Prawn

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Prawn

  • freshwater prawn
  • giant freshwater prawn
  • king prawn

  • Terms modified by Prawn

  • prawn farming
  • prawn macrobrachium rosenbergii

  • Selected Abstracts


    Thermal processing of prawn ,kuruma' in retortable pouches and aluminium cans

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Chitradurga O. Mohan
    Summary Prawn ,kuruma' was prepared from Indian white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus), packed in conventional 301 206 and 401 411 aluminium cans and in thin profile retort pouches having a three-layer configuration of 12.5 , polyester, 12.5 , aluminium foil and 85 , cast polypropylene of size 16 20 cm and 17 30 cm. The physico-chemical tests conducted on these containers showed their suitability for thermal processing. Prawn to kuruma ratio of 65:35 was maintained in all the containers and heat processed to equal lethality in an over pressure autoclave with the facility to record the time,temperature data, F0 value and cook value. The process time was calculated by using formula method. The processing in 16 20 cm and 17 30 cm retortable pouch resulted in 35.67% and 56.56% reduction in process time compared with 301 206 and 401 411 cans, respectively, with equal pack weight. The amino acid content did not vary considerably in both containers. In the canned samples the reduction of sulfhydryl content was 50.54% more when compared with the pouched product. Products packed in pouches were found to be superior to canned products with regard to sensory and textural attributes such as colour, firmness, hardness, chewiness, and overall acceptability. [source]


    Ontogenetic Variation in Ammonia Excretion during the Early Life Stages of the Amazon River Prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2010
    Liliam De Arruda Hayd
    Dry mass (DM) and total ammonia-N (TAN) excretion were determined in embryos, larvae (ZI,ZIX, Z = zoea ), and postlarvae (PL) at 1, 7, and 14 d after metamorphosis (PL1, PL7, and PL14) of Macrobrachium amazonicum. Animals in postmolt,intermolt (A,C) stages were sorted according to their developmental stages, and placed into incubation chambers (, 30 mL) for 2 h to quantify TAN excretion. After this period, analyses were carried out using Koroleff's method for TAN determination. Individual TAN excretion generally increased throughout ontogenetic development and varied from 0.0090 0.0039 g TAN/individual/h in embryo to 1.041 0.249 g TAN/individual/h in PL14. There was no significant difference between embryo,ZIV and ZV,ZIX (P > 0.05), whereas PL1, PL7, and PL14 differed (P < 0.05) from each other. Higher increments in individual ammonia-N excretion were observed between ZIV,ZV, PL1,PL7, and PL7,PL14. Mass-specific excretion rates presented two groups, embryo,ZII (P > 0.05) and ZIII,PL14 (P > 0.05). The lowest value was found in embryo (0.17 0.07 g TAN/mg DM/h) and the maximum values in ZV and PL1 (0.65 0.25 and 0.64 0.27 g TAN/mg DM/h, respectively). Results indicate that metabolic rate is proportional to the body mass in M. amazonicum, during early life stages. Variations in ammonia excretion during this phase may be associated mainly with body size. Data obtained in the present study may be useful in developing and optimizing rearing techniques of M. amazonicum, such as the proportions between biofilter and rearing tank size, and stocking density in culture tanks or in transport bags. [source]


    An Economic Analysis of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Farming in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
    Nesar Ahmed
    This paper deals with production systems, cost structure, and profitability of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, farming in a new area of Mymensingh district in the north-central part of Bangladesh. In the study area, prawn farming practice is still extensive, and only a few farmers (20%) cultivate semiintensively. The costs and returns of extensive and semiintensive farming systems are compared. All farmers in different farming systems made a profit, with seed and feed dominating variable costs. Considerable variation in production costs and profitability was observed. Based on the Cobb,Douglas production function model, return to scale indicates that there is scope to increase production and income from prawn farms in extensive and semiintensive systems by applying more inputs (i.e., seed, feed, and fertilizer). [source]


    Effect of Dietary Administration of 17,-methyltestosterone on the Sex Ratio of Postlarval Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, During the Nursery Stage of Culture

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 3 2006
    Cortney L. Ohs
    First page of article [source]


    Effects of all-male, mixed-sex and all-female freshwater prawn in polyculture with major carps and molas in the fallow rice fields

