Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Position

  • acid position
  • allylic position
  • alternative position
  • amino acid position
  • amino-acid position
  • anatomical position
  • angular position
  • apical position
  • appropriate position
  • arm position
  • asset position
  • atom position
  • atomic position
  • band position
  • bargaining position
  • basal position
  • benzylic position
  • best position
  • birthing position
  • body position
  • bottom position
  • c-2 position
  • c-3 position
  • c4 position
  • canopy position
  • catheter position
  • cell position
  • central position
  • cis position
  • class position
  • codon position
  • common position
  • competitive position
  • coronal position
  • correct position
  • corresponding position
  • critical position
  • crystallographic position
  • current position
  • desired position
  • different body position
  • different position
  • difficult position
  • disadvantaged position
  • distinct position
  • dominant position
  • double-bond position
  • dystonic head position
  • economic position
  • elbow position
  • electrode position
  • energetic position
  • epistemological position
  • equatorial position
  • equity position
  • equivalent position
  • ethical position
  • exact position
  • excellent position
  • extreme position
  • feeding position
  • fellowship position
  • final position
  • financial position
  • first position
  • fixed position
  • foot position
  • front position
  • general position
  • geographic position
  • geographical position
  • good position
  • h-atom position
  • hand position
  • head position
  • hierarchical position
  • horizontal position
  • ideal position
  • ideological position
  • implant position
  • important position
  • initial position
  • intercuspal position
  • interface position
  • intermediate position
  • internal position
  • international investment position
  • investment position
  • isolated position
  • jaw position
  • joint position
  • key position
  • lateral position
  • lead position
  • leadership position
  • leaf position
  • leave lateral position
  • leg position
  • legal position
  • level position
  • ligand position
  • limb position
  • lower position
  • lv lead position
  • management position
  • mandibular position
  • map position
  • marginal position
  • market position
  • meso position
  • meta position
  • methyl position
  • middle position
  • molar position
  • moral position
  • n1 position
  • neck position
  • needle position
  • negotiating position
  • network position
  • neutral position
  • new position
  • normal position
  • nucleotide position
  • one position
  • opposite position
  • optimal position
  • original position
  • ortho position
  • other position
  • own position
  • para position
  • patient position
  • peak position
  • philosophical position
  • phylogenetic position
  • point position
  • policy position
  • political position
  • posterior position
  • power position
  • powerful position
  • primary position
  • prime position
  • prominent position
  • prone position
  • proper position
  • qtl position
  • radial position
  • recumbent position
  • relative position
  • residue position
  • resting position
  • reverse trendelenburg position
  • right position
  • ring position
  • same position
  • sample position
  • second position
  • sequence position
  • short position
  • similar position
  • sleep position
  • slope position
  • social position
  • socio-economic position
  • socioeconomic position
  • source position
  • spatial position
  • special position
  • specific position
  • spectral position
  • spot position
  • standing position
  • strategic position
  • stratigraphic position
  • structural position
  • subject position
  • subordinate position
  • substitution position
  • supine position
  • systematic position
  • table position
  • target position
  • taxonomic position
  • terminal position
  • theoretical position
  • third codon position
  • third position
  • tip position
  • tooth position
  • topographic position
  • trans position
  • trendelenburg position
  • trophic position
  • tube position
  • unique position
  • upright position
  • variable position
  • various position
  • varying position
  • vertical position
  • water table position
  • women position
  • work position
  • wrist position
  • wyckoff position

  • Terms modified by Position

  • position angle
  • position being
  • position change
  • position close
  • position control
  • position decreased
  • position error
  • position paper
  • position sense
  • position sensor
  • position statement
  • position vis

