Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder (posttransplant + lymphoproliferative_disorder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Epstein-Barr Virus and Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 2009
U. Allen
First page of article [source]


Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Following Pancreas Transplantation

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2009
N. Issa
The incidence, risk factors and impact on patient and graft survival were evaluated for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) among 212 pancreas transplant recipients. Thirteen (6.1%) developed PTLD during 71 27 months follow-up. Cumulative incidences of PTLD at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years posttransplant were 4.2%, 5.3%, 6.0% and 7.0%, respectively. Incidence of PTLD was lower for recipients of simultaneous pancreas kidney compared to pancreas after kidney transplant or pancreas transplant alone, though not significantly so. Recipient Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) seronegativity and number of doses of depleting antibody therapy administered at transplant were associated with increased risk of PTLD, while recipient age, gender, transplant type, cytomegalovirus mismatch maintenance immunosuppression type and treated acute rejection were not. All 13 cases underwent immunosuppression reduction, and 10 received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. During follow-up, 10/13 (77%) responded to treatment with complete remission, while 3 (23%) died as a result of PTLD. Patient and graft survivals did not differ for recipients with and without PTLD. The strong association of PTLD with EBV-seronegativity requires considering this risk factor when evaluating and monitoring pancreas transplant recipients. With reduction of immunosuppression and anti-CD20 therapy, survival for pancreas transplant recipients with PTLD was substantially better than previously reported. [source]


Isolated Central Nervous System Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Treated with High-Dose Intravenous Methotrexate

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2009
L. B. Nabors
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an uncommon neoplastic complication of kidney transplantation, affecting about 1% of recipients. It is generally associated with Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) infection of B-lineage lymphocytes. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. There is little clinical experience with treatment of CNS PTLD due to the relative rarity of the disease other than reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppression, but it is usually fatal. We describe six patients with renal allografts and histologically proven isolated CNS PTLD. Tissue analysis from the biopsy specimens was positive for EBV material in five of the six patients. All six patients were treated with high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HD IV MTX). Methotrexate was initiated at 8 g/m2, with later adjustments for creatinine clearance. With MTX therapy, four patients have had a sustained complete response, and two had progressive disease and were referred for radiation therapy. This finding suggests a subgroup of patients may benefit from MTX but our case series is inadequate to describe overall efficacy. No unexpected toxicities were encountered in 37 courses of treatment. HD IV MTX chemotherapy should be considered as an alternative for treatment of CNS PTLD. [source]


Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: A pictorial review

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL IMAGING AND RADIATION ONCOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
K Burney
Summary Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious and potentially fatal complication after solid organ and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. The frequency of PTLD varies with the type of organ transplant but overall it affects 2,10% of all solid organ transplant recipients. Most cases develop within 1 year after the transplant, although occasional cases present 5,10 years later. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is clinically and pathologically heterogeneous , the majority are of the non,Hodgkin's lymphoma type, whereas Hodgkin's lymphoma arising after transplantation is rare. We have retrospectively reviewed patients with a histological diagnosis of PTLD after a solid organ transplant. We present the imaging features and a clinical review of this condition. Early diagnosis of PTLD may alter the management and outcome of the disease. The radiologist can play a vital role in establishing the diagnosis by imaging features supplemented with percutaneous biopsy and also in monitoring the disease response to treatment. [source]


Isolated Central Nervous System Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Treated with High-Dose Intravenous Methotrexate

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 5 2009
L. B. Nabors
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an uncommon neoplastic complication of kidney transplantation, affecting about 1% of recipients. It is generally associated with Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) infection of B-lineage lymphocytes. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare. There is little clinical experience with treatment of CNS PTLD due to the relative rarity of the disease other than reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppression, but it is usually fatal. We describe six patients with renal allografts and histologically proven isolated CNS PTLD. Tissue analysis from the biopsy specimens was positive for EBV material in five of the six patients. All six patients were treated with high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HD IV MTX). Methotrexate was initiated at 8 g/m2, with later adjustments for creatinine clearance. With MTX therapy, four patients have had a sustained complete response, and two had progressive disease and were referred for radiation therapy. This finding suggests a subgroup of patients may benefit from MTX but our case series is inadequate to describe overall efficacy. No unexpected toxicities were encountered in 37 courses of treatment. HD IV MTX chemotherapy should be considered as an alternative for treatment of CNS PTLD. [source]


Significance of detecting epstein-barr,specific sequences in the peripheral blood of asymptomatic pediatric liver transplant recipients

