PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS (practical + application)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

  • many practical application


  • Selected Abstracts


    PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCIN FROM WEISSELLA PARAMESENTEROIDES DFR-8, AN ISOLATE FROM CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2010
    AJAY PAL
    ABSTRACT Bacteriocin from Weissella paramesenteroides DFR-8 isolated from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) was purified by using only two steps, viz., pH-mediated cell adsorption,desorption method and gel permeation chromatography. A single peak observed in the purity check by analytical Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (Waters 600 analytical HPLC system, Milford, MA) and a single band (molecular weight,3.74 kDa) shown on SDS-PAGE analysis strongly indicated the homogeneity of the bacteriocin preparation. Treatment with proteolytic enzymes abolished the antimicrobial activity indicating the proteinaceous nature of bacteriocin. The purified bacteriocin exhibited a broad inhibitory spectrum against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, including gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes. Response surface methodology was employed to study the interactive effect of temperature and pH on bacteriocin activity, and a regression equation was developed. The bacteriocin retained full activity after storage at,20C for 90 days, while partial and complete activity loss was observed when stored at 4 and 37C, respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATION In recent years, bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria have gained much attention as food biopreservatives because of their origin from generally regarded as safe organisms. In spite of various bacteriocins studied worldwide, studies on bacteriocins of Weissella paramesenteroides remain rare. The present work involves the purification of bacteriocin up to absolute homogeneity from W. paramesenteroides, an isolate first time reported from cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The purified bacteriocin (molecular weight ,3.74 kDa) was found to inhibit a large number of foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, which is resistant to commercially available bacteriocin, i.e., nisin. The application of central composite rotatable design enabled us to design a regression equation from which the residual activity of bacteriocin can be predicted at any given conditions of temperature and pH within the experimental domain. The broad inhibitory spectrum and thermostability of bacteriocin suggest its potential application in food preservation. [source]


    IODINE-FORTIFIED RICE AND ITS ABSORPTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2009
    VANNA TULYATHAN
    ABSTRACT Iodine deficiency remains a major health problem in many parts of Thailand with over 50% of the population lacking sufficient iodine in their diet. Since rice is the main staple for Thai people with rice consumed in one form or another in almost every meal, enrichment of rice with iodine offers an effective way to remedy this deficiency of iodine. The present paper investigates the enrichment of iodine in milled rice seeds using flour gel coating technique. Milled rice (Klong-laung 1 variety) was coated with iodine-enriched flour gel (rice : gel = 100:5 w/w) by mixing at 40 rpm and drying to less than 13% moisture. Washing or cooking of the iodine-enriched rice resulted in about 99% and 94% retention of original iodine, respectively. Sensory properties of the cooked rice were acceptable and almost comparable to non-iodine rice. When the iodine-fortified rice was fed to healthy male and female subjects, significant excretion of iodine in the urine was found. PRACTICAL APPLICATION A common form of rice consumed widely among Thai people (also popular in Laos and Cambodia) is a food known simply as "sticky rice." The reason for its popularity is the simple way it is prepared and, above all, its good taste. It is made from a short type of rice and when prepared, the resulting texture is quite sticky, thus its name. However, its nutritional value is quite low and is a good candidate for the introduction of iodine coating. It can be made by a quick steaming process and this simplicity in preparation makes it widely popular and can be a vehicle for the introduction of iodine to the local mass. [source]


    CHRACTERIZATION AND 1,1-DIPHENYL-2-PICRYLHYDRAZYL RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF METHANOL AND SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE EXTRACTS FROM LEAVES OF ADINANDRA NITIDA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2008
    BENGUO LIU
    ABSTRACT Leaves of Adinandra nitida are consumed in southern China as health tea (Shiyacha) and as herbal medicine. In this study, the methanol and supercritical fluid extracts from leaves of A. nitida were obtained by traditional solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, respectively. Both the extracts showed high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. By using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV), infrared spectrometry (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography-ESI/MS, the main bioactive constituents in the methanol extract (ME) were identified as camellianin A, camellianin B, apigenin. By analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a total of 16 compounds accounting for 98.79% of the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) were identified as ,-sitosterol, vitamin E, ,-tocopherol and so on. These compounds found in ME and SFE could contribute to the DPPH radical scavenging performance of the extracts in this study. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Adinandra nitida is a kind of particular wild plant in South China. Few reports have been published about it in the world. In this study, the methanol and supercritical fluid extracts from leaves of A. nitida were respectively obtained by two kinds of industrially significant methods, traditional solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. By using ultraviolet-visible spectrometry (UV), infrared spectrometry (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), high-performance liquid chromatography-ESI/MS, gas chromatography-MS, the main bioactive constituents in the two extracts were identified as flavonoids and plant sterols. Both the extracts showed high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and this activity of the flavonoid-rich methanol extract was 10 times more than that of butylated hydroxytoluene. These results showed that leaves of A. nitida is a new kind of natural antioxidant-rich, flavonoid-rich plant source with great commercial interest in the food and phytopharmaceutical market. [source]


    CLARIFICATION AND PURIFICATION OF AQUEOUS STEVIA EXTRACT USING MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2009
    M.H.M. REIS
    ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a native plant from South America and its active constituents have been considered the "sweeteners of the future."Stevia is a natural diet-sweetening source, safe to health and without calories. However, the obtained raw extract is foul smelling, bitter tasting, dark brown colored, and presents suspension matter due to organic and inorganic compounds. Therefore, further purification/clarification is essential in order to get a product of commercial quality. In this work ceramic membranes were applied in the stevia extract clarification process. The process was carried out under different membrane pore sizes and at different pressure values. The best clarification result was obtained with the membrane of 0.1 m at 4 bar. On the other hand, the best condition for the flux was obtained with the membrane of 0.2 m at 6 bar. The process with all the tested membranes and conditions achieved recovery of sweeteners higher than 90%. Finally, a filtration mathematical model was applied to describe the flux behavior, showing that the main fouling phenomenon during the process occurred because of the complete blocking of pores. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Stevia is the world's only all-natural sweetener with zero calories, zero carbohydrates and a zero glycemic index. However, the obtained stevia extract has a dark brown appearance, mainly because of the presence of impurities. In this work the membrane separation process was studied for stevia extract clarification and purification in order to get a product with higher commercial acceptability. The obtained results showed that total clarification and recuperation of sweeteners was almost achieved. Nonetheless, membrane fouling is an inevitable problem during membrane filtration. The mathematical analysis of the fouling occurrences showed that the complete blocking of pores is the main cause for the membrane permeability decrease. [source]