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    Philip M. Novis
    The quadriflagellate snow alga Chlainomonas Christen, distributed in New Zealand and North America, has several unusual structural attributes. A process assumed to be cytokinesis involves extrusion of protoplasm from the parent through a narrow canal, C. kolii (J. T. Hardy et Curl) Hoham produces a net-like outer envelope rather than a cell wall, and the flagellar basal apparatus of Chlainomonas consists of two semi-independent pairs of basal bodies. Structural connections between basal body pairs appear minimal, but a connecting system different from that observed in other genera exists within each pair. Phylogenetic analysis using rbcL sequences places Chlainomonas in the Chloromonas clade, other known members of which are all biflagellate. Chlainomonas is split into two robust lineages, with New Zealand collections sharing an origin with northern North American collections. Although the quadriflagellate condition is regarded as ancestral in the Chlorophyceae, we speculate,based on ultrastructural and molecular data presented here,that Chlainomonas represents a derived form that has arisen from fusion of two ancestral biflagellate cells. Other explanations (for example, that Chlainomonas represents a diploid form of a biflagellate species) are remotely possible but are presently at odds with extensive observations of field material. Improvements in techniques for experimental manipulation of these sensitive cryophiles will be required to fully characterize their structure and progress our understanding of their biology. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Charles J. O'Kelly
    The phylogenetic position of microfilamentous marine green algae assigned to the species Phaeophila dendroides, Entocladia tenuis (Phaeophila tenuis, and Ochlochaete hystrix was examined through phylogenetic analyses of nuclear-encoded small subunit rDNA and chloroplast-encoded tufA gene sequences. These analyses placed the P. dendroides strains within the Ulvophyceae, at the base of a clade that contains representatives of the families Ulvaceae, Ulvellaceae, and the species Bolbocoleon piliferum, supporting an earlier hypothesis that P. dendroides constitutes a distinct lineage. Substantial divergence in both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences exists among strains of P. dendroides from different geographic localities, but these isolated strains are morphologically indistinguishable. The lineage may have an accelerated rate of gene sequence evolution relative to other microfilamentous marine green algae. Entocladia tenuis and O. hystrix are placed neither in the P. dendroides clade nor in the Ulvellaceae as previous taxonomic schemes predicted but instead form a new clade or clades at the base of the Ulvaceae. Ruthnielsenia gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate Kylin's species, which cannot be placed in Entocladia (=Acrochaete), Phaeophila, or Ochlochaete. Ruthnielsenia tenuis (Kylin) comb. nov., previously known only from Atlantic coasts, is reported for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America (San Juan Island, WA, USA). Isolates of R. tenuis from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America have identical small subunit rDNA and tufA gene sequences. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Kirk E. Apt
    Aglaothamnion neglectum Feldman-Mazoyer has two , subunits, ,31 and ,33, that are associated with phycoerythrin in the light-harvesting phycobilisomes. We demonstrate that these subunits are spatially separated within the phycobilisome, with the ,31 subunit present at the distal end of phycobilisome rods and the ,33 subunit present on the proximal end. These subunits are thought to link phycoerythrin hexamers together in the rod substructure, serving a role analogous to that of linker polypeptides of cyanobacteria (although unlike the cyanobacterial linker polypeptides they are chromophorylated). The sequencing of tryptic polypeptides of the , subunits enabled us to prepare oligonucleotides encoding different regions of ,31. These oligonucleotides were used as primers to generate a probe for isolating a ,31 cDNA clone. Characterization of the cDNA clone predicts a polypeptide of 280 amino acids with a 42 amino acid presequence that is characteristic of a transit peptide, the peptide that targets proteins to chloroplasts of vascular plants. The ,31 subunit has 50% similarity to the previously characterized ,33 subunit but has no identifiable similarity to functionally related polypeptides present in cyanobacterial phycobilisomes or to any other polypeptides in the databases. A repeat of 95 amino acids is present in the red algal , subunit sequences, suggesting that these proteins were generated by a gene duplication followed by fusion of the duplicate sequences. [source]

    BEFORE THE ORIGINAL POSITION: The Neo-Orthodox Theology of the Young John Rawls

    Eric Gregory
    ABSTRACT This paper examines a remarkable document that has escaped critical attention within the vast literature on John Rawls, religion, and liberalism: Rawls's undergraduate thesis, "A Brief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and Faith: An Interpretation Based on the Concept of Community" (1942). The thesis shows the extent to which a once regnant version of Protestant theology has retreated into seminaries and divinity schools where it now also meets resistance. Ironically, the young Rawls rejected social contract liberalism for reasons that anticipate many of the claims later made against him by secular and religious critics. The thesis and Rawls's late unpublished remarks on religion and World War II offer a new dimension to his intellectual biography. They show the significance of his humanist response to the moral impossibility of political theology. Moreover, they also reveal a kind of Rawlsian piety marginalized by contemporary debates over religion and liberalism. [source]


