Positive Mood (positive + mood)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Effects of Violent Versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Arousal, Aggressive Mood, and Positive Mood

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 10 2001
Michele J. Fleming
This study investigated the relationship between violent video games and children's mood. A total of 71 children aged 8 to 12 years played a paper-and-pencil game, a nonviolent video game, and a violent video game. Results indicate that arousal, as measured by heart rate and self-reported arousal, increased significantly after playing the violent video game, as compared with the other two game conditions, with girls reporting more arousal than did boys. There was no significant increase in aggressive mood scores for either boys or girls after playing the violent game. Positive mood, as measured by positive affect, showed no significant increases or decreases after playing either video game. However, positive mood, as measured by general mood, showed a significant increase after playing the violent game for both boys and girls, but only as compared with the paper-and-pencil game. Results are interpreted in terms of social learning and cognitive information processing theories of aggression. [source]


Flow experience and positive affect during hypermedia learning

BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Udo Konradt
In this study positive affective states, experienced by users of a one-hour learning program, in a hypermedia learning environment were assessed. It was expected that a positive mood would occur during learning that would be correlated with high training/learning success. Furthermore, the experience of flow was used to indicate whether the challenges and skills were balanced. The results showed that the users of the training program were put into a positive mood. About a quarter of the users experienced flow. Positive moods were associated with higher training success and positive affect was correlated with total knowledge and content knowledge. An association between flow and training success was not observed. The perceived probability of success did not influence learning but a high perceived probability of success was considered as comparably more pleasant than a low perceived probability of success. The results are discussed in the context of self-directed learning. [source]


A review of the clinical pharmacology of methamphetamine

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2009
Christopher C. Cruickshank
ABSTRACT Aims To examine the literature regarding clinical pharmacokinetics, direct effects and adverse clinical outcomes associated with methamphetamine use. Methods Relevant literature was identified through a PubMed search. Additional literature was obtained from relevant books and monographs. Findings and conclusions The mean elimination half-life for methamphetamine is approximately 10 hours, with considerable inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics. Direct effects at low-to-moderate methamphetamine doses (5,30 mg) include arousal, positive mood, cardiac stimulation and acute improvement in cognitive domains such as attention and psychomotor coordination. At higher doses used typically by illicit users (,50 mg), methamphetamine can produce psychosis. Its hypertensive effect can produce a number of acute and chronic cardiovascular complications. Repeated use may induce neurotoxicity, associated with prolonged psychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment and an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Abrupt cessation of repeated methamphetamine use leads to a withdrawal syndrome consisting of depressed mood, anxiety and sleep disturbance. Acute withdrawal lasts typically for 7,10 days, and residual symptoms associated with neurotoxicity may persist for several months. [source]


The role of personality dispositions to risky behavior in predicting first-year college drinking

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
Melissa A. Cyders
ABSTRACT Aims US college student drinking is associated with enormous risks to health, safety and productivity. Recent advances in personality research that have delineated multiple, separate dispositions to engage in risky behaviors may help to clarify the personality contribution to risk for this problem. Design The authors compared the prospective roles of sensation seeking, lack of planning, lack of perseverance, negative urgency and positive urgency (dispositions to engage in rash action when in an unusually negative or positive mood, respectively) in predicting increases in drinking frequency, drinking quantity and negative outcomes from consumption across the first year of college. Setting University of Kentucky campus. Participants A total of 418 first-year US college students enrolled in an Introduction to Psychology course during the first assessment; 293 participants completed both phases of the study. Measurements Participants completed self-report measures of personality and drinking behavior twice during the first year of college [the UPPS-R Impulsive Behavior Scale, positive urgency measure (PUM) and Drinking Styles Questionnaire (DSQ)]. Findings Whereas sensation seeking related to increases in the frequency with which college students drank alcohol, positive urgency predicted increases in (i) the quantity of alcohol students consumed at any given drinking episode and (ii) negative outcomes experienced from drinking. Conclusions It appears that although sensation seeking is a risk factor for participation in drinking behaviors, risk for increased quantity of consumption and its negative outcomes may be more a function of dyscontrol stemming from high positive mood for college students. [source]


Attitude-behaviour consistency: the role of group norms, attitude accessibility, and mode of behavioural decision-making