    OPTIMIZATION OF PERMEABILIZATION PROCESS FOR LACTOSE HYDROLYSIS IN WHEY USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 3 2009
    GURPREET KAUR
    ABSTRACT To overcome the permeability barrier and prepare whole cell biocatalysts with high activities, permeabilization of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis NCIM 3566 in relation to, -galactosidase activity was optimized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as permeabilizing agent. Permeabilized whole cells can be advantageous over pure enzyme preparations in terms of cost-effectiveness and increased stability maintained by the intracellular environment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize concentration of CTAB, temperature and the treatment time for maximum permeabilization of yeast cells. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process to achieve maximum enzyme activity obtained by RSM were 0.06% (w/v) CTAB concentration, 28C temperature and process duration of 14 min. At these conditions of process variables, the maximum value of enzyme activity was found to be 1,334 IU/g. The permeabilized yeast cells were highly effective and resulted in 90.5% lactose hydrolysis in whey. PRACTICAL APPLICATION , -Galactosidase is one of the most promising enzymes, which has several applications in the food, fermentation and dairy industry. However, the industrial applications of , -galactosidase have been hampered by the costs involved in downstream processing. The present investigation was focused on developing the low-cost technology for lactose hydrolysis based on permeabilization process. Disposal of lactose in whey and whey permeates is one of the most significant problems with regard to economics and environmental impact faced by the dairy industries. Keeping this in view, lactose hydrolysis in whey has been successfully performed using permeabilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells. Hydrolysis of lactose using , -galactosidase converts whey into a potentially very useful food ingredient, which has immense applications in food industries. Its use has increased significantly in recent years, mainly in the dairy products and in digestive preparations. Lactose hydrolysis causes several potential changes in the manufacture and marketing of dairy products, including increased solubility, sweetness and broader fermentation possibilities. [source]


    STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS, PHENOLS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY THROUGH SUGAR ADDITION DURING FROZEN STORAGE OF BLACKBERRIES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2009
    MIRELA KOPJAR
    ABSTRACT Influence of sugar and mixtures of sugar on color retention of two varieties of blackberries, Thornfree and Cacanska bestrna, were investigated during storage at ,18C for 12 months. After harvest, blackberries were coated with sugars (sucrose, fructose and glucose) and different sugar (sucrose + fructose + glucose, fructose + glucose, fructose + sucrose) mixtures. Anthocynin content, total phenol content and free radical scavenging activity of prepared samples were evaluated. Ratio of fruit : sugar was 1:1. The highest anthocyanin retention was in blackberry samples with glucose addition and the lowest in samples with sucrose addition, in both cultivars. Blackberry samples with sucrose addition had even lower retention than samples without sugar addition. Samples with an addition of other sugars had higher retention of anthocyanin than samples stored without sugars. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Possibility of phenols retention of blackberries due to sugar addition, during cold storage was investigated. Results showed that glucose had the most positive effect on anthocyanins retention as well as total phenolic compounds content. For that reason, certain amount of sucrose in fruit preserves can be replaced by addition of glucose, and for that reason retention of phenolic compounds can be higher and, as could be expected, more effective against oxidative stress in human body due to intake of product formulation with glucose. [source]


    THERMAL DEATH TIMES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI IN YOUNG COCONUT ENDOSPERM BEVERAGE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2009
    ALONZO A. GABRIEL
    ABSTRACT The decimal reduction times (D values) of Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection 25922) were established in a young coconut endosperm beverage, a famous local drink in the Philippines and in many tropical countries. Artificially inoculated cells were heated to 60, 70 and 80C at various heating times prior to survivor enumeration by surface plating onto pre-solidified Eosine Methylene Blue Agar. Results showed that the surviving populations significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with increasing exposure time and temperature. The calculated D values ranged from 0.26 0.01 to 0.56 0.08 min. Validation of the results by establishing the thermal resistance of other E. coli isolates in the coconut beverage medium was recommended. PRACTICAL APPLICATION The study established the thermal inactivation rates of Escherichia coli (American Type Culture Collection 25922) in a young coconut endosperm beverage medium in various heating temperatures. The results obtained from this study may be used in the calculations of appropriate thermal process schedules for the test beverage against the test organism. [source]


    EFFECTS OF COOKED TEMPERATURES AND ADDITION OF ANTIOXIDANTS ON FORMATION OF HETEROCYCLIC AROMATIC AMINES IN PORK FLOSS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 2 2009
    GUOZHOU LIAO
    ABSTRACT Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are an important class of food mutagens and carcinogens produced in meats cooked at high temperature. The formation of HAAs in pork floss during processing and the effect of vitamin C and vitamin E on HAAs formation in pork floss were studied. Pork floss was prepared by steaming of raw pork, followed by pressing, tearing, adding various additives, and then the cooked pork was subjected to stir frying. The various HAAs in pork floss were isolated by solid phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that the type and level of HAAs increased with increasing processing temperature. Up to seven HAAs, 9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Harman), 2-amino-1- methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-dipyrido[1,2-a: 3,,2,-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2), 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AaC) and 2-amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAaC) were detected in pork floss when stir fried at 150C. Color development increased with cooking temperatures, and was correlated with HAAs formation. The addition of vitamin C at various levels was not effective toward HAAs inhibition. However, the incorporation of 0.1% vitamin E reduced Norharman, PhIP, AaC and MeAaC concentrations in the pork floss. PRACTICAL APPLICATION The formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) is one of the most unfavorable changes during the cooking of food. Since the connection between the consumption of dietary carcinogens and cancer risks in human has been established, interest in this matter has been growing. However, the processing methods and conditions of Chinese traditional food are different from Western, and to date, little is known about HAAs content in the traditional meat products of China. The information derived from this study serves as an essential base of knowledge from a public health standpoint, and contributes to a repository of HAAs information relevant to Chinese cooking; it also can provide clues to understanding the factors that affect HAAs formation and can indicate means of reducing or eliminating these compounds. [source]


    PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON PHYSICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITIES OF SOME INDIGENOUS AND IMPORTANT RICE CULTIVARS OF NORTH-EASTERN HILL REGION OF INDIA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 6 2008
    TH. PREMILA DEVI
    ABSTRACT The northeastern hills of India are endowed with rich source of rice germplasm, which may be safely estimated about 9,000 accessions, excluding the redundancies. Even though much of the germplasm have been collected, studies on nutritional aspects of these local cultivars are still lacking. Fifteen important indigenous rice genotypes collected from different rice growing ecosystem of this region were studied for physical and nutritional qualities. Kernel color of the genotypes varied from white to dark purple. All the genotypes except Manipuri were of bold-grain type. Most of the genotypes studied have fat contents more than 2.0%. The protein content was found higher in Chahou angouba and Naga special. Five cultivars were identified as high-protein cultivars of rice, with 10,12.07% protein content. Amylose content varied from 2.27 to 24.5%. Most of long-grained genotypes recorded lesser amylose than short grained. Chahou varieties were found aromatic and glutinous, which demand higher market prices in local market. PRACTICAL APPLICATION The north-eastern hills of India are endowed with rich source of rice germplasm, and much of the germplasm have been collected, but studies on basic and advanced nutritional aspects of these local cultivars are still lacking. This part of India has valuable rice genotypes of strong aroma, glutinous characters and slender grains with high amount of protein, fat and fiber. Having not known to the rest of the world and even to indigenous end users, some of such cultivars have already been lost, and some more are at the verge of extinction. Quality evaluation done in the present study provided useful information on their commercial exploitation and utilization in breeding programs of nutritional enhancement of rice to fight malnutrition among rice-consuming population, which is largest in the world. [source]


    CHARACTERISTICS OF GELLAN GUM BASED FOOD GELS

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 4 2010
    DIPJYOTI SAHA
    ABSTRACT Fruit-based gels with gellan gum as the gelling agent was prepared. Textural attributes of the gellan gum gels, formed with different concentrations of the gum (0.5,3.0%) and sugar and/or pineapple juice, were determined employing the methods of large-deformation uniaxial compression and stress relaxation. Fracture stress/energy markedly increases with an increase in the concentration of gellan gum while fracture strain exhibits a marginal effect. The change in these compressive textural parameters is more pronounced for sugar added samples compared with gels without sugar. Marked decay in stress relaxation curves was observed; the extent of relaxation decreases marginally with an increase in gum content up to 2% but shows much lesser values beyond 2% addition. The sugar added samples exhibit lesser relaxation characteristics but higher relaxation times indicating elastic characteristics compared with samples without sugar. Use of gellan gum provides an innovative method for developing fruit juice based gels as a convenience food because of attractive transparent appearance and textural attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION The use of hydrocolloids like gellan gum can develop fabricated foods in the form of fruit juice based gels having unique textural properties. These properties can be altered to suit the consumer preference by varying the proportions of gellan gum, fruit juice and sugar. The results in the present investigation arising from compression and relaxation testing thus help in characterizing the developed gels. [source]


    EFFECT OF NaCl AND WATER CONTENT ON EXPANSION AND COLOR OF CASSAVA AND POTATO STARCHES ON BAKING

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 6 2009
    A. FARAHNAKY
    ABSTRACT Due to the importance of the role of NaCl in starch-based systems, the effect of NaCl and water content on specific volume, color parameters and moisture loss of cassava and potato starches was studied and response surface methodology was used to find and estimate any nonlinearity between the parameters under study. Glass transition (Tg) is one of the main factors determining the quality parameters of toasted and baked samples. Therefore, Tg of two starch systems (cassava and potato) at low water levels (<20%) as affected by NaCl and water content was investigated. Using experimental modeling, equations were obtained to relate expansion, color change and moisture loss of baked samples to salt level and water content. Differential scanning calorimetry-measured Tg showed that NaCl had negative impact on glass/rubber transition temperature of starch,salt mixtures compared with the samples without NaCl. This could have practical implications in baking, toasting and extrusion processing of starch-based systems. PRACTICAL APPLICATION Due to concerns over health-related issues of high intake of salt by the consumers, recently, the reduction of salt in different food products has become the focus of many industrial projects, conferences and workshops. In breakfast cereals, other than starch type, other added ingredients such as sugar and salt can have profound effects on the physical characteristics of final products. The inclusion of salt in breakfast cereals has some important technological roles, e.g., structure formation and flavor and color generation. Salt plays a key role in the expansion of low-moisture extruded starch-based products. Using the findings of this paper, one may quantify the effects of salt level on expansion and color of baked, toasted or extruded starch-based cereal products and relate the changes to the glass rubber transition of the system. [source]