    B. Andreosso-O'Callaghan
    We have employed the procedures advocated by Husted for the presence of stationarity in current accounts by estimating a cointegration relationship between any country's exports and imports. The results do not substantiate the presence of cointegration between the series, implying that the macroeconomic fundamentals in these countries prior to the crisis were far from robust, at least from the perspective of current account sustainability. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    FRANZISKA GROßMANNArticle first published online: 17 MAY 200
    Abstract:, The two plesiosauroid species from the Posidonia shale of Holzmaden, ,Plesiosaurus'guilelmiimperatoris and ,Plesiosaurus'brachypterygius, do not belong to Plesiosaurus but form new monotypic genera. The new genus Hydrorion is erected for ,P.'brachypterygius, and the genus Seeleyosaurus is re-established for ,P.'guilelmiimperatoris. The recently described species Plesiopterys wildii is regarded as a junior synonym of S. guilelmiimperatoris. A short phylogenetic analysis shows that S. guilelmiimperatoris and Muraenosaurus are basal elasmosaurs. H. brachypterygius, Occitanosaurus tournemirensis from France and Microcleidus homalospondylus from England form a monophyletic clade, which is the sister taxon to the Cretaceous elasmosaurs. A palaeobiogeographical comparison of plesiosaur localities in the Lower Jurassic shows distinct palaeobiogeographical zones for the Toarcian, with different plesiosaur taxa in England, Germany and France. [source]


    First page of article [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
    Peter Salem
    The domestic violence advocacy and family court communities have each grown dramatically over the last three decades. Although these professional communities share many values in common, they often find themselves at odds with one another on a host of issues. This article examines the practical, political, definitional, and ideological differences between the two communities and calls for them to join forces and collaborate on behalf of children and families. [source]


    Based on a study of federal investigative agents, Pulakos and Schmitt (1995) hypothesized that situational interviews are less effective for higher-level positions than behavior description interviews. To evaluate their hypothesis we analyzed data from 2 new structured interview studies. Both of these studies involved higher-level positions, a military officer and a district manager respectively, and had matching SI and BDI questions written to assess the same job characteristics. Results confirmed that situational interviews are much less predictive of performance in these types of positions. Moreover, results indicated very little correspondence between situational and behavior description questions written to assess the same job characteristic, and a link between BDI ratings and the personality trait Extroversion. Possible reasons for the lower situational interview effectiveness are discussed. [source]

    Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Right Ventricular Inflow Compression Associated with Pectus Excavatum During Spinal Fusion in Prone Position

    James M. Galas MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Pectus excavatum is commonly viewed as a benign condition. Associated alterations in hemodynamics are rare. We present an unusual case of right ventricular inflow obstruction and hemodynamic compromise as a consequence of pectus excavatum encountered during surgical intervention. Case., a 15-year-old male with pectus excavatum and thoracolumbar scoliosis developed severe hypotension after induction of general anesthesia and placement in the prone position for elective spinal fusion. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed anterior compression of the right heart by the sternum with peak and mean right ventricular inflow gradients of 7 and 4 mm Hg, respectively. The gradient resolved with supine positioning and was reproduced with direct compression of the sternum. Conclusions., Although pectus excavatum is generally a benign condition, the cardiologist should be aware of the potential for serious hemodynamic compromise related to positioning in these patients. [source]

    Optimal Left Ventricular Lead Position Predicts Reverse Remodeling and Survival After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    David Tepper MD
    Background., A nonoptimal LV pacing lead position may be a potential cause for nonresponse to CRT. Methods., The site of latest mechanical activation was determined by speckle tracking radial strain analysis and related to the LV lead position on chest x-ray in 244 CRT candidates. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed after 6 months. Long-term follow-up included all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure. Results., Significant LV reverse remodeling (reduction in LV end-systolic volume from 189±83 mL to 134±71 mL, P<.001) was noted in the group of patients with a concordant LV lead position (n=153, 63%), whereas patients with a discordant lead position showed no significant improvements. In addition, during long-term follow-up (32±16 months), less events (combined for heart failure hospitalizations and death) were reported in patients with a concordant LV lead position. Moreover, a concordant LV lead position appeared to be an independent predictor of hospitalization-free survival after long-term CRT (hazard ratio: 0.22, P=.004). Conclusions., Pacing at the site of latest mechanical activation, as determined by speckle tracking radial strain analysis, resulted in superior echocardiographic response after 6 months of CRT and better prognosis during long-term follow-up. [source]