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2003
Joanne R. Smith
The interplay between two perspectives that have recently been applied in the attitude area,the social identity approach to attitude-behaviour relations (Terry & Hogg, 1996) and the MODE model (Fazio, 1990a),was examined in the present research. Two experimental studies were conducted to examine the role of group norms, group identification, attitude accessibility, and mode of behavioural decision-making in the attitude-behaviour relationship. In Study 1 (N,=,211), the effects of norms and identification on attitude-behaviour consistency as a function of attitude accessibility and mood were investigated. Study 2 (N,=,354) replicated and extended the first experiment by using time pressure to manipulate mode of behavioural decision-making. As expected, the effects of norm congruency varied as a function of identification and mode of behavioural decision-making. Under conditions assumed to promote deliberative processing (neutral mood/low time pressure), high identifiers behaved in a manner consistent with the norm. No effects emerged under positive mood and high time pressure conditions. In Study 2, there was evidence that exposure to an attitude-incongruent norm resulted in attitude change only under low accessibility conditions. The results of these studies highlight the powerful role of group norms in directing individual behaviour and suggest limited support for the MODE model in this context. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


A Dyadic Examination of Daily Health Symptoms and Emotional Well-Being in Late-Life Couples,

FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 5 2006
Jeremy B. Yorgason
Abstract: This study investigated the link between daily health symptoms and spousal emotional well-being in a sample of 96 older dyads. Higher negative mood and lower positive mood were associated with spousal symptoms in couples wherein husbands or wives reported higher average levels of symptoms. For wives, partner effects were moderated by husbands' marital satisfaction and illness severity. Specifically, higher husband marital satisfaction and illness severity were associated with higher negative mood and lower positive mood for wives on days where husbands reported higher symptom levels. In their work with later-life families, practitioners and educators should address long-term and daily health-related relationship stressors. [source]


Which neuroreceptors mediate the subjective effects of MDMA in humans?

HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL, Issue 8 2001
A summary of mechanistic studies
Abstract In preclinical studies, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ,Ecstasy') has been shown to release serotonin (5-HT), dopamine and norepinephrine. However, the role of these neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptor sites in mediating the subjective effects of MDMA has not yet been studied in humans. Therefore, we investigated the effects of three different neuroreceptor pretreatments on the subjective, cardiovascular and adverse effects of MDMA (1.5 mg/kg orally) in 44 healthy human volunteers. Pretreatments were: the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram (40 mg intravenously) in 16 subjects, the 5-HT2 antagonist ketanserin (50 mg orally) in 14 subjects, and the D2 antagonist haloperidol (1.4 mg intravenously) in 14 subjects. Each of these studies used a double-blind placebo-controlled within-subject design and all subjects were examined under placebo, pretreatment, MDMA and pretreatment plus MDMA conditions. Citalopram markedly reduced most of the subjective effects of MDMA, including positive mood, increased extraversion and self-confidence. Cardiovascular and adverse effects of MDMA were also attenuated by citalopram. Haloperidol selectively reduced MDMA-induced positive mood but had no effect on other subjective effects of MDMA or the cardiovascular or adverse responses to MDMA. Ketanserin selectively reduced MDMA-induced perceptual changes and emotional excitation. These results indicate that the overall psychological effects of MDMA largely depend on carrier-mediated 5-HT release, while the more stimulant-like euphoric mood effects of MDMA appear to relate, at least in part, to dopamine D2 receptor stimulation. The mild hallucinogen-like perceptual effects of MDMA appear to be due to serotonergic 5-HT2 receptor stimulation. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Effects of Violent Versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Arousal, Aggressive Mood, and Positive Mood

JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 10 2001
Michele J. Fleming
This study investigated the relationship between violent video games and children's mood. A total of 71 children aged 8 to 12 years played a paper-and-pencil game, a nonviolent video game, and a violent video game. Results indicate that arousal, as measured by heart rate and self-reported arousal, increased significantly after playing the violent video game, as compared with the other two game conditions, with girls reporting more arousal than did boys. There was no significant increase in aggressive mood scores for either boys or girls after playing the violent game. Positive mood, as measured by positive affect, showed no significant increases or decreases after playing either video game. However, positive mood, as measured by general mood, showed a significant increase after playing the violent game for both boys and girls, but only as compared with the paper-and-pencil game. Results are interpreted in terms of social learning and cognitive information processing theories of aggression. [source]


Flow experiences at work: for high need achievers alone?

JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, Issue 7 2005
Robert Eisenberger
Applying Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) flow theory of optimal experience to the workplace, two studies examined the relationships of employees' perceived skill and challenge at work and need for achievement with their positive mood, intrinsic task interest, and extra-role performance. Among achievement-oriented employees only, high skill and challenge was associated with greater positive mood, task interest, and performance than other skill/challenge combinations. Additionally, positive mood mediated the interactive relationship of skill/challenge and need for achievement with performance. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The Safety and Efficacy of Varenicline in Cocaine Using Smokers Maintained on Methadone: A Pilot Study

THE AMERICAN JOURNAL ON ADDICTIONS, Issue 5 2010
James Poling PhD
In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we compared varenicline (2 mg) to placebo for treatment for cocaine and tobacco dependence in 31 methadone-maintained subjects. Subjects received weekly counseling during the 12-week study participation. Our results indicate that varenicline is safe to give to this subject population, as there were no adverse events related to medication during this study. Varenicline was no more effective than placebo for abstinence from cocaine. Treatment with varenicline was associated with a reduced number of cigarettes smoked per day, even though subjects received only a brief education for smoking cessation. The self-report reduction in smoking was corroborated by CO levels and the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence. However, self-ratings of positive mood on the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule did significantly decrease in the varenicline group as compared to the placebo group, although this appears to be due to randomization differences related to lifetime depression diagnosis. These preliminary findings may point to potential therapeutic value of varenicline for smoking cessation in cocaine users maintained on methadone. (Am J Addict 2010;19:401,408) [source]


The phenomenology of exception times: Qualitative differences between problem-focussed and solution-focussed interventions

APPLIED COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
Thomas Wehr
Solution-focussed brief therapy (SFBT) is a prominent psychotherapeutic approach that deals with a positive focus and promises brief interventions. In two experiments, a solution-focussed technique was compared with a problem-focussed intervention. By means of a structured questionnaire, subjects were encouraged to think about a standard (Experiment 1) or a facultative topic (Experiment 2). Subsequently, they generated either one or five exceptions or exemplary problem episodes. Dependent variables were confident in coping with the problem, ease of retrieval, psychic comfort and several phenomenological properties of the autobiographical memory. A solution-oriented intervention increased self-confidence and established a positive mood. Exception times had a more positive tone and were generally more easily retrieved than problem episodes. The study confirms the claims of the SFBT for empowerment and rapid reduction of current suffering. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Flow experience and positive affect during hypermedia learning

BRITISH JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
Udo Konradt
In this study positive affective states, experienced by users of a one-hour learning program, in a hypermedia learning environment were assessed. It was expected that a positive mood would occur during learning that would be correlated with high training/learning success. Furthermore, the experience of flow was used to indicate whether the challenges and skills were balanced. The results showed that the users of the training program were put into a positive mood. About a quarter of the users experienced flow. Positive moods were associated with higher training success and positive affect was correlated with total knowledge and content knowledge. An association between flow and training success was not observed. The perceived probability of success did not influence learning but a high perceived probability of success was considered as comparably more pleasant than a low perceived probability of success. The results are discussed in the context of self-directed learning. [source]


Temporal changes in the affective experience of new fathers and their spouses

INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, Issue 6 2004
Marsha Kaitz
Our aim was to study temporal changes in fathers' affective experience during the first year of parenthood. For comparison, data also were collected from their spouses. Fifty-five Israeli couples comprised the initial sample, and both partners were interviewed during the prepartum period and at 3, 6, and 12 months' postpartum. Measures of emotionality, positive affect, negative affect, and mood regarding self, infant, and spouse/marriage were derived by finely coding parents' answers to interview questions. Analyses show that, for fathers and mothers, time effects were most substantial between the prepartum period and 3 months postpartum, and most of the changes were in a positive direction. Fathers and mothers showed continuity in positive affect and in negative affect, respectively. Overall, the sample experienced heightened positive affect and more positive moods after the birth of their infant than prior to it. [source]