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 1 2009
    Mrityunjoy Kunda
    Abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of all-male, mixed-sex and all-female freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture with major carps (Catla catla and Labeo rohita) and self-recruiting small fish molas (Amblypharyngodon mola) in the fallow rice fields of Bangladesh. There were three treatments with three replicates. All ponds were stocked with carps and molas plus either all-male prawns (treatment MP), mixed-sex prawns (MFP) or all-female prawns (FP). Prawn, mola, catla and rohu were stocked 20 000, 20 000, 1750 and 750 ha,1, respectively, in all treatments. The prawns were fed twice daily, starting at 8% body weight and gradually reduced to 3% body weight. The fish were fed in the morning with mustard oil cake and rice bran (1:2 ratios) at 3% body weight. Significantly higher production of prawns (697 kg ha,1) was obtained in treatment MP, which yielded 34.7% and 56.2% more production than MFP and FP respectively. Significantly higher total production of 1620 kg ha,1 and a higher benefit,cost ratio of 2.10:1 were also obtained in treatment MP. It can be concluded that an all-male prawn culture is economically more viable than all-female and mixed-sex prawn cultures, along with other fish like major carps and the nutrient-dense molas in the polyculture. [source]


    Bioeconomic analysis of protected area use in fisheries management,

    AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL & RESOURCE ECONOMICS, Issue 4 2007
    Jared Greenville
    Protected areas in fishery management have been suggested to hedge management failures and variation in harvests. In this paper, a stochastic bioeconomic model of a two-species fishery in the Manning Bioregion is used to test the performance of protected areas as a management tool in a fishery. The establishment of a protected area is analysed under the assumption of heterogenous environments that are linked via density-dependent or sink-source stock dispersal relationships. The sensitivity of the results to different degrees of management is also explored. The model is applied to the Ocean Prawn Trawl, and Ocean Trap and Line fisheries within Manning Bioregion in New South Wales, Australia. The focus of the study is placed on the biological and institutional characteristics that yield benefits to the fishery. It was found that protected area use in the Manning Bioregion is likely to have differing effects on the two fisheries examined, benefiting Ocean Trap and Line fishers but adversely affecting Ocean Prawn Trawl fishers. Overall, it is unlikely that protected area use will lead to an increase resource rent in the fishery. [source]


    Effects of selective harvesting and claw ablation of all-male freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) on water quality, production and economics in polyculture ponds

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
    Sheikh Md.
    Abstract The effects of selective harvesting (SH) and claw ablation (CA) of blue-clawed (BC) prawns on an all-male freshwater prawn,finfish polyculture system were compared with control (Co) in quadruplicate. Ponds were stocked with all-male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, catla Catla catla and mola Amblypharyngodon mola at 12 000, 2000, 500 and 20 000 ha,1 respectively. Prawns were fed with pelleted feed. Ponds were fertilized regularly with urea, triple super phosphate and cow-dung. SH of BC prawns in treatment SH and CA in treatment CA started on the 60th day during a 137-day culture and continued at 15-day intervals until the final harvest. Water quality parameters and plankton abundance did not vary significantly (P>0.05) among the treatments. Treatment SH resulted in a higher (P<0.05) net production of freshwater prawn (437 kg ha,1), with better survival and mean weight, followed by CA (354 kg ha,1) and Co (322 kg ha,1). The combined net production of prawn plus finfish was also higher in SH (1244 kg ha,1) as compared with CA (1161 kg ha,1) and Co (1137 kg ha,1), although the finfish production did not differ significantly. The periodic SH of BC prawns showed a better economic return with a BCR of 1.71. [source]


    Effects of including catla and tilapia in a freshwater prawn,mola polyculture in a rotational rice,fish culture systems

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 9 2009
    Mrityunjoy Kunda
    Abstract An on-farm trial was carried out from February to June 2006 to evaluate the growth and production performance of catla (Catla catla) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) in farmer's rice fields. In all treatments, 20 000 mola ha,1 and 20 000 prawn ha,1 were stocked. Besides, stocking included 2500 catla ha,1 in treatment-I, 2500 tilapia ha,1 in treatment-II and catla and tilapia at 1250 ha,1 each in treatment-III . Prawns were fed in the evening with pellets at a feeding rate of 3,8% body weight (initially 8% and gradually decreased to 3%). Catla and tilapia were fed in the morning with a paste of mustard oil cake and rice bran at a feeding rate of 3% body weight. Significantly higher combined production of fish and prawn observed was 2142 kg ha,1 in treatment-I. The benefit:cost ratio was found to be significantly higher in treatment-I than in treatment-II and there were no differences between treatments I and III. From the production and economic point of view, treatment-I was found to be the best proposition for the rotational rice,fish culture systems. [source]