    Endogenous Adaptation: The Effects of Technology Position and Planning Mode on IT-Enabled Change,

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 3 2006
    Victoria L. Mitchell
    ABSTRACT The redesign of information technology (IT)-enabled work processes often necessitates fundamental design changes to the intended work process, the IT platform hosting the work process, or both. Research suggests that such design changes often can be traced to earlier decisions involving endogenous adaptation or internal organizational change. Two such decisions are a firm's technology position and planning mode. This study examines the relationship between technology position and planning mode in predicting the magnitude of design change in process redesign projects. The conceptual frame applied in examining these relationships involves a synthesis of Miles and Snow's adaptive cycle with elements central to concurrent engineering. Our results indicate that the magnitude of design change is related to differences in technology position and planning mode. To effectively implement organizational change, firms must leverage their IT platform by carefully timing IT investments in accordance with their adopted technology position. Directing the trajectory of a firm's IT platform and deploying it so as to complement the firm's technology position reduces design uncertainty, promoting reengineering success. [source]

    Developing Countries' Position in WTO Agricultural Trade Negotiations

    Alan Matthews
    Four themes in the developing countries' position are highlighted. (i) They are seeking meaningful improvements in market access for their agricultural exports. (ii) They have highlighted the asymmetry of current WTO obligations under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, and are seeking greater equality of outcomes in the new round. (iii) Meaningful concessions on special and differential treatment will be necessary to satisfy the interests of both exporters and importers, especially on the scope to be allowed for tariff protection to domestic food production. (iv) Innovative and reliable guarantees will need to be provided to the least developed food importers to protect them against the risk of world price volatility. [source]

    Reference Values Describing the Normal Mitral Valve and the Position of the Papillary Muscles

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2007
    Petrus Nordblom M.Sc.
    In patients with functional mitral regurgitation (MR), the principal mechanisms are insufficient coaptation due to dilatation of the mitral annulus (MA), global ventricular dysfunction with tethering of leaflets, or restricted leaflet motion with incorrect apposition due to regional ventricular dysfunction and displacement of the papillary muscles (PMs). These different entities often coexist and for this reason, knowledge of the normal reference values describing the shape and size of the MA and the position of the PMs is essential. In the present study, we describe the MA dimensions and the position of the PMs in a group of normal individuals (n = 38, 60% women, age [mean ± SD] 51 ± 9 years and BSA 1.83 ± 0.16 m2) investigated with transthoracic echocardiography. The anteroposterior dimension (AP) of the ellipse-shaped MA was measured in a parasternal long axis, while the distance from the posteromedial (PoM) to the anterolateral (AL) commissure was measured in a parasternal short axis (CC). The annular area was calculated assuming elliptic geometry. The MA shape was described by the ratios AP/CC and AP/length of the anterior leaflet. The PMs' position was described by the following distances: (a) from the MA to the tip of the PoM and AL, PMs measured in a modified two-chamber view where both PMs could be identified, (b) the interpapillary distance, and (c) the tethering distance from the tip of the PM to the contralateral MA. These data on the normal mitral valve morphology should provide useful information when assessing the underlying mechanism of functional MR. [source]

