Positive Emotions (positive + emotion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology


Selected Abstracts


Empathy Is Associated With Dynamic Change in Prefrontal Brain Electrical Activity During Positive Emotion in Children

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2009
Sharee N. Light
Empathy is the combined ability to interpret the emotional states of others and experience resultant, related emotions. The relation between prefrontal electroencephalographic asymmetry and emotion in children is well known. The association between positive emotion (assessed via parent report), empathy (measured via observation), and second-by-second brain electrical activity (recorded during a pleasurable task) was investigated using a sample of one hundred twenty-eight 6- to 10-year-old children. Contentment related to increasing left frontopolar activation (p < .05). Empathic concern and positive empathy related to increasing right frontopolar activation (ps < .05). A second form of positive empathy related to increasing left dorsolateral activation (p < .05). This suggests that positive affect and (negative and positive) empathy both relate to changes in prefrontal activity during a pleasurable task. [source]


,I Only Have Eyes For You': The Partiality of Positive Emotions

JOURNAL FOR THE THEORY OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR, Issue 3 2000
Aaron Ben-Ze'ev
First page of article [source]


Transformational and transactional leadership styles, followers' positive and negative emotions, and performance in German nonprofit orchestras

NONPROFIT MANAGEMENT & LEADERSHIP, Issue 1 2009
Jens Rowold
Although the transformational-transactional leadership paradigm has received increased attention from the research community over the past two decades, the nonprofit sector has been largely neglected. This study provides information about the effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership styles in the domain of German nonprofit orchestras, while exploring the role of emotions within these leadership styles. We examined musicians' perceptions of their orchestra conductors' leadership behaviors and related those behaviors to performance. Positive emotions were associated with both transactional and transformational leadership. Negative emotions partially mediated the influence of transformational leadership on performance. In combination, the results allow a more thorough and detailed understanding of effective leadership behavior in nonprofit organizations. [source]


What shields some can shackle others: the approach-related consequences of threat categorisations vary by agreeableness

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 7 2005
Michael D. Robinson
It is common to think that threat categorisation tendencies (TCTs) should undermine a person's subjective well-being. However, recent research has suggested that the hedonic impact of such tendencies varies considerably according to a person's traits. The present research seeks to extend such a perspective by considering potential interactions between TCTs and the trait of agreeableness. TCTs were measured through the use of choice reaction time tasks contrasting the threat and non-threat categories. As expected, TCTs were not correlated with the trait of agreeableness, but interacted with this trait in predicting the dependent measures. Within three studies involving 184 undergraduates, TCTs were associated with the higher levels of approach-related behaviour and positive emotion among disagreeable individuals, but lower levels of these same variables among agreeable individuals. The authors suggest that threat categorisation tendencies psychologically protect or burden the individual, depending on the levels of agreeableness. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Automated Measurement of Facial Expression in Infant,Mother Interaction: A Pilot Study

INFANCY, Issue 3 2009
Daniel S. Messinger
Automated facial measurement using computer vision has the potential to objectively document continuous changes in behavior. To examine emotional expression and communication, we used automated measurements to quantify smile strength, eye constriction, and mouth opening in two 6-month-old infant-mother dyads who each engaged in a face-to-face interaction. Automated measurements showed high associations with anatomically based manual coding (concurrent validity); measurements of smiling showed high associations with mean ratings of positive emotion made by naive observers (construct validity). For both infants and mothers, smile strength and eye constriction (the Duchenne marker) were correlated over time, creating a continuous index of smile intensity. Infant and mother smile activity exhibited changing (nonstationary) local patterns of association, suggesting the dyadic repair and dissolution of states of affective synchrony. The study provides insights into the potential and limitations of automated measurement of facial action. [source]


Mother,child and father,child mutuality in two contexts: consequences for young children's peer relationships