    PHENOLIC COMPOUND CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND RADICAL-SCAVENGING PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SEED COAT OF CERTAIN THAI TAMARIND CULTIVARS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2010
    MANEEWAN SUKSOMTIP
    Methanolic extracts from the seed coats of five major tamarinds (Srichomphu, Sithong-nak, Sithong-bao, Priao-yak and Khanti) cultivated in Thailand were investigated for their content of phenolic compounds and their antioxidative properties. Antioxidative properties were evaluated by various different methods: scavenging effect on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical, anti-lipid peroxidation and reducing power assay. The phenolic compound contents were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Extract of Priao-yak with the highest tannin content showed the strongest reducing power, while extract of Khanti with the highest proanthocyanidin content revealed high scavenging ability on both DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Stronger antioxidative activity measured by most assays was noted for the extract of Sithong-bao with a high content of total phenols, proanthocyanidin and tannins. The results suggest that specific phenolic constituents in the extract could be responsible for the different antioxidant properties observed in different cultivars. Furthermore, seed coat extract of Sithong-bao may be a potential source of natural antioxidant to be developed into nutraceuticals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Components of Tamarindus indica L., a tree indigenous to India and South-East Asia, have long been used as a spice, food component and traditional medicine. According To traditional medicine, the tamarind pulp is used as a digestive, carminative, laxative, expectorant and blood tonic; the seeds are used as an anthelmintic, antidiarrheal and emetic. In addition, the seed coat is used to treat burns and aid wound healing as well as as an antidysenteric. Recent studies have demonstrated polyphenolic constituents with more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of T. indica seed coat extract. Therefore, seed coat extracts of T. indica have economic potential for development into health promotion products as well as natural preservatives to increase the shelf life of food by preventing lipid peroxidation. [source]


    INDIVIDUAL AND COMBINED CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE MAJOR FOUR AFLATOXINS IN DIFFERENT IN VITRO STABILIZED SYSTEMS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 5 2010
    CORNELIA BRAICU
    ABSTRACT The present study aims to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the major aflatoxins (B1, B2, G2 and G2) and also aflatoxin combination, using a simple, rapid and cheap cytotoxicity test like MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay in three in vitro models (human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVEC], human lung fibroblasts [HFL] and A2780 cell line) and to extrapolate the data to in vivo situation using a prediction model. A difference in cell sensitivity has been observed for B1 and B1 + B2, in the following order A2789 > HFL > HUVEC, while for B2, G1, G2, Mix (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) the order was HFL > A2789 > HUVEC when comparing the IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values. We confirm that in vitro cytotoxicity test MTT assay is able to predict in vivo toxicity, at least for aflatoxins using the prediction model. The values of LD50 (lethal dose 50%) calculated from experiments are different for each cell line. This fact may indicate that some species are more resistant than other and target organs are not necessarily those predicted, because the A2780 ovarian cancer cells seem to be more sensitive to B1 than cells of endothelial or fibroblasts origin. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study is in concordance with the international tendency that refined the current techniques to lessen pain or distress, to reduce the number of animals necessary for a particular test or to replace animals with non-whole-animal models, such as in vitro cell cultures. The practical application of such methodologies may help solve the economic problem related to very expensive in vivo toxicology studies and implement preventive methods based on the calculated data and known mechanism of action of individual or combined toxins easily studied in vitro. The nature of coexistence of many types of mycotoxins in complex environmental samples, such as food and water, has been reported worldwide. How these mycotoxins might affect human health in combination is largely unknown. This study had, as a goal, to test the toxicity of the four aflatoxins and aflatoxin combination on human cells. Due to the lack of aflatoxins mixture data regarding the human cytotoxicity, the aim of this study was to specify, evaluate and predict the combined effects of mycotoxin mixtures. [source]


    PROTEINASES IN HYBRID CATFISH VISCERA: CHARACTERIZATION AND EFFECT OF EXTRACTION MEDIA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2010
    SAPPASITH KLOMKLAO
    ABSTRACT Proteolytic activity from viscera extract of hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus Clarias gariepinus) was investigated. Optimal pH and temperature for casein hydrolysis were 9.0 and 50C, respectively. The enzyme was stable to heat treatment up to 40C and over a pH range of 7,11 for 30,120 min. The proteolytic activity was effectively inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, benzamidine, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and N -p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone. Activities of the viscera extract continuously decreased as NaCl concentration increased, while activities increased as CaCl2 concentration increased. Based on the proteinase activity of zones separated by electrophoresis, the molecular mass of the major proteinases in hybrid catfish viscera was 23 and 20 kDa. The effect of extraction media on recovery of proteinases was also studied. Extraction of the viscera powder with 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.0 containing 0.5 M NaCl and 0.2% (v/v) Brij 35 rendered a higher recovery of proteinase activity than other extractants tested (P < 0.05). The results suggested that major proteinases in hybrid catfish viscera were heat-activated alkaline proteinases, most likely trypsin-like serine proteinases. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Hybrid catfish viscera is an abundant and underutilized resource that can be used as a unique proteinase source. Proteinase from various sources catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Thus, it is expected that like other proteinases, hybrid catfish proteinase would be useful in biomedical, food and beverage application. Moreover, the presented extraction media could be adopted to recover the trypsin-like serine proteinase from hybrid catfish viscera, which is currently a solid waste of Pa-duk-ra industry. [source]


    EFFECT OF SALTS AND POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS ON THE PARTITIONING AND RECOVERY OF TRYPSIN FROM HYBRID CATFISH VISCERA IN AQUEOUS TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2010
    SAPPASITH KLOMKLAO
    ABSTRACT The partitioning behavior of trypsin from hybrid catfish viscera in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was studied. Factors such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecular mass and concentration, as well as types and concentration of salts, affected protein separation. Trypsin partitioned mainly in the top PEG-rich phase. ATPS formed by PEG of molecular weight 4,000 (20%, w/w) and NaH2PO4 (20%, w/w) showed the best capability for trypsin purification from hybrid catfish viscera. Under such conditions, the highest specific activity (30.05 units/g protein) and purification (27.3-fold), were obtained. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the enzyme after ATPS separation was near homogeneity and based on the activity staining, the band intensity of enzyme in ATPS fraction increased, indicating the greater specific activity of the viscera extract. The partitioned enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 50C, respectively. The enzyme was stable up to 40C and within the pH range of 8,12. The enzyme exhibited a progressive decrease in activity with increasing NaCl concentration. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper describes the separation and recovery of trypsin from hybrid catfish viscera in ATPS and its properties. ATPS provides an efficient and attractive method for partitioning and recovery of trypsin from hybrid catfish viscera. Trypsins from various sources catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds on the carboxyl sides of arginine and lysine. Therefore, it is expected that like other trypsins, trypsin after ATPS separation from hybrid catfish viscera could be useful in the biomedical, food and beverage industries. [source]