    Low-cost diet for monoculture of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man) in Bangladesh

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 3 2007
    Md Arshad Hossain
    Abstract An experiment was conducted for 3 months in 12 experimental ponds, each of 30 m2, with a view to develop a low-cost diet for monoculture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in ponds. Three experimental diets (30% protein) were formulated using fish meal, meat and bone meal, mustard oilcake, sesame meal and rice bran in different combinations partially replacing fish meal by meat and bone meal and sesame meal and assigned to treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively. A commercial golda feed (Starter-III) was assigned to T4 (reference diet). Each treatment had three replicates. Juveniles of M. rosenbergii (2.900.21 g) were stocked at the rate of 40 000 ha,1. Prawns were fed three times daily at the rate of 10% and 5% of their body weight at the beginning and for the last 2 months respectively. The ponds were provided with aeration during the night using air pumps. The ranges of water quality parameters recorded in different ponds were: temperature 28.9,32.5C, dissolved oxygen 5.1,8.1 mg L,1 and pH 6.4,7.7. The results showed that the weight gain of prawns fed diet 1 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those fed diets 2 and 3, but was not significantly different from those fed diet 4 (reference diet). The feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of diets ranged between 2.21 and 2.96 with diets 1 and 4 showing significantly lower (P<0.05) FCR values. The survivals (%) ranged between 68% and 78% with prawns fed diets 1 and 4 showing significantly higher survival. The production of prawn ranged between 921 and 1428 kg ha,1 and diet 1 resulted in a significantly high (P<0.05) production. A simple economic analysis showed that diet 1 generated the maximum net profit of Tk 159 178 ha,1. The results of the study showed that a diet containing 20% fish meal, 10% meat and bone meal, 15% mustard oilcake, 15% sesame meal, 35% rice bran, 4% molasses and 1% vitamin,mineral premixes may be recommended to the farmers for monoculture of M. rosenbergii in ponds. [source]


    Bycatch in a tropical schooling , penaeid fishery and comparisons with a related, specialised trawl regime

    FISHERIES MANAGEMENT & ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2009
    Q. DELL
    Abstract, The bycatch in a tropical Australian banana prawn, Penaeus merguiensis (de Man), fishery is described and contrasted with the closely related tiger prawn, Penaeus semisulcatus De Haan and Penaeus esculentus Haswell, fishery. Most of the similarity between banana prawn fishery catches was accounted for by three teleost species constituting 51.4% of the total bycatch weight. The bycatch assemblage structure of this fishery was significantly different (P < 0.05) from the adjoining tiger prawn fishery. The banana prawn fishery had a higher mean bycatch catch rate from shorter duration trawls, but lower estimated total annual bycatch (1502 t yr,1) than the longer duration trawls of the tiger prawn fishery (20 073 t yr,1). This study provides new data for quantifying bycatch and improving the accuracy of quantitative risk assessments currently being used to demonstrate sustainability of bycatch populations. The information will be incorporated into collaborative development of a long-term monitoring programme. [source]


    Culture-based fisheries in non-perennial reservoirs in Sri Lanka: production and relative performance of stocked species

    FISHERIES MANAGEMENT & ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    W. M. H. K. WIJENAYAKE
    Abstract, In Sri Lanka, there is a great potential for the development of culture-based fisheries because of the availability of around 12 000 non-perennial reservoirs in the dry zone (<187 cm annual rainfall) of the island. These reservoirs fill during the north-east monsoonal period in October to December and almost completely dry up during August to October. As these non-perennial reservoirs are highly productive, hatchery-reared fish fingerlings can be stocked to develop culture-based fisheries during the water retention period of 7,9 months. The present study was conducted in 32 non-perennial reservoirs in five administrative districts in Sri Lanka. These reservoirs were stocked with fingerlings of Indian (catla Catla catla Hamilton and rohu Labeo rohita Hamilton) and Chinese (bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis Richardson) major carps, common carp Cyprinus carpio L., genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and post-larvae of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, at three different species combinations and overall stocking densities (SD) ranging from 218 to 3902 fingerlings ha,1, during the 2002,2003 culture cycle. Of the 32 reservoirs stocked, reliable data on harvest were obtained from 25 reservoirs. Fish yield ranged from 53 to 1801 kg ha,1 and the yields of non-perennial reservoirs in southern region were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in the northern region. Naturally-recruited snakehead species contributed the catches in northern reservoirs. Fish yield was curvilinearly related to reservoir area (P < 0.05), and a negative second order relationship was evident between SD and yield (P < 0.05). Chlorophyll- a and fish yield exhibited a positive second order relationship (P < 0.01). Bighead carp yield impacted positively on the total yield (P < 0.05), whereas snakehead yield impact was negative. Bighead carp, common carp and rohu appear suitable for poly-culture in non-perennial reservoirs. GIFT strain O. niloticus had the lowest specific growth rate among stocked species and freshwater prawn had a low return. [source]