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2010
Eric W. Lindsey
Abstract This study examines the role that context plays in links between relative balance, or mutuality in parent,child interaction and children's social competence. Sixty-three toddlers and their parents were observed in a laboratory play session and caregiving activity (i.e. eating snack). Mutuality was operationalised as the relative balance in (a) partners' compliance to initiations, and (b) partners' expression of positive emotion. Caregivers rated children's social competence with peers, and children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers was observed in their childcare arrangement. Contextual differences were observed in the manifestation of parent,child mutuality, with both mother,child and father,child dyads displaying higher mutual compliance scores in the play context than in the caregiving context. Father,child dyads also displayed higher levels of shared positive emotion during play than during the caregiving context. There were no differences in a way that parent,child mutuality during play and caregiving was associated with children's social competence with peers. Overall, the results suggest that parent,child mutuality is a quality of parent,child interaction that has consistent links to children's peer competence regardless of the context in which it occurs. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Shyness and emotion-processing skills in preschoolers: a 6-month longitudinal study

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2008
Paul S. Strand
Abstract The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion recognition, and (3) emotional perspective-taking, we examined 337 Head Start attendees twice at a 24-week interval. Results revealed significant concurrent and longitudinal relationships between shyness and facial emotion recognition, and either minimal or non-existent relationships between shyness and the other aspects of emotion processing. Correlational analyses of concurrent assessments revealed that shyness predicted poorer facial emotion recognition scores for negative emotions (sad, angry, and afraid), but not a positive emotion (happy). Analyses of change over time, on the other hand, revealed that shyness predicted change in facial emotion recognition scores for all four measured emotions. Facial emotion recognition scores did not predict changes in shyness. Results are discussed with respect to expanding the scope of research on shyness and emotion processing to include time-dependent studies that allow for the specification of developmental processes. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Chronic medical problems and distressful thoughts of suicide in primary care patients: mitigating role of happiness

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 7 2009
Jameson K. Hirsch
Abstract Objective Chronic medical problems might amplify suicide risk in later life. Feelings of happiness may reduce this risk. We tested the hypothesis that happiness attenuates the association between number of self-reported chronic diseases and suicidal distress. Methods A sample of 1,801 depressed, primary care patients, 60 years of age or older, entering a clinical trial, were assessed for the presence of positive emotion, suicidal distress and self-reported chronic medical problems. Results Chronic medical problems are associated with suicide ideation and, as hypothesized, happiness attenuates the relationship between self-reported diseases and suicidal distress. Conclusions Decreased risk for distressing thoughts of suicide in the context of medical illness is predicted by the presence of positive emotions. Our results suggest that treatments designed to help older primary care patients identify sources of joy and enhance happiness might decrease suicide risk. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Effects of monetary reward and punishment on stimulus-preceding negativity

PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
Yoshimi Ohgami
Abstract This study examined the effects of emotional valence on stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) using reward and fine. A time estimation task under reward, punishment, combined, and control conditions was performed. Participants were rewarded for accurate responses in the reward condition, and were fined for incorrect estimations in the punishment condition. in the combined condition, correct responses were rewarded and incorrect responses were fined. In the control condition, neither a reward nor fine was used. Results showed a significant interaction of condition hemisphere. The SPN at the left hemisphere was increased in the reward condition. For the punishment effect, although it evoked right hemisphere dominance, no conditional difference was apparent at the right hemisphere. These results suggest that the SPN is affected by positive emotion: The left hemisphere activation might represent a pleasant emotion accompanying monetary gain. [source]


Happiness and Stress Alter Susceptibility to Cardiac Events in Long QT Syndrome

ANNALS OF NONINVASIVE ELECTROCARDIOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
Ph.D., Richard D. Lane M.D.
Objective: We sought to determine whether the circumstances preceding an arrhythmic event differed from those preceding a prior control occasion in patients with Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), a well-characterized genetic disorder that puts affected individuals at risk for sudden cardiac death. Methods: Thirty-eight patients (89% female) with LQTS completed a "case-crossover interview" in which each patient served as his/her own control by reporting on circumstances preceding an arrhythmic event (syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, or defibrillator discharge) and preceding a control occasion (the next-to-last birthday). On average the interview was conducted 17 months after the cardiac event and control occasion. Results: During the 24-hour period preceding the cardiac event compared to the day before the control occasion, psychological stress was elevated, peak happiness was reduced, and peak exertion was not significantly different. Rated for the 6-month intervals preceding the event and control occasions, none of these three variables was significantly associated with events. Conclusions: Happiness is associated with a reduction in the 24-hour risk of cardiac events in patients with LQTS, with stress having an opposite effect. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that positive emotion may have a protective effect on life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This study lends further support to the role of emotions in influencing cardiac events in arrhythmia-prone patients. [source]