LIVER TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 1 2000
Nancy R. Krieger
Pediatric allograft recipients are at increased risk for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated illnesses. The early identification and diagnosis of EBV-associated disorders is critical because disease progression can often be curtailed by modification of immunosuppression. We have previously shown that detection of EBV-specific sequences in the circulation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) correlated well with the clinical symptoms of EBV infection. The purpose of the current study is to determine the significance of detecting EBV-specific sequences by PCR in asymptomatic pediatric liver transplant recipients. Peripheral-blood DNA was analyzed for the EBV genes, coding from the nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) and the viral capsid antigen (gp220) by PCR. Samples from asymptomatic pediatric liver transplant recipients were analyzed from the immediate postoperative period and at 2- to 4-month intervals thereafter. We followed up 13 of these asymptomatic recipients who tested positive for EBV compared with 7 asymptomatic recipients who tested negative for EBV during the early posttransplantation period. Follow-up ranged from 1.5 to 4 years posttransplantation. Nine patients (69%) initially positive for EBV and asymptomatic ultimately developed symptoms of EBV infection, including fever, lymphadenopathy, rash, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, and/or hepatitis. Five of these patients (56%) went on to develop posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder based on histological examination of biopsied tissue and immunohistochemical identification of the EBV antigen/DNA in tissue. This is the first report suggesting that detection of EBV-specific sequences in the absence of symptoms may herald impending EBV-associated disorders. Thus, routine monitoring for circulating EBV sequences in asymptomatic recipients may be useful in the early identification of those at risk for developing EBV-associated disease and its ultimate prevention. (Liver Transpl 2000;6:62-66.) [source]


Liver transplantation for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis: Clinical and histopathological findings, outcome and impact on growth

PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2007
Sema Aydogdu
Abstract:, In this study, we analyze the demographic features, clinical and histopathological findings in patients who underwent liver transplantation for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. We also analyze outcome and impact of liver transplantation on growth and bone mineral content. Most of the patients were presented with jaundice mainly beginning within the first six months. At the time of initial admission; eight patients had short stature (height SD score <2), and four patients had weight SD score <2. Liver transplantation were performed at the age of 43.2 27 months (range 9 to 96 mfonths), 6.5 3.5 months later after the first admission. Infection, surgical complications and osmotic diarrhea associated with severe metabolic acidosis were noted in 41.4%, 16.6% and 33.3%, respectively. One patient developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Overall; 1 year graft and patient survival was 69.2% and 75%, respectively. At the end of the 1st year only 2 patients had height SD score <2. Linear regression of height gain against increase in total body BMD measured at the time of transplantation and 1 year after liver transplantation gave a coefficient r = 0.588 (p = 0.074). No correlation was found between the height gain and age and PELD score at time of transplantation, and no difference was noted between the sexes and donor type. Liver transplantation is effective treatment modality with good outcome and little morbidity, and increases the growth acceleration in patients with PFIC associated with cirrhosis. [source]


EBV-negative lymphoproliferative disease with hyper-IgA, in a child with combined liver and small bowel transplantation

PEDIATRIC TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2004
Clotilde Des Robert
Abstract:, A 4-year-old boy presented 14 months after liver and small bowel transplantation with fever, diarrhea, elevated liver enzymes, thrombocytopenia and autoantibodies. Total gammaglobulins level was normal but the level of plasma IgA1 was very high. The blood PCR for Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) was negative. The ileal biopsy disclosed a lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. The EBER probe was negative on the small bowel biopsies. The child was considered as suffering from a non-EBV-induced posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). The high IgA level was presumed to be secreted by proliferating plasma cells in the transplanted bowel. Immunosuppression was reduced; but the efficacy was incomplete and an anti-CD20 antibody was added. There was complete resolution of symptoms and normalization of the IgA level. As IgA1 is mostly of intestinal origin, this unusual presentation of PTLD should lead to a high suspicion of a small bowel proliferating process. [source]


EBV-Associated Leukoencephalopathy with Late Onset of Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a Kidney Transplant Recipient

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 4 2010
A. Vaglio
Central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a rare posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), which usually has a poor outcome. To date, no specific conditions predisposing to this complication have been identified. We here describe the case of a renal transplant patient who was initially diagnosed as having Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated leukoencephalopathy and ultimately developed EBV-positive CNS lymphoma. The patient was a young lady who, 2 years after transplantation, presented with focal neurological and electroencephalographic abnormalities and diffuse white matter lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging. EBV-DNA was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. After acyclovir therapy and immunosuppressive drug tapering, the symptoms and electroencephalographic abnormalities subsided, and EBV-DNA disappeared from the CSF. Ten years later, a bulky cerebral mass was found. After excision, a diagnosis of EBV-positive, Hodgkin-like monomorphic B-cell PTLD was made. This case illustrates the potential pathophysiological relationships between EBV infection, leukoencephalopathy and CNS lymphoma; although a long time elapsed from the initial neurological illness to CNS lymphoma, a link between these two conditions cannot be excluded. Therefore, a careful long-term follow-up of EBV-related encephalopathy is advisable. [source]