    FACTORS AFFECTING LIPID OXIDATION IN BREAST AND THIGH MUSCLE FROM CHICKEN, TURKEY AND DUCK

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2010
    Y. GONG
    ABSTRACT Lipid oxidation occurred rapidly in turkey muscle, intermediate in duck and slowest in chicken. pH was lowest in turkey muscle. Chicken muscle had a lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with turkey and duck muscles. The aqueous fraction of duck breast inhibited hemoglobin-mediated lipid oxidation in washed muscle more effectively than aqueous fractions from turkey and chicken muscle. ,-Tocopherol content was highest in duck muscle, intermediate in chicken and lowest in turkey. Depletion of tocopherols during frozen storage was more rapid in turkey and duck compared with chicken. It was thought that the elevated tocopherol level in chicken muscle may be caused by less efficient catabolism via the omega hydroxylation pathway. However, tocopherol hydroxylase activity was similar in chicken compared with turkey liver microsomes. Heme pigment content was around sixfold higher in duck breast compared with chicken and turkey breast. Duck thigh had especially elevated pH. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This work describes a number of factors that explain the wide variation in oxidative stability (chicken > duck > turkey) when comparing muscle tissues from the three avian species. These factors include muscle pH, concentration of heme pigments, fatty acid unsaturation, inhibitors of lipid oxidation in the aqueous fraction of the muscle, tocopherol content in lipid phases and depletion rates of tocopherol. These factors should be considered when developing strategies to inhibit lipid oxidation in muscle foods. The relatively high content of ,-tocopherol in chicken muscle compared with turkey should be a subject of further research to better understand the mechanisms by which certain animal species preferentially deposit the molecule into muscle. [source]


    LIPID, CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY ACID PROFILE OF SOME COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT FISH SPECIES FROM SOUTH CASPIAN SEA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2010
    S. PIRESTANI
    ABSTRACT The fatty acid, lipid, cholesterol and energy contents in five commercially important fish species from South Caspian Sea (common kilka, Caspian kutum, golden gray mullet, common carp and pike perch) were evaluated. The fatty acid compositions of these five fish species ranged from 28.99 to 41.05% saturated fatty acids, 40.99,56.25% monounsaturated fatty acids and 14.22,23.03% polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among these, those occurring in the highest proportions were palmitic acid (20.42,27.9%), palmitoleic acid (11.09,26.26%), oleic acid (16.1,36.94%), eicosapentaenoic acid (3.22,7.53%) and docosahexaenoic acid (3.86,11.36%). The lipid, cholesterol and energy contents ranged from 1.97% to 10.23%, 57,302 mg/100 g and 4365.4,5544.2 cal g/dm, respectively. The obtained Statistical results showed that in these fishes, many of the above mentioned indices had significant differences (P , 0.01) and the cluster analysis results of fatty acid compositions showed that common carp and pike perch had good similarity, followed by the Caspian kutum and golden gray mullet. However, common kilka did not show any similarity to others. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Fish consumption has been linked to health benefits such as reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This is largely attributed to the lipid, cholesterol, energy contents, fatty acid compositions and the polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish oils. The ,-3 : ,-6, polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid/C16 ratios are considered to be useful criteria for comparing relative nutritional and oxidation values of fish oils. [source]


    ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM PARCHING GREEN TEA

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
    SHENG-DUN LIN
    ABSTRACT Cold and hot water extracts (2, 6 and 10%) were prepared from parching green tea and its antioxidant properties studied and potential antioxidant components determined. Yields of hot water extracts (17.53,28.63%) were significantly higher than those of cold water extracts (13.34,16.14%). The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values in antioxidant activity and reducing power were 2.17,2.75 and 0.22,0.30 mg/mL, respectively. Scavenging abilities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals were comparable. EC50 values in scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions were 3.31,4.54 and 1.63,3.09 mg/mL, respectively. Contents of total phenols were 220.52,339.83 mg/g whereas those of total catechins in cold and hot water extracts were 130.22,146.28 mg/g and 136.40,191.33 mg/g, respectively. Based on the results obtained, hot water extracts were more effective in antioxidant activity, reducing power and scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals but less effective in chelating ability on ferrous ions. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Tea is one of popular drinks in the world. The consumption of green tea is especially popular in Asia, mainly for its health benefits. Parched tea is a Chinese style green tea, which is different from the Japanese style steamed tea. Recently, the tea prepared by brewing tea leaves in cold water has become a new choice in Taiwan in addition to traditionally hot water-brewed tea. Results from this research, the cold and hot water extracts of green tea are good antioxidant. Besides, green tea is also reported to reduce serum cholesterol levels and inhibit hypertension, mutagenesis, and tumourigenesis in several experiments in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the extract of green tea has the potential to be developed into new health foods, and the cold brewing would be a new alternative way to make a tea. [source]