Empathy Is Associated With Dynamic Change in Prefrontal Brain Electrical Activity During Positive Emotion in Children

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2009
Sharee N. Light
Empathy is the combined ability to interpret the emotional states of others and experience resultant, related emotions. The relation between prefrontal electroencephalographic asymmetry and emotion in children is well known. The association between positive emotion (assessed via parent report), empathy (measured via observation), and second-by-second brain electrical activity (recorded during a pleasurable task) was investigated using a sample of one hundred twenty-eight 6- to 10-year-old children. Contentment related to increasing left frontopolar activation (p < .05). Empathic concern and positive empathy related to increasing right frontopolar activation (ps < .05). A second form of positive empathy related to increasing left dorsolateral activation (p < .05). This suggests that positive affect and (negative and positive) empathy both relate to changes in prefrontal activity during a pleasurable task. [source]


,Nothing that feels bad is ever the last step:' the role of positive emotions in experiential work with difficult emotional experiences

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY (AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THEORY & PRACTICE), Issue 1 2004
Diana Fosha
The goal of this paper is to show (i) how the moment-to-moment tracking and processing of emotion to completion,in an emotionally engaged patient,therapist dyad where the individual feels safe and known,constitutes a powerful mechanism of therapeutic transformation, and (ii) how positive emotions are sensitive affective markers of that transformational process. Evidence from transformational studies is used to elaborate the vital role of positive emotions in the process of change in general, and, more specifically, in the course of therapeutic work with painful and overwhelming emotional experience. It is proposed that these emergent positive emotions are affective markers which signal the operation of healing transformational processes in psychotherapy. Several types of positive emotion that arise spontaneously during moment-to-moment experiential therapeutic work will be described and their role as markers of different transformational processes will be elucidated. The paper begins with examples of clinical work with emotion in AEDP (Accelerated Experiential,Dynamic Psychotherapy), an emotion-focused and attachment-based model of therapy that places the dyadic regulation of affect at the centre of both theory and practice.,Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Work, Family, and Individual Factors Associated with Mothers Attaining Their Preferred Work Situations

FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 3 2008
Jenet JacobArticle first published online: 2 JUL 200
This study explores work, family, and individual factors associated with mothers attaining their preferred work situations, including full-time, part-time, work from home, and no paid work. Data are taken from a sub-sample of 1,777 mothers from a nationally representative sample contacted by random-digit dialing phone interviews by the University of Connecticut Center for Survey Research and Analysis and the Motherhood Study. Actual work situation, household income, spouse or partner's work situation, perception of family financial responsibility, race, and religion are associated with attaining preferred work situations using logistic regression, ANOVA, and chi-square analyses. Thirty-six percent of mothers who are in their preferred work situations have experienced fewer negative emotions and more positive emotions, suggesting implications for individual and family well-being and work,family policies. [source]


Japanese Language Students' Attitudes Toward Kanji and Their Perceptions on Kanji Learning Strategies

FOREIGN LANGUAGE ANNALS, Issue 3 2007
Yoshiko Mori
This study aims at identifying interpretable factors underlying Japanese language learners' attitudes toward kanji and their self-reported kanji learning strategies. It also examines the relationship between the two sets of belief factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted among Japanese language students at nine universities in the United States; 311 responses were subjected to exploratory factor analyses that identified six attitudinal factors and six strategy belief factors. Descriptive statistics indicated that students considered rote memorization most effective and metacognitive strategies least effective. Correlational analyses revealed that appreciation of the cultural value of kanji and positive emotions toward kanji were associated with stronger belief in varied strategies. Perception of difficulty and belief in special abilities required for kanji learning, in contrast, were associated with reliance on rote memorization. [source]


Persuasion and the structure of affect.