    Thermal processing of prawn ,kuruma' in retortable pouches and aluminium cans

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Chitradurga O. Mohan
    Summary Prawn ,kuruma' was prepared from Indian white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus indicus), packed in conventional 301 206 and 401 411 aluminium cans and in thin profile retort pouches having a three-layer configuration of 12.5 , polyester, 12.5 , aluminium foil and 85 , cast polypropylene of size 16 20 cm and 17 30 cm. The physico-chemical tests conducted on these containers showed their suitability for thermal processing. Prawn to kuruma ratio of 65:35 was maintained in all the containers and heat processed to equal lethality in an over pressure autoclave with the facility to record the time,temperature data, F0 value and cook value. The process time was calculated by using formula method. The processing in 16 20 cm and 17 30 cm retortable pouch resulted in 35.67% and 56.56% reduction in process time compared with 301 206 and 401 411 cans, respectively, with equal pack weight. The amino acid content did not vary considerably in both containers. In the canned samples the reduction of sulfhydryl content was 50.54% more when compared with the pouched product. Products packed in pouches were found to be superior to canned products with regard to sensory and textural attributes such as colour, firmness, hardness, chewiness, and overall acceptability. [source]


    Fusarium incarnatum isolated from black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, with black gill disease cultured in Vietnam

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 9 2004
    L V Khoa
    Abstract Fusarium incarnatum was isolated from gill lesions of cultured black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in every crop during 2000,2002 in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Infected shrimps showed typical signs of black gill disease and mortalities about a month prior to harvest. Detailed morphological examinations, as well as molecular phylogenic analyses based on partial nucleotide sequences of ribosomal DNA, were made on the isolates. An artificial infection of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, using two selected isolates was also conducted and their pathogenicity determined. [source]


    Extra small virus-like particles (XSV) and nodavirus associated with whitish muscle disease in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 9 2003
    D Qian
    Abstract A disease of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the giant freshwater prawn, farmed in China was recently recorded in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. The clinical sign of the disease, which develops in post-larvae (PL), is a whitish appearance of the muscles, particularly noticeable in the abdomen. Mortalities may reach 100% in some hatcheries. Investigations by transmission electron microscopy after negative staining of diseased PL homogenates showed the presence of two types of viral particles: one, unenveloped, icosahedral in shape, 26,27 nm in diameter, the second, much smaller, about 14,16 nm in diameter, designated extra small virus particle (XSV). The large virus has a genome with two pieces of ssRNA (RNA-1 and RNA-2), of 3 and 1.2 kb, respectively. Hybridization tests confirmed that this large virus is closely related to M. rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) which was isolated from diseased prawns in a hatchery in the French West Indies. Its very small size and hypothesized biochemical and biological characteristics suggest XSV is a new type of crustacean virus. As XSV has always been found associated with the larger virus (nodavirus) and is located in muscle and connective cells of diseased animals, it could be an autonomous virus, a helper-type virus or a satellite-like virus. [source]


    A sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) for detection of MrNV in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 2 2003
    B Romestand
    Abstract A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) was developed to improve diagnosis of white tail disease of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, caused by the nodavirus, Mr NV. Polyclonal antibodies were produced by immunization of Balb/C mice using a purified suspension of the virus and IgG anti- MrNV were purified from ascitic fluid. A sandwich method was successfully developed, coating first with unlabelled antibody and detecting trapped antigens with a second biotinylated antibody. Reaction was demonstrated using an avidin,peroxidase conjugate. Tissue extracts from M. rosenbergii infected with MrNV or purified viral extracts (control) were successfully identified in an individual ELISA, thus confirming the validity of the method. This S-ELISA should be the technique of choice for epidemiological studies of this disease and is a rapid and inexpensive assay with high specificity and sensitivity. [source]


