Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (post + traumatic_stress_disorder)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prevalence and relationship to delusions and hallucinations of anxiety disorders in schizophrenia

F.R.C.P.C., Philip Tibbo M.D.
Abstract We investigated the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a sample of individuals with chronic schizophrenia, controlling for anxiety symptoms that may be related to delusions and hallucinations, and the possible differences in clinical variables between the groups. Individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and able to give informed consent were recruited from the community. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered to both confirm the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and screen for comorbid anxiety disorders. If a comorbid anxiety disorder was found, its relation to the individual's delusions and hallucinations was examined. Clinical rating scales for schizophrenia were administered as well as rating scales for specific anxiety disorders where appropriate. Overall, anxiety disorders ranged from 0% [ for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)] to 26.7% [ for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and agoraphobia without panic] with lower rates when controlled for anxiety symptoms related to delusions and hallucinations. In investigating clinical variables, the cohort was initially divided into schizophrenics with no anxiety disorders and those with an anxiety disorder; with further analyses including schizophrenics with anxiety disorders related to delusions and hallucinations and those with anxiety disorders not related to delusions and hallucinations. The most consistent difference between all the groups was on the PANSS-G subscale. No significant differences were found on the remaining clinical variables. Comorbid anxiety disorders in schizophrenia can be related to the individual's delusions and hallucinations, though anxiety disorders can occur exclusive of these positive symptoms. Clinicians must be aware that this comorbidity exists in order to optimize an individual's treatment. Depression and Anxiety 17:65,72, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Surviving a Distant Past: A Case Study of the Cultural Construction of Trauma Descendant Identity

ETHOS, Issue 4 2003
Carol A. Kidron
Despite the abundance of psychological studies on trauma related ills of descendants of historical trauma, and the extensive scholarly work describing the memory politics of silenced traumatic pasts, there has yet to emerge a critical analysis of the constitutive practices of descendants of historical trauma. This article presents an ethnographic account of a support group for descendants of Holocaust survivors, proposing that the discursive frame of intergenerational transmission of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and support group based narrative practices allow descendants to fashion their sense of self as survivors of the distant traumatic past. The discursive frame of transmitted PTSD acts as both a mnemonic bridge to the past and a mechanism of identity making, as participants narratively reemplot their life stories as having been personally constituted by the distant past A close ethnographic reading of on-site discursive practices points to how culture ferments to produce narratives, practices and ultimately carriers of memory to both sustain and revitalize historical grand narratives and the cultural scenarios they embed. [source]

Presentations and management of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and the elderly: a need for investigation

Walter Busuttil
Abstract Background With an aging population increasing presentations of cases of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can be expected to old age services. While progress has been made in recent years in relation to the understanding and development of aetiological theories, classification, assessment and management strategies and protocols in the adult population, similar advances have lagged behind for the elderly. Aims To review the adult literature regarding PTSD and discuss how this might apply to an elderly population. An attempt is made to highlight a better awareness of the field of psychological trauma in the elderly in the hope of stimulating debate and research. Method A review of the adult literature is conducted relating to classification, aetiology, demographic features, vulnerability, assessment, clinical management including psychotherapy and medications and how these may apply to the elderly. Results Little has been published in this field that directly relates to the elderly. The adult literature allows insight into understanding how PTSD may present in the elderly, and how they may be managed. Conclusions Further specific research is needed in the elderly in order to facilitate a better understanding of PTSD that present in this unique population. This will lead to better clinical assessment, management and treatment provision. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Posttraumatic Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Coping among Adolescents on Both Sides of the Israeli,Palestinian Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Approach

Ruth Pat-Horenczyk
This study assessed the effects of the ongoing violence on the mental health of Palestinian and Israeli youths. Parallel instruments were developed and adapted, as part of a collaborative project, in order to assess, in each society: (1) differential rates of exposure to the conflict, (2) the association between exposure and the severity of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS), and (3) the inter-relationships among PTS, functional impairment, somatic complaints, and coping strategies. Participants were 1,016 Israeli and 1,235 Palestinian adolescents. A self-report questionnaire assessed exposure. PTS was measured using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, functional impairment and somatic complaints were measured with the DISC, and coping strategies were assessed with Brief Cope. In both societies, greater exposure to conflict-related violence was associated with more PTS and more somatic complaints, with girls reporting more distress than boys. A total of 6.8 per cent of the Israeli students and 37.2 per cent of the Palestinian students met criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In both societies, but more pronounced in the Palestinian Authority, adolescents reported significant levels of functional impairment, mainly in the area of school functioning. Students with PTSD reported more somatic complaints as well as greater functional impairment. The results show the serious psychological impact of the ongoing violent conflict on Israeli and Palestinian students and point to the need to develop appropriate school-based interventions to address their mental health needs. Cette étude évalue les effets de la violence continuelle sur la santé mentale des jeunes palestiniens et israéliens. Des instruments analogues ont été développés et adaptés, dans le cadre d'un projet de collaboration, afin d'évaluer dans chaque société: (1) les différences de taux d'exposition au conflit, (2) l'association entre l'exposition et la sévérité des symptômes post-traumatiques (PTS) et (3) les interrelations entre les PTS, les troubles fonctionnels, les plaintes somatiques et les stratégies de faire-face. 1016 adolescents israéliens et 1235 adolescents palestiniens ont participéà cette étude. Un questionnaire auto-administré mesure l'exposition au conflit. Les PTS sont mesurés par l'utilisation de l'UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, les troubles fonctionnels et les plaintes somatiques sont approchés par le DISC, et les stratégies de faire-face par le Brief Cope. Dans les deux sociétés, une plus grande exposition au conflit et à ses violences est associée à des PTS plus importants et à plus de plaintes somatiques, les filles manifestant plus de détresse que les garçons. Un total de 6.8% des étudiants israéliens et 37.2% des étudiants palestiniens répondent à des critères du Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Dans les deux sociétés, mais de façon plus prononcée dans l'Autorité palestinienne, les adolescents rapportent des niveaux significatifs de troubles fonctionnels, principalement dans le domaine du fonctionnement scolaire. Les étudiants avec PTSD manifestent plus de plaintes somatiques, il en va de même pour les troubles fonctionnels. Les résultats montrent le sérieux impact psychologique d'un conflit violent et continuel sur les étudiants israéliens et palestiniens et signale le besoin de développer des interventions scolaires appropriées à leurs besoins en matière de santé mentale. [source]

Child Sexual Abuse and Sexual Revictimization

Catalina M. Arata
Research identifying rates and effects of adult/adolescent sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse victims was reviewed. Approximately one-third of child sexual abuse victims report experiencing repeated victimization. Child sexual abuse victims have a 2 to 3 times greater risk of adult revictimization than women without a history of child sexual abuse. Physical contact in abuse and revictimization in adolescence were found to lead to the greatest risk of revictimization. Repeated victims had more symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and dissociation than women with a history of child sexual abuse alone. Theories of revictimization and mediating variables were also reviewed. Clearer definitions of repeated victimization are needed and future research should include studies that follow child sexual abuse victims prospectively. [source]