HUMAN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH, Issue 1 2001
Dual systems, discrete emotions as complementary models
Participants viewed eight PSAs, providing data on their cognitive and emotional responses to each, as well as judgments of the perceived effectiveness of the messages. They also responded to Carver and White's (1994) BIS/BAS scales designed to measure individual differences in the behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation systems. Consistent with dual-systems theories of affect, the BIS scales predicted arousal of negative emotions, while BAS was associated with the elicitation of positive emotions. However, when predicting perceived message effectiveness, the positive affects showed variation in the sign and magnitude of the coefficients, as did the negative affects. This latter finding supports a discrete-emotions perspective. Knowledge that the two affect structures are appropriate to different conceptual domains (i.e., elicitation vs. effect) should enable researchers to formulate more precise questions regarding the role of affect in persuasion. [source]


Child,parent and child,peer interaction: Observational similarities and differences at age seven

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2005
Marleen H. Gerrits
Abstract According to Russell et al. (Developmental Rev 1998; 18: 313) child,parent interaction could contain horizontal qualities, similar to child,peer interactions. To study this, child,parent and child,peer play interactions were compared on several observed horizontal and vertical characteristics in 55 7-year-old children interacting with their mother, father, and a classmate, respectively. Characteristics on which the interactions were compared were shared positive emotions, total control behaviour, balance of control, simultaneous play, mutual responsiveness, and discord. Significant differences between observed child,parent and child,peer interactions were found. Horizontal as well as vertical qualities were found in both types of interaction. The child,parent interaction consisted primarily of mutual responsiveness (i.e. a horizontal quality), and total control, whereas in the child,peer interaction balance of control, shared positive emotions, simultaneous play, and discords were most often found. No main effect of peer preference or gender was found. However, several interaction effects of context with gender and peer preference were found. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Chronic medical problems and distressful thoughts of suicide in primary care patients: mitigating role of happiness

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY, Issue 7 2009
Jameson K. Hirsch
Abstract Objective Chronic medical problems might amplify suicide risk in later life. Feelings of happiness may reduce this risk. We tested the hypothesis that happiness attenuates the association between number of self-reported chronic diseases and suicidal distress. Methods A sample of 1,801 depressed, primary care patients, 60 years of age or older, entering a clinical trial, were assessed for the presence of positive emotion, suicidal distress and self-reported chronic medical problems. Results Chronic medical problems are associated with suicide ideation and, as hypothesized, happiness attenuates the relationship between self-reported diseases and suicidal distress. Conclusions Decreased risk for distressing thoughts of suicide in the context of medical illness is predicted by the presence of positive emotions. Our results suggest that treatments designed to help older primary care patients identify sources of joy and enhance happiness might decrease suicide risk. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Philosophical dialogues as paths to a more ,positive psychology'

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Sofia Triliva
Abstract Although family support programmes have been in place for several decades in Greece very little attention has been paid to evaluating the effectiveness of such endeavours, the techniques that influence their outcomes and the receptiveness to their messages. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of research findings collected during the first qualitative research phase of a community mental health promotion project. The research was conducted in order to delineate programme outcomes and the characteristics that had an impact on the participants' lives. The 3-month family support programme intended to introduce ,philosophical dialogues' as means to developing personal and communal understandings of what makes life worth living. The programme was developed and implemented on Crete under the auspices of a non-profit community organization appropriately named ,The Lyceum for Women'. The features of the programme that contributed and enhanced the participants' tendencies to become not passive targets but active partners and stakeholders in the process will be clarified, as will the conceptualization and approach. Of the 45 evaluation protocols that were analysed the following themes were most important for the participants: ,Group as-a-whole process',the sense of sharing and development understandings in a ,parea' (in-group); ,relational outcomes',feeling of belonging, ,reciprocated kindness', and giving of self to others; personal and emotional outcomes-self-efficacy and empowerment; knowledge outcomes-learning about positive emotions and enjoying the simple things in life; and group facilitator outcomes-sharing stories, ,gives of self to the community'. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Investigating the relationship between past contraceptive behaviour, self-efficacy, and anticipated shame and guilt in sexual contexts among Norwegian adolescents