    Experimental susceptibility of different life-stages of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)

    JOURNAL OF FISH DISEASES, Issue 4 2002
    R B Pramod Kiran
    Studies were conducted by injecting/feeding white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) derived from infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius), to different life-stages, namely post-larvae, juveniles, sub-adults and adults of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man). The disease was also induced in brood stock, and the eggs and larvae derived from these animals were subsequently tested for WSSV infection. All the stages except egg used for the experiment were found WSSV positive in histopathology, cross infection bioassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Experimentally infected post-larvae and juveniles showed a high percentage of mortality and an increased rate of cannibalism. The cumulative mortality in post-larvae was up to 28%; with 28,40% cannibalism resulting in a maximum loss of up to 68%. In juveniles, observed mortality and cannibalism were 10,20% and 6.7,30.0%, respectively, and the maximum loss recorded was 50%. In sub-adults, mortality ranged from 2.8 to 6.7%, cannibalism was up to 20% and the total loss was up to 26.7%. Sub-adults and adults were found to be more tolerant to the infection as evidenced by the mortality pattern. A nested (two-step) PCR resulted in a 570-bp product specific to WSSV in all stages, except the eggs. [source]


    Using the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework to Identify Constraints and Opportunities to the Development of Freshwater Prawn Farming in Southwest Bangladesh

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 5 2008
    Nesar Ahmed
    A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA), is applied to understanding the role of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, farming in gher (modified rice fields with high, broad peripheral dikes) systems in southwest Bangladesh. Gher farming potentially allows incorporation of a wide variety of crops together with prawn, fish, dike crops, and rice culture. The analysis shows how, in a gher farming context, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood assets, which are combined in the pursuit of prawn farming strategies. The study used the SLA framework as a diagnostic tool to identify ways of strengthening the livelihoods of the prawn farmers. [source]


    An Economic Analysis of Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Farming in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
    Nesar Ahmed
    This paper deals with production systems, cost structure, and profitability of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, farming in a new area of Mymensingh district in the north-central part of Bangladesh. In the study area, prawn farming practice is still extensive, and only a few farmers (20%) cultivate semiintensively. The costs and returns of extensive and semiintensive farming systems are compared. All farmers in different farming systems made a profit, with seed and feed dominating variable costs. Considerable variation in production costs and profitability was observed. Based on the Cobb,Douglas production function model, return to scale indicates that there is scope to increase production and income from prawn farms in extensive and semiintensive systems by applying more inputs (i.e., seed, feed, and fertilizer). [source]


    Effects of Two Densities of Caged Monosex Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, on Water Quality, Phytoplankton Populations, and Production When Polycultured with Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Temperate Ponds

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 3 2007
    Jason J. Danaher
    The effects of different densities of caged Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, on water quality, phytoplankton populations, prawn, and total pond production were evaluated in freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, production ponds. The experiment consisted of three treatments with three 0.04-ha replicates each. All ponds were stocked with graded, nursed juvenile prawn (0.9 0.6 g) at 69,000/ha. Control (CTL) ponds contained only prawns. Low-density polyculture (LDP) ponds also contained two cages (1 m3; 100 fish/cage) of monosex male tilapia (115.6 22 g), and high-density polyculture (HDP) ponds had four cages. Total culture period was 106 d for tilapia and 114 d for prawn. Overall mean afternoon pH level was significantly lower (P , 0.05) in polyculture ponds than in CTL ponds but did not differ (P > 0.05) between LDP and HDP. Phytoplankton biovolume was reduced in polyculture treatments. Tilapia in the LDP treatment had significantly higher (P , 0.05) harvest weights than in the HDP treatment. Prawn weights were higher (P , 0.05) in polyculture than prawn monoculture. These data indicate that a caged tilapia/freshwater prawn polyculture system may provide pH control while maximizing pond resources in temperate areas. [source]


    Growth, Survival, Yield, and Size Distributions of Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Polyculture and Monoculture Systems in Puerto Rico

    JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 3 2000
    Alfredo Garcia-Prez
    The experiment consisted of three treatments with three replicates each. The stocking rates for the prawn monoculture, fish monoculture and polyculture treatments were respectively: 7 prawns/m2, 1 tilapia/M2, and 7 prawns with 1 tilapia/ m2. The mean stocking size for tilapia and prawn were respectively, 7,8 g and 1,1.3 g. After 145 d of culture, yields and mean weight of tilapia in monoculture and polyculture system were not significantly different. Total yields were 2,942 and 2,769 kg/ha, respectively. Mean weights were 348 g in monoculture and 331 g in polyculture. Yields and mean weight of prawns in monoculture and polyculture were significantly different. Total yields were 1,367 and 951 kg/ha, respectively. Mean weights were 55 g in monoculture and 31 g in polyculture. Total yield in polyculture was 3,720 kg/ha showing an increase over the production separately obtained in prawn and fish monoculture. [source]


    Limnology and culture-based fisheries in non-perennial reservoirs in Sri Lanka

    LAKES & RESERVOIRS: RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT, Issue 3 2005
    U. Asanka D. Jayasinghe
    Abstract This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using the limnological characteristics of non-perennial reservoirs in Sri Lanka for the future management of culture-based fisheries. Forty-five reservoirs were randomly selected to study their limnology, out of which 32 were stocked with fish fingerlings of Chinese and Indian carps, tilapia and freshwater prawn at stocking densities ranging from 218,4372 fingerlings ha,1. Of these, 23 reservoirs were harvested at the end of the culture period (6,10 months). Thirteen limnological parameters were measured during the water retention period of each of the 45 reservoirs between November 2001 and January 2004. The mean values of the limnological parameters were used to ordinate the reservoirs through principal component analysis. Ordination showed a productivity gradient among reservoirs where Secchi disc depth, total phosphorus, chlorophyll- a, inorganic turbidity and organic turbidity were identified as key factors. The total fish yield of culture-based fisheries was positively correlated to the scores of the first principal component axis. This study reveals that it is possible to classify non-perennial reservoirs in Sri Lanka based on the above limnological parameters in order to develop culture-based fisheries and that they could be applicable in comparable water bodies elsewhere in the tropics. [source]


    Inhibition of a novel sperm gelatinase in prawn sperm by the male reproduction-related kazal-type peptidase inhibitor

    MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 8 2008
    Ye Li
    Abstract Previously, we have identified and characterized a male reproduction-related kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) gene from the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. In the present study, MRPINK was discovered to have an inhibitory effect on the gelatinolytic activity of M. rosenbergii sperm and immunofluorescence analysis revealed it bound specifically onto the base of sperm. The proteolytic activity of sperm extracts to vitelline coat components was also detected to be interfered by MRPINK. Furthermore, a novel gelatinase on sperm was found to be specifically inhibited by MRPINK and was named M. rosenbergii sperm gelatinase (MSG). MSG was then isolated and purified by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography combining with gelatinolytic assay. By amino-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and molecular cloning, the primary structure of MSG was determined. The data presented in this study provided evidence that MRPINK has an inhibitory effect on the gelatinolytic activity as well as proteolytic activity of prawn sperm and specifically blocks the activity of MSG. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 1327,1337, 2008. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Liver oil of pharaoh cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831 as a lipid source in the feed of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man 1879)

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 3 2009
    G. SHYLA
    Abstract The efficacy of pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis Ehrenberg, 1831) liver lipid in the feed for juveniles of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man 1879) was tested by feeding five experimental diets prepared using clam meat, groundnut oil cake, wheat bran, tapioca powder, vitamin,mineral mixture and cellulose powder as the major ingredients. The test diets T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, containing five levels (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%, respectively) of lipid, extracted from the liver of pharaoh cuttlefish, were fed to 30-day-old prawn juveniles for 60 days, in triplicates and compared against a control. Analysis of variance of the growth parameters showed that the juveniles fed with T2, containing 2% cuttlefish liver lipid with a total lipid content of 9.85% and lipid,carbohydrate ratio of 1 : 3.8, showed significantly better growth (P < 0.05) with the highest weight gain of 118%, greatest food conversion and protein utilization efficiency, and the highest body protein content, although the survival rates remained unaffected among treatments. Growth of the juveniles, however, declined at lipid levels >2%. Addition of cuttlefish liver lipid led to an increase of ,-3 and ,-6 fatty acids in T2, the proportion of ,-6 being higher than the former. The crude lipid content of the body of test animals also increased with the increase in dietary lipid from 1.51% in T1 to 3.27% in T5. The present study indicates that cuttlefish liver lipid can be successfully used as a substitute for conventional lipid sources in rearing juveniles of giant freshwater prawn, an eco-friendly practice in recycling cuttlefish waste , a discarded fishery by-product. [source]