    Electrical Stimulation of the Hippocampal Epileptic Foci for Seizure Control: A Double-Blind, Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2007
    Ana Luisa Velasco
    Summary:,Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of electrical stimulation of the hippocampus in a long-term follow-up study, as well as its impact on memory performance in the treatment of patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Nine patients were included. All had refractory partial complex seizures, some with secondary generalizations. All patients had a 3-month-baseline-seizure count, after which they underwent bilateral hippocampal diagnostic electrode implantation to establish focus laterality and location. Three patients had bilateral, and six, unilateral foci. Diagnostic electrodes were explanted and definitive Medtronic electrodes were implanted directed into the hippocampal foci. Position was confirmed with MRI and afterwards, the deep brain stimulation system internalized. Patients signed the informed consent approved by the Hospital's Ethics Committee and began a double-blind stimulation protocol. Patients attended a medical appointment every 3 months for seizure diary collection, deep brain stimulation system checkup, and neuropsychological testing. Results: Follow-up ranged from 18 months to 7 years. Patients were divided in two groups: five had normal MRIs and seizure reduction of >95%, while four had hippocampal sclerosis and seizure reduction of 50,70%. No patient had neuropsychological deterioration, nor did any patient show side effects. Three patients were explanted after 2 years due to skin erosion in the trajectory of the system. Conclusions: Electrical stimulation of the hippocampus provides a nonlesional method that improves seizure outcome without memory deterioration in patients with hippocampal epileptic foci. [source]

    The Effect of Within-Flock Spatial Position on the Use of Social Foraging Tactics in Free-Living Tree Sparrows

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Ferenc Mónus
    The benefit of producer (searches for own food) or scrounger (exploits the others' food discoveries) foraging tactic in a group of socially feeding animals may depend on where the individual searches for food within the group. Scrounging may be more advantageous in the centre of the group, having more individuals around to join, while producing may be more beneficial at the edges, where more unexplored food patches may be found. This study shows within-flock position correlates with foraging tactic use of feeding birds in socially foraging tree sparrows, Passer montanus. Sparrows staying closer to the centre of the flock found their food patches more frequently by joining (i.e. use more frequently the scrounging tactic) than those staying toward the edges. To our knowledge this is the first field study demonstrating the relationship between spatial position and foraging tactic use. We investigated this relationship under different perceived predation hazard, and found that under elevated risk of predation, central individuals may increase their use of joining more than individuals on the periphery of the flock. Moreover, we show that extremely specialized use of searching tactics may be very infrequent in tree sparrows. As both within-flock position and search tactic use can be altered very quickly and without leaving the flock, individuals may easily alter them in order to adjust their behaviour. [source]

    Body Position and Cardiac Dynamic and Chronotropic Responses to Steady-State Isocapnic Hypoxaemia in Humans

    S. Deborah Lucy
    Neural mediation of the human cardiac response to isocapnic (IC) steady-state hypoxaemia was investigated using coarse-graining spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Six young adults were exposed in random order to a hypoxia or control protocol, in supine and sitting postures, while end-tidal PCO2 (PET,CO2) was clamped at resting eucapnic levels. An initial 11 min period of euoxia (PET,O2 100 mmHg; 13.3 kPa) was followed by a 22 min exposure to hypoxia (PET,O2 55 mmHg; 7.3 kPa), or continued euoxia (control). Harmonic and fractal powers of HRV were determined for the terminal 400 heart beats in each time period. Ventilation was stimulated (P < 0.05) and cardiac dynamics altered only by exposure to hypoxia. The cardiac interpulse interval was shortened (P < 0.001) similarly during hypoxia in both body positions. Vagally mediated high-frequency harmonic power (Ph) of HRV was decreased by hypoxia only in the supine position, while the fractal dimension, also linked to cardiac vagal control, was decreased in the sitting position (P < 0.05). However, low-frequency harmonic power (Pl) and the HRV indicator of sympathetic activity (Pl/Ph) were not altered by hypoxia in either position. These results suggest that, in humans, tachycardia induced by moderate IC hypoxaemia (arterial O2 saturation Sa,O2, 85%) was mediated by vagal withdrawal, irrespective of body position and resting autonomic balance, while associated changes in HRV were positionally dependent. [source]

    Stepparenting After Divorce: Stepparents' Legal Position Regarding Custody, Access, and Support,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2002
    Jason D. Hans
    Both the research and the clinical literature indicate that over time stepparents and stepchildren may develop emotional attachments similar to their biological counterparts. Nevertheless, stepparents are legal strangers to stepchildren,the relationship is not protected by law during marriage or following marital dissolution. There are some legal avenues by which stepparents may obtain parenting rights or be required to provide financial support for a stepchild following divorce. The legal process encountered by stepparents regarding custody, access, and child support are elucidated here, in addition to a discussion of policy recommendations and practical implications. [source]