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
Bente Tren
Abstract What are the relationships between self-efficacy when communicating to the partner about use of contraception, stopping undesired intercourse, and perceived self-conscious emotions in sexual contexts? How does past contraceptive behaviour influence perceived self-efficacy? These research questions were studied among 399 10th grade students with coital experience in the county Nordland in Norway. Two dimensions of perceived emotional responses were identified in a hypothetical situation related to communicating to the partner about use of contraception, namely Shame and Emotional intimacy. Two dimensions were also identified with regard to anticipated emotional responses in a hypothetical situation related to stopping undesired intercourse: Guilt and responsibility and Emotional intimacy. Most of the boys and girls reported that they would react with positive emotions in both hypothetical situations. Path models were constructed with the affective dimensions and self-esteem as mediating variables between past contraceptive behaviour and contextual self-efficacy. Past behaviour influenced communication self-efficacy indirectly via Shame, and Shame had a direct effect upon self-efficacy. Guilt and responsibility had a direct effect upon stop-self-efficacy. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. [source]


Drug addicts in therapy,changes in life space in the course of one year

JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY & APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
Marcella Ravenna
Abstract In a residential community treatment setting, moods and emotional states of drug addicts were explored over a 1-year period. The specific form of treatment of heroin addiction employed in the communities is based on the importance of interpersonal relationships for psychosocial transition. Twenty-nine participants reported current mood, emotions, attributions, and motive activation using a time-sampling diary for 2 weeks at the beginning of the treatment, and 6 and 12 months later. Results show an increase in positive emotions, and in subjective strength and freedom. Furthermore, participants report higher self-esteem and use less fatalistic attributions. This is interpreted as indicating successful transition processes in terms of higher autonomy, a more extended life space and increased levels of realism. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Situational and dispositional predictors of displays of positive emotions

JOURNAL OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, Issue 8 2003
Hwee H. Tan
The study examined the effects of situational (store busyness and customer demand) and dispositional (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism) factors on the display of positive emotions. We found that for situational factors, customer demand was positively related to displayed positive emotions. For personality factors, extraversion was positively related to displayed positive emotions and neuroticism was negatively related to displayed positive emotions. Usefulness analysis showed that both situational and personality factors contributed significantly to explain the level of positive displayed emotion. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Putting the Five-Factor Model Into Context: Evidence Linking Big Five Traits to Narrative Identity

JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 5 2006
Peter Raggatt
ABSTRACT The study examined relationships between the Big Five personality traits and thematic content extracted from self-reports of life history data. One hundred and five "mature age" university students (M=30.1 years) completed the NEO PI-R trait measure, and the Personality Web Protocol. The protocol examines constituents of identity by asking participants to describe 24 key "attachments" from their life histories (significant events, people, places, objects, and possessions). Participants sorted these attachments into clusters and provided a self-descriptive label for each cluster (e.g., "adventurous self"). It was predicted that the thematic content of these cluster labels would be systematically related to Big Five trait scores (e.g., that labels referring to strength or positive emotions would be linked to Extraversion). The hypothesized links were obtained for each of the Big Five trait domains except Conscientiousness. Results are discussed with a view to broadening our understanding of the Five-Factor Model in relation to units of personality other than traits. [source]


The Contribution of Self-Efficacy Beliefs to Dispositional Shyness: On Social-Cognitive Systems and the Development of Personality Dispositions

JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY, Issue 6 2003
Gian Vittorio Caprara
Self-efficacy measures, taken at the initial measurement period, included indices of perceived self-efficacy for forming and maintaining social relationships, dealing effectively with parents, managing negative emotions, and expressing positive emotions towards others. Levels of self-reported shyness as well as emotional stability were assessed also at time 1, with shyness measured again at the follow-up assessment two years later. Structural equation modeling indicated that two of the four self-efficacy measures uniquely contributed to levels of shyness reported at time 1, and that perceptions of social self-efficacy uniquely contributed to shyness at time 2 even when considering the effects of time 1 shyness levels. Emotional stability did not uniquely contributed to time 2 shyness after considering the relation between shyness at the first and second measurement points. The broad implications of social-cognitive analyses for the study of personality development are discussed. [source]