    Effect of supplemental l -ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate in enriched live food on the antioxidant defense system of Penaeus vannamei of different sizes exposed to ammonia-N

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 5 2006
    W.-N. WANG
    Abstract The effects of supplemental l -ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (APP) in enriched live food (Artemia) on reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) and free radical scavenging enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione transferase) activities in the muscle of Penaeus vannamei of two sizes exposed to ambient ammonia-N, were investigated. Significantly, decreased ROI value was found in prawns fed on enriched Artemia compared with those fed on starved Artemia (P < 0.05); the decrease was 24% and 36%, respectively. In both size classes, the antioxidant enzyme activities in prawns fed on enriched Artemia were higher than in those fed on starved Artemia (P < 0.05). The results demonstrated that the supplementation of ascorbic acid in enriched live food (Artemia) enhanced the antioxidant capacity of prawn, increasing its defense system that may fight against environmental stress, leading to impaired ammonia toxicity. [source]


    Water immersion time reduces the preference of juvenile tropical spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus for pelleted dry feeds and fresh mussel

    AQUACULTURE NUTRITION, Issue 6 2005
    K.C. WILLIAMS
    Abstract Development of a pelleted dry feed as an alternative to feeding fresh fishery by-catch is an environmental priority for tropical spiny lobster aquaculture. Earlier studies have shown the lobster's acceptance of pelleted dry feed diminishes rapidly after immersion in water. In this work, we quantified the rate at which dry matter, total protein, soluble protein and individual and total free amino acids were lost from pieces of green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus, a commercially-extruded Penaeus japonicus (kuruma) shrimp feed (KSF) and four laboratory-made, fishmeal-based, pelleted feeds upon immersion for up to 7.5 h. The laboratory-made feeds contained homogenates of either green-lipped mussel, polychaete (Marphysa sanguinea), prawn (Metapenaeus bennettae) or squid (Sepioteuthis spp.). After being immersed in water for 0, 2.5 or 5 h, these same feeds were offered as a paired choice with KSF in two preference feeding studies with juvenile Panulirus ornatus lobsters. The loobster's preference for fresh mussel always exceeded that of KSF, irrespective of immersion time. Regression of the proportional intake of test feeds against the relative leach rate of KSF identified soluble protein, glycine and taurine as the principal leachate components having the highest positive correlations with the lobster's feeding preference. [source]


    Effects of selective harvesting and claw ablation of all-male freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ) on water quality, production and economics in polyculture ponds

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
    Sheikh Md.
    Abstract The effects of selective harvesting (SH) and claw ablation (CA) of blue-clawed (BC) prawns on an all-male freshwater prawn,finfish polyculture system were compared with control (Co) in quadruplicate. Ponds were stocked with all-male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, catla Catla catla and mola Amblypharyngodon mola at 12 000, 2000, 500 and 20 000 ha,1 respectively. Prawns were fed with pelleted feed. Ponds were fertilized regularly with urea, triple super phosphate and cow-dung. SH of BC prawns in treatment SH and CA in treatment CA started on the 60th day during a 137-day culture and continued at 15-day intervals until the final harvest. Water quality parameters and plankton abundance did not vary significantly (P>0.05) among the treatments. Treatment SH resulted in a higher (P<0.05) net production of freshwater prawn (437 kg ha,1), with better survival and mean weight, followed by CA (354 kg ha,1) and Co (322 kg ha,1). The combined net production of prawn plus finfish was also higher in SH (1244 kg ha,1) as compared with CA (1161 kg ha,1) and Co (1137 kg ha,1), although the finfish production did not differ significantly. The periodic SH of BC prawns showed a better economic return with a BCR of 1.71. [source]


    Density effects of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and catla Catla catla on the production system in all-male freshwater prawn,finfish polyculture ponds