    FILM FORMING MECHANISM AND MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE-BASED EDIBLE FILMS AS AFFECTED BY PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, GLYCEROL RATIO AND PULLULAN CONTENT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
    MAHAMADOU ELHADJI GOUNGA
    ABSTRACT Tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (EAB) and elastic modulus (EM) of edible films prepared from 5, 7 and 9% whey protein isolate (WPI) plasticized with different levels of glycerol (Gly) (WPI : Gly = 3.6:1, 3:1 and 2:1) were investigated in order to completely characterize WPI-Gly films. On increasing protein concentration an increase in TS and EAB was observed. On the other hand, increasing Gly led to a decrease in TS and EM, while EAB increased. The addition of pullulan (Pul) into the film forming solution (FFS) increased EAB while TS, EM and thermal properties were reduced. This suggested that Pul had a similar effect as plasticizers. Films with higher Pul content showed lighter protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that hydrogen bonding was high in WPI : Pul films as compared with the control. This is attributed to the protein-polysaccharide interactions brought about by the dominance of Pul in the FFS. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This work describes some physical properties of films based on blends of whey protein isolate (WPI) and pullulan (Pul), made after a previous study on some characteristics of films based on pure WPI plasticized by glycerol. The most studied proteins in the edible films technology being gluten and WPI, the use of Pul in mixture with WPI is considered as a new investigation to explore the utilization of WPI-Pul in edible film and coating materials applied to food products. Furthermore, the use of WPI-Pul films and coatings could potentially extend the shelf life and improve the stability of the coated products as shown by the resultant properties in this investigation and previous works. [source]


    PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ,-CARRAGEENASE FROM MARINE BACTERIUM MUTANT STRAIN PSEUDOALTEROMONAS SP.

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2010
    AJ5-13 AND ITS DEGRADED PRODUCTS
    ABSTRACT A ,-carrageenan-degrading bacterial strain AJ5 isolated from the intestine of Apostichopus japonicus was identified as Pseudoalteromonas sp. based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The mutant Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 with ,-carrageenase activity of 61 U/mg protein was obtained from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5 using mutagenesis technique. An extracellular ,-carrageenase was purified from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 cultural supernatant by ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-200) and cation-exchange chromatography (CM-cellulose 52). The purified enzyme yielded a single band on SDS-PAGE with the molecular mass of 35 kDa. Data of the N-terminal amino acid sequence indicated that this protein might be a novel ,-carrageenase. The pI and Km of the enzyme were 8.5 and 9.8 0.2 mg/mL, respectively. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55C. It hydrolyzed the ,-1, 4-glycosidic linkages of ,-carrageenan yielding ,-neocarrabiose, -tetraose, -hexaose, -octaose and -decaose sulfates as the main end-products. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS ,-Carrageenases degrade ,-carrageenan by hydrolyzing the ,-1,4 linkages to a series of oligosaccharides. Thus, it is expected that like other ,-carrageenases, the ,-carrageenase isolated from Pseudoalteromonas sp. AJ5-13 would also be useful in seaweed biotechnology, pharmacy and immunology. ,-Carrageenases can be applied to study the composition and structure of carrageenans from different red alga, and to study the bacterial ,-carrageenan metabolism. They also provide the opportunity to investigate the structure-function relationship of the hydrolases that degrade self-associating sulfated polysaccharides. Examples of the practical applications of ,-carrageenases include their use in degrading the cell walls of seaweeds to obtain protoplasts, and in hydrolyzing ,-carrageenan to produce oligosaccharides. ,-Carrageenan-oligosaccharides have various potential biological properties, such as antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant activities, cytoprotection, immunomodulation, etc. [source]


    GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDIN EXTRACT CHELATES IRON AND ATTENUATES THE TOXIC EFFECTS OF 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2010
    TZU-HUA WU
    ABSTRACT Proanthocyanidins are potent antioxidants associated with protection against diseases. We tested the reducing capacity, iron chelating activity, and anti-auto-oxidation ability of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE). The mechanisms underlying GSPE attenuation of oxidative processes induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxin used to induce Parkinson's disease, were investigated in cell-based systems. At high concentrations, GSPE (50 g/L) was a mild pro-oxidant in a Fenton-type reaction. GSPE (300 g/mL) was as potent as 30 M deferoxamine in its iron-chelating capacity, and as efficient as 5 mM ascorbic acid in delaying 6-OHDA auto-oxidation. In PC-12 cell cultures, 100 and 300 g/mL GSPE significantly protected (P < 0.05) cells from 6-OHDA-induced (400 M) toxicity. GSPE-induced cytoprotection is enhanced by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (NOSI), implying that the cytoprotective effect of GSPE does not require NOS activation. In conclusion, the iron-chelating activity of GSPE minimizes its pro-oxidant activity and delays 6-OHDA auto-oxidation to provide cytoprotection. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The recognized pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat Parkinson's disease include the minimization of oxidative stress, iron release and excitotoxicity resulting from excess nitric oxide formation. One of the best ways to delay or prevent the onset of the disease is to improve the biological antioxidant status by providing additional radical scavengers that are not pro-oxidants. The pro-oxidant activity, such as that of the antioxidant ascorbic acid, enhances radical cycling under certain conditions, and therefore may be detrimental. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPEs) are used as a dietary supplement in food products in several countries. Our current report provides evidence that GSPE has limited pro-oxidant activity, presumably because of its iron-chelating abilities, and protects cells from neurotoxic insults. GSPE may be effective as a dietary supplement for prophylactic use against the progressive neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson's disease. [source]


    CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF THE ,-AMYLASE GENE FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS US116 STRAIN ENCODING AN ENZYME CLOSELY IDENTICAL TO THAT FROM BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS BUT DISTINCT IN THERMAL STABILITY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2010
    EZZEDINE BEN MESSAOUD
    ABSTRACT The gene encoding for the ,-amylase AMYUS116 was cloned and sequenced. The amino acid sequence of AMYUS116 exhibited an almost perfect homology with the ,-amylase BACAAM, excluding the residues N205 and N217 of AMYUS116 that were changed to H205 and I217 into BACAAM. Three mutant derivatives from AMYUS116 (N205H, N217I and N205H/N217I) were created by site-directed mutagenesis and their physicochemical and kinetic properties were compared with those of the wild-type enzymes. Therefore, the undertaken amylases mainly generated maltohexaose from starch and had radically the same kinetic parameters and optimum pH and temperature. They, however, were significantly distinct in thermal stability; AMYUS116 was more thermosensible as its half-life time at 80C was 13 min, while those of BACAAM and the double mutant were likewise 38 min. The single-mutant amylases exhibited an identically intermediate thermal stability as their half-life times at 80C were roughly 22 min. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Of particular interest to the current search is that the different thermal stability between AMYUS116 and BACAAM can lead to novel findings pertaining to protein stability, which can bring about new strategies for protein engineering. Basically, the comparative study of closely related amylases and the protein engineering of already existing ones are certainly important because they offer opportunities to understand the structure,function relationships of these biocatalysts. [source]