He Said, She Said: Gender Differences in Mother , Adolescent Conversations about Sexuality

JOURNAL OF RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENCE, Issue 2 2002
Eva S. Lefkowitz
This study examined gender differences in self-reported and observed conversations about sexual issues. Fifty mother ,adolescent dyads reported on their conversations about sexual issues and participated in videotaped conversations about dating and sexuality in a laboratory setting. Gender differences (more mother , daughter than mother ,son) were found in the extent of sexual communication based on adolescents' reports, but no gender differences were found based on mothers' reports, or on observations of conversations. Aspects of laboratory interactions, however, did distinguish mother, daughter and mother , son dyads, and related to self-report measures. Girls' reported sexuality communication frequency related to behavior in the laboratory setting. During mother , son conversations, one person usually took on the role of questioner, whereas the other did not. In contrast, there was evidence for mutuality of positive emotions for mother , daughter dyads, but not for mother , son dyads. [source]


How and why do college students use Wikipedia?

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Issue 11 2009
Sook Lim
The purposes of this study were to explore college students' perceptions, uses of, and motivations for using Wikipedia, and to understand their information behavior concerning Wikipedia based on social cognitive theory (SCT). A Web survey was used to collect data in the spring of 2008. The study sample consisted of students from an introductory undergraduate course at a large public university in the midwestern United States. A total of 134 students participated in the study, resulting in a 32.8% response rate. The major findings of the study include the following: Approximately one-third of the students reported using Wikipedia for academic purposes. The students tended to use Wikipedia for quickly checking facts and finding background information. They had positive past experiences with Wikipedia; however, interestingly, their perceptions of its information quality were not correspondingly high. The level of their confidence in evaluating Wikipedia's information quality was, at most, moderate. Respondents' past experience with Wikipedia, their positive emotional state, their disposition to believe information in Wikipedia, and information utility were positively related to their outcome expectations of Wikipedia. However, among the factors affecting outcome expectations, only information utility and respondents' positive emotions toward Wikipedia were related to their use of it. Further, when all of the independent variables, including the mediator, outcome expectations, were considered, only the variable information utility was related to Wikipedia use, which may imply a limited applicability of SCT to understanding Wikipedia use. However, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the applicability of this theory to Wikipedia use. Finally, this study supports the knowledge value of Wikipedia (Fallis, 2008), despite students' cautious attitudes toward Wikipedia. The study suggests that educators and librarians need to provide better guidelines for using Wikipedia, rather than prohibiting Wikipedia use altogether. [source]


Changes in breast cancer patients after psychosocial intervention as indicated in drawings,

PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
R. T. H. Ho
Abstract Objective: The present study attempts to understand the experience of breast cancer patients who had participated in an Eastern-based body,mind,spirit (BMS) psychosocial intervention program by observing changes in the images made by the patients. Methods: Pre- and post-intervention drawings on the theme of ,my cancer' were collected from 67 primary breast cancer patients. Two creative art therapists compared the drawings according to the structural and formal art elements (body), the symbols used (mind), and the emotions and feelings presented in the drawings (spirit). Numbers of pre- and post-intervention drawings, showing the presence of each element in these three dimensions, were also counted and compared. Results: There were several changes noted between pre- and post-intervention drawings. The use of color, space, and multiplicity increased from 12 to 17%. Images of breasts decreased from 13 to 0%. Representations of cancer decreased from 15 to 7%. There was a slight increase in symbolic representations of natural, landscapes, and social support in post-drawings (3,6%). The portrayal of negative emotions was greatly reduced from 52 to 3%, while positive emotions increased from 28 to 93% in post-drawings. Conclusions: The comparison of pre- and post-intervention drawings revealed changes in subject matter and accompanying emotions. Overall, there was a trend in changes toward a more peaceful and hopeful attitude. Through the use of realistic and symbolic images, participants depicted a range of emotions. Limitations and recommendations for using art,making, as an assessment tool and intervention, are addressed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Consumption experience of impulse buying in Indonesia: Emotional arousal and hedonistic considerations