    Trevor Stanley
    Annual reports, including general purpose financial statements, have been adopted as a key mechanism by which public sector entities discharge their accountability. However, there is concern about the complexity of public sector general purpose financial statements and consequently their effectiveness as an accountability mechanism. In Australia, the Queensland government has moved to address this issue in local government authorities by introducing a Community Financial Report as a means of simplifying the financial statements. A feature of this initiative was the lack of prescription given to local government authorities in the preparation of this report. This paper examines the form and content included in Community Financial Reports and also uses a disclosure index to determine the level of disclosure in the reports. The results of this research show that the form and content of the Community Financial Reports varied considerably. There was no definitive style, with each report being unique. The disclosure index revealed low levels of disclosure by local government authorities in the first year of the report as well as a lack of analysis of the Statements of Financial Performance, Position and Cash Flows. As well, there was a significant difference in the disclosures made by rural local government authorities compared with urban local government authorities. The results of this research will be of interest to local government authorities and local government regulators as they aim to provide useful, understandable information for stakeholders. [source]

    The Role of Structural Position in L2 Phonological Acquisition: Evidence from English Learners of Spanish as L2

    Gabriela Vokic
    Abstract: In this pilot study, the speech of 12 adult native speakers of English with intermediate to intermediate-high proficiency in Spanish as a second language (L2) was analyzed to determine whether L2 learners rely on distributional information in the process of L2 speech learning and if so, if similar or dissimilar distributional patterns of sounds are more easily acquired. The parameter for (dis)similarity was set around the notion of structural position in combination with native language (L1) and L2 phonemic inventories. The results show that the subjects were consistently more successful in producing the phonemes with overlapping distributional patterns in L1 and L2 than phonemes whose distribution differed in L1 and L2 as well as novel L2 contrasts. [source]

    Obsolescence and the Cityscape of the Former GDR

    Simon Ward
    ABSTRACT Paul Ricoeur claims that it is on the scale of urbanism that we best catch sight of the work of time in space. This article establishes two paradigmatic ways of seeing time in the city, the synchronic urban gaze and the urban memorial gaze, in order to explore how visualisations of the cityscape of the former GDR negotiate the significance of obsolescence, both ideological and physical. These paradigmatic forms can be associated with the ,official vision' of the cityscape, and ,alternative' visions respectively. While the state vision is evident in its urban planning, and the visual discourses at its disposal, the alternative visions are expressed in forms of visual culture (film and photography) that also explicitly engage with the visual discourses of urbanism. The article thus begins with an analysis of the official vision, through a consideration of the demolition of the Berlin Stadtschloss in 1950 as an act that may have been underpinned by both the ideological and physical obsolescence of the Schloss, but was ultimately justified by the need to create urban space for ideologically-motivated circulation. It then charts the changing relationship to obsolescence on the part of the regime's urban planners in the late 1960s, showing how this ostensibly dovetails with alternative ,subjective' visions of the cityscape in the 1970s in films such as,Die Legende von Paul und Paula,and,Solo Sunny, and in the photography of Ulrich Wüst. Such visions are widespread and largely permissible by the 1980s (with the notable exception of Helga Paris's study of Halle); and Peter Kahane's 1990s film,,Die Architekten, is read as offering a summary of these positions, as well as of the tensions between official and alternative ways of framing the manifestation of time in the cityscape. The article concludes by considering the afterlife of the obsolescent cityscapes of the former capital of the GDR within the new ,official' regime of representation that dominates in the ,new' Berlin. Paul Ricoeur behauptet, dass wir im Kontext des urbanen Raumes am besten betrachten können, wie sich die Zeit im Raum manifestiert. Diesem Aufsatz liegen zwei paradigmatische Sichtweisen auf die Stadt zugrunde, und zwar der synchronische Stadtblick (,synchronic urban gaze') einerseits und der zeitbezogene Stadtblick (,urban memorial gaze') andererseits, durch die Bedeutung und Rolle des physischen und moralischen Verschleißes in Darstellungen der Stadtlandschaft von Ostberlin, der Hauptstadt der DDR, untersucht werden können. Diese Sichtweisen lassen sich mit der ,offiziellen' Sichtweise, bzw. mit ,alternativen' Sichtweisen in Verbindung bringen. Die staatliche Sichtweise drückt sich in der Stadtplanung, aber auch in den visuellen Medien, die dem Staat zur Verfügung stehen, aus. Die alternativen Sichtweisen drücken sich auch in Formen der visuellen Vermittlung (Film, Fotografie) aus, die sich auch mit dem Urbanismus auseinandersetzen. Der Aufsatz beginnt daher mit der Analyse der offiziellen Sichtweise, und betrachtet den Abriss des Berliner Stadtschlosses im Jahre 1950 als einen Vorgang, der sowohl vom physischen wie auch ideologisch verschlissenen Zustand des Gebäudes ausging, aber letztendlich seine Legitimation aus dem Bedürfnis, urbanen Raum als Verfügungsmasse für ideologisch fundierte Tätigkeiten zu schaffen bezog. Diese Position des Regimes zum Verschleiß veränderte sich in den späten 1960er-Jahren, und diese neue Position hat scheinbare Ähnlichkeiten mit alternativen ,subjektiven' Vorstellungen der Stadtlandschaft in Filmen wie,Die Legende von Paul und Paula,und,Solo Sunny, und in der Fotografie von Ulrich Wüst. Solch alternative Visionen der Stadtlandschaft setzten sich mit weitgehender offizieller Duldung in den 1980er-Jahren fort (mit der berühmten Ausnahme der Halle-Arbeiten von Helga Paris); Peter Kahanes Film,,Die Architekten,(1990), bietet eine Zusammenfassung dieser Perspektiven und der Spannung zwischen der ,offiziellen' Sichtweise und dem alternativen Blick auf die verschlissene Stadt. Im Schlussteil untersucht der Aufsatz das Nach- oder Weiterleben der scheinbar obsoleten Stadtlandschaften der Hauptstadt der DDR in den offiziellen Formen der Stadtlandschaft, die im ,neuen Berlin' herrschen. [source]

