between five symbolic, trait-based inferences about organizations (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Prestige, and Ruggedness) and organizational attractiveness. Drawing on the similarity-attraction paradigm, six hypotheses were formulated, stating that the relationship between trait-based inferences and organizational attractiveness would be stronger for persons who perceive the organization as similar to them. Results of moderated regression analyses on data from a sample of 245 prospective applicants for the Belgian military revealed two significant two-way interactions, showing that Sincerity was positively related to organizational attractiveness only for individuals high on Conscientiousness, and that the relationship between Excitement and organizational attractiveness is more positive for individuals high on Openness to Experience. Practical implications, strengths and limitations, as well as directions for further research are presented. [source]

    Let's Dialogue About Penny: Effectiveness of Dialogue Involvement and Legitimizing Paltry Contribution Techniques,

    Dariusz Dolinski
    Earlier research has shown (Cialdini & Schroeder, 1976) that the statement "Even a penny will help" added to a standard request for charity donation considerably increases the probability of carrying it out. The present study tested the effectiveness of this technique in various contexts in a set of 3 field experiments conducted on the streets of 2 Polish cities. The results proved, first, that success can be strengthened when combined with a dialogue in which a requester is involved prior to being asked for a donation. Second, it was shown that the dialogue itself produced more compliance than did a monologue. Third, it was demonstrated that dialogue related to the content of the requested issue may or may not result in an increase in compliance, presumably depending on the in-group/out-group focus of the dialogue's content. Practical implications for charity donation are offered. [source]

    Intrusiveness of Minorities: Growing Pains for the Majority Group?,

    Francine Tougas
    In this paper, we examined the impact of the numerical representation and the intrusiveness of immigrants on feelings of group threat voiced by the majority. The present evaluation of group threat differs from previous studies in its inclusion of temporal comparisons. The relationship between feelings of threat and attitudes toward immigration was also evaluated. In all, 221 college students completed a questionnaire. As predicted, results obtained show that numerical representation was positively associated with feelings of group threat resulting from invidious social comparisons. Intrusiveness was positively related to feelings of group threat resulting from temporal comparisons. Contrary to hypotheses, the final model confirms that only feelings of temporal group threat were associated with negative attitudes toward immigration. Practical implications and the important role of temporal comparisons are discussed. [source]

    The dependent patient in a psychiatric inpatient setting: Relationship of interpersonal dependency to consultation and medication frequencies

    Richard M. O'Neill
    To examine the relationship between interpersonal dependency and medical service use in a hospital setting, the number of medical consultations and psychotropic medication prescriptions were compared in matched, mixed-sex samples of 40 dependent and 40 nondependent psychiatric inpatients. Results indicated that dependent patients received more medical consultations and a greater number of medications than did nondependent patients with similar demographic and diagnostic profiles. Implications of these results for theoretical models of interpersonal dependency and for previous research on the dependency,help-seeking relationship are discussed. Practical implications of these findings for work with dependent patients are summarized. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 57: 289,298, 2001. [source]

    The influence of evidence type and product involvement on message-framing effects in advertising

    Frank E. Dardis
    Extrapolating from prior research that describes the persuasive effects of gain- versus loss-framed messages via the heuristic-systematic model (HSM), the current study incorporated two advertising-related factors , evidence type (informational vs. exemplar) and product involvement , and examined their influence on message-framing effects in advertisements for commonplace consumer products. A significant interaction in Experiment 1 indicated that loss-framed messages were persuasive in a higher-involvement context only when coupled with informational evidence, which enhanced systematic processing among participants and thereby elicited the framing effect. No interaction effects occurred in the lower-involvement context of Experiment 2, in which the hypothesized thought-processing patterns did not evince. Consistent with recent theoretical advancements, these results indicate that message-framing effects can be attenuated when both systematic and heuristic processing occur simultaneously. Practical implications are discussed. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Beyond recycling: ,commons-friendly' waste reduction at new consumption communities

    Caroline Bekin
    This paper broadens current knowledge on consumer waste and disposal behaviour by exploring the diverse and complementary waste-reduction strategies and behaviours adopted by environmentally conscious consumer communities in the UK. Using a critical ethnography methodology and a multi-locale approach to designing the field, six distinct ethical voluntary simplifier communities were studied. Findings suggest their alternative lifestyles and waste management choices offer society much in terms of environmental soundness, while also presenting several personal trade-offs for community members that deserve critical consideration. Practical implications for marketers and policy makers are addressed. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Managing Crises in the EU: Some Reflections of a Non-EU Scholar

    Boris Porfiriev
    In recent years the EU has been increasingly involved in development and implementation of crisis policy as a component of its development and security policy. This process is seriously complicated by the EU architects, who had never conceived it as a crisis management institute. Therefore they failed to design built-in organisational capacities into the Union to mitigate and respond to crises. In addition, the EU-agreed overarching concept of crisis as such and EU crisis in particular is missing. Both issues remain a primary question on research and policy agendas. Provided below are some of the author's considerations and comments on these issues. It is argued that, despite the existing divergence in crisis interpretations in the EU, coherent conceptualisation is possible and approaches to this are introduced. Practical implications of generic crisis conceptualisation for EU crisis management policy are analysed. Within this context three major lessons from international experience, including that from the USA and Russia, are emphasised. These concern the issues of organisational flexibility, learning from earlier major crises and comprehensive training of crisis decision units critical for efficient crisis management policy. [source]

    The Effects of Lighting on Consumers' Emotions and Behavioral Intentions in a Retail Environment: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    Nam-Kyu Park Ph.D.
    ABSTRACT As an important component of a retail store's atmospherics, lighting can affect the emotional responses that influence consumer shopping behavior. The purpose of this study is to examine, through cross-cultural comparison, the effect of the color quality of light in a retail environment on consumers' emotional states, behavioral intentions, and perceptions. The experimental research followed a 2 times 2 2 factorial design with repeated measures to identify the impact of culture group, color rendering index, and color temperature. The results of this study indicate that consumers are aroused and pleased by certain lighting effects and that cultural differences influence perceptions as well as the behavioral intentions of "approach-avoid" in a retail environment. Practical implications of this study could include application of store lighting techniques that enhance visual perceptions of consumers, induce emotional states of arousal and pleasure, and appeal to consumers from different cultures. [source]

    Crossing national boundaries: A typology of qualified immigrants' career orientations

    Jelena Zikic
    Abstract This qualitative study examines objective,subjective career interdependencies within a sample of 45 qualified immigrants (QIs) in Canada, Spain and France. The particular challenges in this type of self-initiated international careers arise from the power of institutions and local gatekeepers, the lack of recognition for QIs' foreign career capital, and the need for proactivity. Resulting from primary data analysis, we identify six major themes in QIs' subjective interpretations of objective barriers: Maintaining motivation, managing identity, developing new credentials, developing local know-how, building a new social network and evaluating career success. Secondary data analysis distinguishes three QI career orientations,embracing, adaptive and resisting orientations,with each portraying distinct patterns of motivation, identity and coping. This study extends the boundaryless career perspective by providing a more fine-grained understanding of how qualified migrants manage both physical and psychological mobility during self-initiated international career transitions. With regards to the interdependence between objective and subjective career aspects, it illustrates the importance of avoiding preference to one side at the neglect of the other, or treating the two sides as independent of one another. Practical implications are proposed for career management efforts and receiving economies. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]