ASIAN JOURNAL OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Astrid G. Herabadi
Two studies focused on impulsive purchase experiences. Feelings, considerations and ratings of purchase impulsiveness were measured with respect to a recent purchase by means of interviews immediately after the purchase in the shopping environment (Study 1) and through shopping diaries (Study 2). Feelings and considerations were measured by open-ended questions, which yielded a wide range of responses in each category. These responses were subjected to multidimensional scaling. The results demonstrated a high versus low arousal dimension of positive emotions and a hedonic versus utilitarian dimension of considerations. Emotions and considerations were predicted by general impulse-buying tendency, and were related to the experience of impulsive purchases. In Study 2, impulse buying tendency was measured 2 months earlier. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which general impulse buying tendency predicts the feelings and considerations in the purchase environment, which in turn, determine the experience of making an impulsive purchase. [source]


Young Children's Reasoning About the Effects of Emotional and Physiological States on Academic Performance

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2009
Jennifer Amsterlaw
This study assessed young children's understanding of the effects of emotional and physiological states on cognitive performance. Five, 6-, 7-year-olds, and adults (N= 96) predicted and explained how children experiencing a variety of physiological and emotional states would perform on academic tasks. Scenarios included: (a) negative and positive emotions, (b) negative and positive physiological states, and (c) control conditions. All age groups understood the impairing effects of negative emotions and physiological states. Only 7-year-olds, however, showed adult-like reasoning about the potential enhancing effects of positive internal states and routinely cited cognitive mechanisms to explain how internal states affect performance. These results shed light on theory-of-mind development and also have significance for children's everyday school success. [source]


Self in Context: Autonomy and Relatedness in Japanese and U.S. Mother,Preschooler Dyads

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2002
Tracy A. Dennis
Cultural differences and similarities in socialization during two contrasting laboratory tasks were examined in 30 Japanese mothers and their preschoolers, both temporarily residing in the United States, and 30 U.S. mothers and their preschoolers (age: M= 55.8 months, SD= 4.9). Mother and child actions, speech, emotion, and attention were coded from videotaped observations during a free play task and waiting task. Cross,cultural comparisons showed that U.S. mothers had more conversations that emphasized individual experiences, more often acted as playmates and used joint attention, maintained more physical distance, showed more positive emotions, and made more positive responses to child accomplishment. In contrast, Japanese mothers had more conversations that emphasized shared experiences, showed more divided attention, and maintained social role distinctions. Similar, but fewer cultural differences emerged for children. However, maternal and child characteristics also varied by task context. The results suggested an emphasis on autonomy in U.S. dyads and an emphasis on relatedness in Japanese dyads, but the interactions with task context revealed the coexistence of autonomy and relatedness. [source]


,Nothing that feels bad is ever the last step:' the role of positive emotions in experiential work with difficult emotional experiences

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY (AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THEORY & PRACTICE), Issue 1 2004
Diana Fosha
The goal of this paper is to show (i) how the moment-to-moment tracking and processing of emotion to completion,in an emotionally engaged patient,therapist dyad where the individual feels safe and known,constitutes a powerful mechanism of therapeutic transformation, and (ii) how positive emotions are sensitive affective markers of that transformational process. Evidence from transformational studies is used to elaborate the vital role of positive emotions in the process of change in general, and, more specifically, in the course of therapeutic work with painful and overwhelming emotional experience. It is proposed that these emergent positive emotions are affective markers which signal the operation of healing transformational processes in psychotherapy. Several types of positive emotion that arise spontaneously during moment-to-moment experiential therapeutic work will be described and their role as markers of different transformational processes will be elucidated. The paper begins with examples of clinical work with emotion in AEDP (Accelerated Experiential,Dynamic Psychotherapy), an emotion-focused and attachment-based model of therapy that places the dyadic regulation of affect at the centre of both theory and practice.,Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]