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
    Sheikh Md.
    Abstract The effects of three different combinations of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and catla Catla catla density on the production system in all-male freshwater prawn,finfish polyculture ponds were evaluated in triplicate. The stocking density of silver carp and catla, respectively, were maintained at 2000 and 500 ha,1 in treatment SC2000C500, 1500 and 1000 ha,1 in treatment SC1500C1000 and 1000 and 1500 ha,1 in treatment SC1000C1500. Male freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and small fish mola Amblypharyngodon mola densities were fixed in all treatments at 12 000 and 20 000 ha,1 respectively. Management practices were same for all treatments. Blue-clawed male prawns were harvested twice during the 122-day culture at 15-day intervals before the final harvest. Plankton and macro-benthos abundance and water quality parameters (except transparency and chlorophyll a) did not vary significantly (P>0.05) among treatments. Mean final weights of both silver carp and catla were decreased with the increasing of their own stocking density. The treatment SC1500C1000 resulted in 25,32% increased net production of silver carp plus catla (461 kg ha,1) and 20,21% increased net production of all species combined (874 kg ha,1) as compared with the other treatments, although the differences in production of prawn and mola among treatments were not significant. [source]


    Effects of stocking density on the nutrient budget and growth of the western king prawn (Penaeus latisulcatus Kishinouye) in a recirculating aquaculture system

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 10 2010
    Le Van Khoi
    Abstract Intensification in the commercial culture of prawns can have a significant impact on the water quality and hence on the survival, growth and the surrounding environment. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of stocking density on the water quality and performance of the western king prawns (Penaeus latisulcatus) and the nutrient budget of the culture environment. Four stocking densities of 4, 8, 16 and 32 prawns m,2 were tested in 12 recirculating systems. Prawn weight and specific growth rate increased with decreasing stocking density, while the survival rate showed the reverse trend. The mean total ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus were significantly higher (P<0.05) at the higher stocking density. The nutrient budget revealed that the prawns could assimilate only 9.34,20.13% nitrogen and 4.97,11.25% phosphorus of the total nutrient inputs. The drained water at harvest was the major sink of phosphorus and nitrogen at stocking densities of 4, 8 and 16, which accounted for 45.59,64.82% and 44.28,65.62% of the total inputs, respectively, while a significant proportion of nitrogen sunk into the sediment at 32 prawns m,2. The study suggested that the stocking densities of western king prawns can be up to 16 prawns m,2 in the recirculating water environment. [source]


    Osmoregulation, growth and moulting cycles of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) at different salinities

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 9 2010
    Do Thi Thanh Huong
    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a species with a high commercial value in aquaculture. Two experiments were performed to determine the effects of salinities on the osmoregulation, growth and molting cycles of M. rosenbergii during growout. The first experiment was designed to determine whether these animals are capable of adapting to the changes in salinity seen in salinity intrusions in tropical deltas, with an incremental increase in salinity of 3, per day from 0, to 30, Haemolymph osmolality was rapidly regulated up to salinities of 15, , whereas animals conformed at higher salinities. The second experiment determined the growth, moulting cycle, osmolality, muscle water content and mortality during a 4-month experiment at 0,, 15, or 25, salinity. The weight gains in 0, and 15, were not significantly different and were comparable to the growth rates achieved in production farms with body mass increases of 2.6 and 2.3-fold their initial body mass, respectively, after 4 months. The 25, group suffered from low growth, high mortality and a significantly lower moulting frequency. These data show that this species can be reared in brackish water up to 15,, allowing for farming in the large areas impacted by salt water intrusions in tropical deltas. [source]


    Ammonia reduction in seawater by Yucca schidigera extract: efficacy analysis and empirical modelling

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 8 2010
    Roberto A Santacruz-Reyes
    Abstract Yucca schidigera is a plant native to southwestern USA and Mexico. Its extract has been used in the livestock industry to control ammonia accumulation in animal holding facilities, and to reduce ammonia concentration in animal excreta. This study investigated the potential and effectiveness of Y. schidigera extract (YUPE) for ammonia reduction in seawater. A dose,response experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different concentrations of YUPE at 0, 18, 36, 72 and 108 mg L,1 on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) at 1, 3 and 9 mg L,1. At a higher YUPE dosage rate, higher TAN reduction was observed, and TAN reduction was highest during the first 12 h, and decreased thereafter. A stepwise multiple linear regression that included the initial TAN, YUPE concentration and time was developed, which accurately predicted empirical TAN concentrations. Applications of this model for ammonia management strategies were formulated for hypothetical tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) rearing conditions. YUPE's efficacy for ammonia reduction, natural origin and safety make YUPE a potentially suitable compound for water quality management in mariculture. [source]