A Phase III Study of Belatacept-based Immunosuppression Regimens versus Cyclosporine in Renal Transplant Recipients (BENEFIT Study)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2010
F. Vincenti
Belatacept, a costimulation blocker, may preserve renal function and improve long-term outcomes versus calcineurin inhibitors in kidney transplantation. This Phase III study (Belatacept Evaluation of Nephroprotection and Efficacy as First-line Immunosuppression Trial) assessed a more intensive (MI) or less intensive (LI) regimen of belatacept versus cyclosporine in adults receiving a kidney transplant from living or standard criteria deceased donors. The coprimary endpoints at 12 months were patient/graft survival, a composite renal impairment endpoint (percent with a measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at Month 12 or a decrease in mGFR ,10 mL/min/1.73 m2 Month 3,Month 12) and the incidence of acute rejection. At Month 12, both belatacept regimens had similar patient/graft survival versus cyclosporine (MI: 95%, LI: 97% and cyclosporine: 93%), and were associated with superior renal function as measured by the composite renal impairment endpoint (MI: 55%; LI: 54% and cyclosporine: 78%; p , 0.001 MI or LI versus cyclosporine) and by the mGFR (65, 63 and 50 mL/min for MI, LI and cyclosporine; p , 0.001 MI or LI versus cyclosporine). Belatacept patients experienced a higher incidence (MI: 22%, LI: 17% and cyclosporine: 7%) and grade of acute rejection episodes. Safety was generally similar between groups, but posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder was more common in the belatacept groups. Belatacept was associated with superior renal function and similar patient/graft survival versus cyclosporine at 1 year posttransplant, despite a higher rate of early acute rejection. [source]


A Phase III Study of Belatacept Versus Cyclosporine in Kidney Transplants from Extended Criteria Donors (BENEFIT-EXT Study)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 3 2010
A. Durrbach
Recipients of extended criteria donor (ECD) kidneys are at increased risk for graft dysfunction/loss, and may benefit from immunosuppression that avoids calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. Belatacept, a selective costimulation blocker, may preserve renal function and improve long-term outcomes versus CNIs. BENEFIT-EXT (Belatacept Evaluation of Nephroprotection and Efficacy as First-line Immunosuppression Trial,EXTended criteria donors) is a 3-year, Phase III study that assessed a more (MI) or less intensive (LI) regimen of belatacept versus cyclosporine in adult ECD kidney transplant recipients. The coprimary endpoints at 12 months were composite patient/graft survival and a composite renal impairment endpoint. Patient/graft survival with belatacept was similar to cyclosporine (86% MI, 89% LI, 85% cyclosporine) at 12 months. Fewer belatacept patients reached the composite renal impairment endpoint versus cyclosporine (71% MI, 77% LI, 85% cyclosporine; p = 0.002 MI vs. cyclosporine; p = 0.06 LI vs. cyclosporine). The mean measured glomerular filtration rate was 4,7 mL/min higher on belatacept versus cyclosporine (p = 0.008 MI vs. cyclosporine; p = 0.1039 LI vs. cyclosporine), and the overall cardiovascular/metabolic profile was better on belatacept versus cyclosporine. The incidence of acute rejection was similar across groups (18% MI; 18% LI; 14% cyclosporine). Overall rates of infection and malignancy were similar between groups; however, more cases of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurred in the CNS on belatacept. ECD kidney transplant recipients treated with belatacept-based immunosuppression achieved similar patient/graft survival, better renal function, had an increased incidence of PTLD, and exhibited improvement in the cardiovascular/metabolic risk profile versus cyclosporine-treated patients. [source]


Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Following Pancreas Transplantation

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 8 2009
N. Issa
The incidence, risk factors and impact on patient and graft survival were evaluated for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) among 212 pancreas transplant recipients. Thirteen (6.1%) developed PTLD during 71 27 months follow-up. Cumulative incidences of PTLD at 1, 3, 5 and 10 years posttransplant were 4.2%, 5.3%, 6.0% and 7.0%, respectively. Incidence of PTLD was lower for recipients of simultaneous pancreas kidney compared to pancreas after kidney transplant or pancreas transplant alone, though not significantly so. Recipient Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) seronegativity and number of doses of depleting antibody therapy administered at transplant were associated with increased risk of PTLD, while recipient age, gender, transplant type, cytomegalovirus mismatch maintenance immunosuppression type and treated acute rejection were not. All 13 cases underwent immunosuppression reduction, and 10 received anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. During follow-up, 10/13 (77%) responded to treatment with complete remission, while 3 (23%) died as a result of PTLD. Patient and graft survivals did not differ for recipients with and without PTLD. The strong association of PTLD with EBV-seronegativity requires considering this risk factor when evaluating and monitoring pancreas transplant recipients. With reduction of immunosuppression and anti-CD20 therapy, survival for pancreas transplant recipients with PTLD was substantially better than previously reported. [source]