Positive Externalities (positive + externality)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Infrastructure Financing and Operation in the Contemporary City

GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2010
PHILLIP M. O'NEILL
Abstract The provision of large economic infrastructure in Australian cities is widely seen to be in crisis. This paper examines the reasons why crisis has arisen in the urban infrastructure sector and what might be done to redress this. The analysis and the argument are based on a resuscitation of the ideas and ideals of infrastructure provision and how these have been eroded. The paper shows how these ideas/ideals once underpinned the formulation of state role, governance and regulation systems, financial arrangements, and even community need and expectation. Critical to this was an acceptance of the ideals of universality, access, bundling and free positive externalities, and the belief that these should be assembled necessarily as part of any urban infrastructure roll-out. This package became instinctive in post-war economic and urban management. Yet this instinct has been lost as governments shift from models of infrastructure provision to infrastructure procurement where a major role for the private sector is now common. While such an involvement has its benefits, there are concerns for the urban condition when privatisation of infrastructure construction, delivery and operation becomes dominant. Citing Graham and Marvin (2001), the paper argues that, where once infrastructure was the key device for integrating the elements of the city and its people, the way it is now being delivered produces a splintered urbanism. There is an urgent need, then, to re-think what infrastructure means in today's urban context and thereafter to re-assess the criteria for deciding what infrastructure is to be provided, in what form it should be provided, who should provide it, who should pay, and who should operate it. [source]


Cultural Districts, Property Rights and Sustainable Economic Growth

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2002
Walter Santagata
The purpose of this article is to analyse the economic properties as well as the institutions governing the start-up and evolution of cultural districts. The first part of the article reviews the relationships between culture, viewed as an idiosyncratic good, and the theory of industrial districts. The second part comprises a critical discussion of four models of cultural districts: the industrial cultural district (mainly based on positive externalities, localized culture and traditions in ,arts and crafts'); the institutional cultural district (chiefly relying on the assignment of property rights); the museums cultural district (based on network externalities and the search for optimal size); and the metropolitan cultural district (based on communication technologies, performing arts and electronic trade). The assignment of intellectual property rights to local idiosyncratic cultural goods seems to be the most significant way to differentiate among cultural districts. The final section discusses a possible convergence of all district models towards the institutional district, based on the creation of a system of property rights as a means to protect localized production. Cet article tente d'analyser les propriétés économiques et les institutions qui régissent la création et l'évolution de districts culturels. La première partie étudie les relations entre la culture , vue comme un bien idiosyncrasique , et la théorie des districts industriels. La deuxième partie est un débat critique sur quatre modèles de districts culturels: le district culturel industriel (basé essentiellement sur des externalités positives, des cultures et traditions artisanales locales), le district culturel institutionnel (s'appuyant principalement sur l'attribution de droits de propriété), le district culturel des musées (fondé sur des effets d'entraînement en réseau et la recherche d'une taille optimale), et le district culturel métropolitain (basé sur les technologies de communication, des représentations artistiques et le commerce électronique). L'attribution de droits de propriété intellectuelle sur des biens culturels idiosyncrasiques locaux semble être la meilleure manière de différencier les districts culturels. La dernière partie de l'article examine une convergence possible de tous les modèles de district vers le district institutionnel, en s'appuyant sur la création d'un système de droits de propriété comme moyen de protection d'une production locale. [source]


A Quasi-Market Framework for Development Competition

JOURNAL OF URBAN AFFAIRS, Issue 2 2002
Richard C. Feiock
This article describes a quasi-market framework to integrate the diverse perspectives on local government development competition found in the economic development literatures. Within this framework local governments seek to obtain positive externalities associated with economic growth through the provision of services and inducements to private firms in exchange for commitments of employment and investment. Efficient pursuit of economic development is impeded by market and government failures. Better understanding of how the quasi-market for economic development works promises to enhance our understanding of the relationships between economic and political demands and local development with important implications for evaluation of local growth policy and development competition. [source]


,BAUMOL'S DISEASE', PRODUCTION EXTERNALITIES AND PRODUCTIVITY EFFECTS OF INTERSECTORAL TRANSFERS

METROECONOMICA, Issue 3 2007
Claudio De Vincenti
ABSTRACT This paper presents a model that introduces in an unbalanced growth framework à la Baumol the hypothesis of an endogenous productivity growth due to a positive externality of the service sector on manufacturing productivity and a learning-by-doing process inside both sectors. The model shows that a policy aimed at keeping the ratio between outputs in the two sectors constant in real terms may improve the aggregate productivity performance of the economy, depending on the parameters' values. Then the model derives the dynamics of the intersectoral transfer which is necessary to keep the ratio between outputs constant, and verifies that the amount of the transfer turns out to be always lower than the output of the manufacturing sector, and only asymptotically approaches it. [source]


The Canadian geographer as positive externality

THE CANADIAN GEOGRAPHER/LE GEOGRAPHE CANADIEN, Issue 1 2009
ROGER HAYTER
No abstract is available for this article. [source]