    ASSESSING ABSORBABILITY OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS IN ALOE USING IN VITRO DIGESTION MODEL WITH HUMAN INTESTINAL CELL

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2010
    SOON-MI SHIM
    ABSTRACT This study used a simulated in vitro digestion model coupled with caco-2 cell to assess the digestive stability and absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin and aloenin A. Aloenin A and aloe-emodin were stable and entirely recovered during simulated digestion, but 50% of aloin was lost. Approximately 53.2, 7.3 and 28.7% of aloe-emodin, aloenin A and aloin, respectively, was transported into both apical and basolateral compartments after 1 h incubation in caco-2 cell. The involvement of several transporter proteins for aloin and aloenin A was examined. An inhibitor of SGLT1 on apical surface (phloridzin) or that of GLUT2 on basolateral membrane (cytochalasin B) reduced the absorption of aloin by 40 or 60%, respectively, indicating that aloin is likely to be a partial substrate of SGLT1. In the presence of an efflux transporter inhibitor (verapamil), the transport of aloenin A through an intentinal apical membrane increased up to 2.1 times compared with the control (without verapamil). PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Our results on both digestive stability and intestinal absorption characteristics of bioactive components in aloe could be of helpful information for promoting its bioavailability. The in vitro technique described in this study provides a rapid and cost-effective alternative for predicting bioavailability of biomarkers in aloe functional food. [source]


    LIPOXYGENASE ACTIVITY IN PRICKLY PEAR FRUIT (OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA [L.] MILL.

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2010
    CACTACEAE)
    ABSTRACT Prickly pear LOX activity was detected in the membrane fractions of the fruit extracts at various stages of ripening. LOX specific activity was very low in the fruit of wild plants at the green stage (0.49 0.04) and increased with fruit ripening, more than doubling in the ripened fruit (1.22 0.06). Moreover, it was not influenced by the cultivar, whereas it was considerably increased (13.3 1.4) by agronomic processes to which prickly pear plants are submitted to improve the organoleptic properties of fruits. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 96 kDa. The enzyme had an optimum pH value of 5.5 and a clear specificity for linolenic acid, which was oxidized at a rate one and a half times that of linoleic acid, under the same reaction conditions. The involvement of prickly pear LOX in the flavor biosynthesis of the fruit is supposed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Over the last decade in particular, prickly pear fruits have been widely used as food, not only the whole fruit but also processed to make juices, jams and liquors popular the world over. Prickly pear production has therefore risen considerably and consequently both the labor force employed and revenues generated have increased. For those engaged in this sector it is therefore a prime objective to maximise the profile and thereby profitability of the fruit. It is here that our research into lipoxygenase activity can play a part, as it is known that this enzyme is responsible for the organoleptic properties of fruits and vegetables. The results are presented below. The relationship between lipoxygenase specific activity and specific agronomic processes utilized to improve the fruit quality is also addressed. [source]


    EFFECT OF BUTYRIC ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON SERUM AND RENAL ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITIES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2010
    A. PUNEETH KUMAR
    ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen metabolites, which are constant products of normal aerobic cell metabolism, play a key role in worsening the pathophysiological complications of diabetes. The present investigation was aimed at understanding the effect of butyric acid supplementation along with wheatbran and guar gum on serum and renal antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase were evaluated in serum and kidney of control and experimental rats. Results clearly showed that the altered activity of the enzymes during diabetes was significantly ameliorated by butyric acid (500 mg/kg body weight/day) supplementation compared with other experimental groups. Further, the increased lipid peroxidation in serum and kidney of diabetic rats was also significantly reduced in butyric acid-supplemented diabetic rats. The study led us to conclude that butyric acid exert antioxidant property, thereby minimizing oxidative stress induced diabetes and its related complications. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Butyric acid , a product of dietary fiber fermentation , is a four-carbon fatty acid, which has wide range of application in disease management. This product is involved in various physiological functions of body like cell differentiation, apoptosis, colonic homeostasis, histone acetylation, etc. It is also known to decrease the incidence of bowel cancer and some of its analogues are shown to selectively improve glucose-stimulated insulin release and glucose tolerance in both normal and diabetic rats. This study aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of butyric acid supplementation on oxidative stress-induced diabetic complications in rats. [source]


    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF GINSENOSIDES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2010
    SUNGWOOK CHAE
    ABSTRACT Ginseng roots are believed to contain over 20 different types of ginsenosides. However, no reports exist on the antioxidant activity of ginsenosides according to their various structures. The present study involves a comparison of the various forms of ginsenosides, a series of derivatives originating from the attachment of different sugar moieties to triterpene dammarane, with respect to their intracellular reactive oxygen species scavenging activity. Among the ginsenosides, Rb2 and Rc showed the strongest antioxidant activity, followed by (in decreasing order) Rg2, Rh2, Rh1, Rf, Rg3, Rg1, Rb1, Re and Rd. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity ranks of the various forms of ginsenosides were influenced by the types of dammarane, as well as the number of sugar moieties, and substitutive groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the antioxidant properties of ginsenosides with the goal of determining their structure,activity relationship. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), a member of the Araliaceae family, is traditionally considered as one of the most important medicinal plants with high ginsenoside content. Ginsenoside is a triterpenoid glycoside, which is known to have diverse physiological and pharmacological activities. However, the correlation of structure and antioxidant activity has never been studied thus far in ginsenosides. A relationship exists between the type and position of the sugar moieties in ginsenoside. From these results, ginsenosides Rb2 and Rc might be very useful for the development of functional food and raw materials of medicine for antioxidants preventing oxidative stress-related diseases. And structure and antioxidant relationship may be potential for evaluating the structure and function relationship of other ginsenosides in order to elucidate which part of ginsenoside is essential with regards to increasing antioxidant activity and the development of novel antioxidants to treat diseases associated with free radicals. [source]


    FREE RADICAL-SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT CHITIN OLIGOSACCHARIDES LEAD TO ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT IN LIVE CELLS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2010
    DAI-NGHIEP NGO
    ABSTRACT Chitin oligosaccharides (NA-COS) with low molecular weight distribution of 229.21,593.12 Da were produced from crab chitin by acid hydrolysis. They showed reducing power and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO), hydroxyl and alkyl radicals. It was observed that the radical-scavenging activity of NA-COS increased in a dose-dependent manner. Their IC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl and alkyl radicals were 0.8, 1.75 and 1.14 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, NA-COS exhibited the inhibitory effect on the oxidative damage of DNA from human lymphoma U937 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA) and the direct radical-scavenging effect in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) (American Type Culture Collection) in 2,,7,-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay (Molecular Probes Inc., Eugene, OR). The results suggest that NA-COS can exert antioxidant effect in live cells and have the potential to be applied to food supplements or nutraceuticals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Chitin oligosaccharides (NA-COS) are the hydrolyzed products of chitin (KEUMHO chemical products Co. Ltd., Gyeongbuk, Korea) of which derivatives have shown antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulant effects. According to previous studies, NA-COS have beneficial biological activities similar to those of chitin. Furthermore, they are easily soluble in water because of their shorter chain length. Therefore, NA-COS are potentially applicable to improve food quality and human health. [source]


    GLYCOSIDASE INHIBITORY ACTIVITY AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF A POLYSACCHARIDE FROM THE MUSHROOM INONOTUS OBLIQUUS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2010
    HAIXIA CHEN
    ABSTRACT A water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) was isolated from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat. The chemical compositions, molecular weight and inhibitory activities on glycosidase and antioxidant properties of IOPS were investigated. The results indicated that IOPS was an acid protein-bound polysaccharide, with a molecular weight of 1.7 104 Da and the contents of neutral sugar, protein and uronic acids being 42.5, 18.5 and 6.1%, respectively. IOPS exhibited an inhibitory activity against ,-glucosidase with the IC50 value of 93.3 g/mL, whereas it had no effective inhibition on ,-amylase. Results of antioxidant activity assays revealed that IOPS had inhibitory activity on the concentration-dependent quenching of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, IOPS inhibited the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver tissue. These results clearly demonstrated that IOPS was one of the main bioactive components of I. obliquus that contributed to hypoglycemic activity and antioxidant activity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Diabetes mellitus is one of the primary threats to human health because of its increasing prevalence, chronic course and disabling complications. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and complications associated with the disease. One therapeutic approach to decrease postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard the absorption of glucose through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes in the digestive organs. In this study, a polysaccharide isolated from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) was shown to have notable glycosidase inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities. This research will benefit for the investigation of effective and safe ,-glucosidase inhibitors from natural materials. IOPS could be a good candidate for application in food and medicinal fields. It might be developed for functional food or lead compounds for use in antidiabetes. [source]


    ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT FLORAL ORIGIN HONEYS FROM TURKIYE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 2010
    ESRA ULUSOY
    ABSTRACT The bioactivities of phenolic extracts of nine Turkish honeys from different floral sources were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were assessed by ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay. The total phenolic contents measured by Folin,Ciocalteau method varied from 66 to 223 mg/g extract as gallic acid equivalent. The antioxidant activities found with CUPRAC, expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ranged from 124.8 to 532 mol/g, those determined with DPPH expressed as IC50 ranged from 84 to 296 g/mL, and those determined with FRAP expressed as trolox equivalent were in 33,166 mol/g range. The antioxidant activities showed a marked correlation with total phenolics. In the antimicrobial tests using six bacteria and a yeast, Escherichia coli was moderately sensitive to each extract. There was no correlation between antimicrobial activity and total phenolic contents. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Honey has functional properties and promotes human health, and such properties depend largely on the floral source. Although studies on screening the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of raw honey samples have been done densely, studies on phenolic compounds of honey are very limited. The present study demonstrates that honey phenolic compounds are partially responsible for honey antioxidant activity, displaying the relevance of honey as both healthy foodstuff and source of antioxidant. [source]


    CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOL OXIDASE FROM ROOSTER POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM CV ROOSTER)

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2010
    D. NI EIDHIN
    ABSTRACT The isolation and purification of polyphenol oxidase from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum cv. Rooster) is described. A 64-fold purified preparation has been obtained with 10% yield by a procedure involving (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, phenyl sepharose chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The partially purified enzyme has both cresolase and catecholase activity. Activity was lower toward monophenols than diphenols. Enzyme activity was optimal at pH 6.0,6.5 and at 30C. Greater than 50% activity was retained during storage for 72 h at pH 6.0,7.5. Residual activity was greater than 50% after incubation at 20C for 72 h, 30C for 48 h, 40C for 24 h, 50C for 2 h and 60C for 15 min. The most effective inhibitors tested were sodium metabisulfite and ascorbic acid. Sodium dodecyl sulphate appeared to activate the enzyme. The enzyme was capable of cross-linking casein but did not increase gel-strengths in acidified milk gels. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Rooster is the most important potato cultivar grown in Ireland and data on its isolation and characterization has not been reported previously. This work describes a method to isolate polyphenol oxidase and characterization of the enzyme. Information on characterization of the enzyme could be valuable in relation to control of enzymatic browning during current processing and in minimum processing. There is potential for use of the enzyme in the emerging cross-linking area, as the results show some success and there may be potential of more cross-linking as the field develops and as interest in natural methods of cross-linking for food texture grows. This could lead to an important use for potato waste. Food product applications are given. [source]