    Seepage Face Height, Water Table Position, and Well Efficiency at Steady State

    GROUND WATER, Issue 2 2007
    Djaouida Chenaf
    When a fully penetrating well pumps an ideal unconfined aquifer at steady state, the water table usually does not join the water level in the well. There is a seepage face inside the well, which is a key element in evaluating the well performance. This problem is analyzed using the finite-element method, solving the complete equations for saturated and unsaturated flow. The seepage face position is found to be almost independent of the unsaturated zone properties. The numerical results are used to test the validity of several analytic approximations. Equations are proposed to predict the seepage face position at the pumping well for any well drawdown, and the water table position at any distance from the pumping well for any in-well drawdown. Practical hints are provided for installing monitoring wells and evaluating well efficiency. [source]

    Debates on Domesticity and the Position of Women in Late Colonial India

    Swapna M. Banerjee
    Tracing the genealogy of domesticity from India's precolonial past, this essay problematizes the recent emphasis on the link between women and domesticity in late colonial India. Based on a review of the growing literature in the field, it considers the newly evolved notions of colonial domesticity as a moment of [re]consideration rather than a break with the past. The discursive formation of the new ideas of domesticity under colonial regime transcended the private-public and often national boundaries, indicating an overlap where the most intimate details of the ,private', personal life were not only discussed and debated for public consumption but were also articulated in response to imperial and international concerns. This paper argues that domesticity as a new cultural logic became the motor of change for both the British and the colonized subjects and it particularly empowered women by giving them agency in the late colonial period. In conclusion, this paper signals the importance of children, childhood, fatherhood, and masculinity as critical components of domesticity, which are yet to be broached by South Asian historians. [source]

    Position of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) mutations predicts the natural history of MYH9 -related disease,

    HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 3 2008
    Alessandro Pecci
    Abstract MYH9 -related disease (MYH9 -RD) is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in MYH9, the gene for the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMHC-IIA). All patients present from birth with macrothrombocytopenia, but in infancy or adult life, some of them develop sensorineural deafness, presenile cataracts, and/or progressive nephritis leading to end-stage renal failure. No consistent correlations have been identified between the 27 different MYH9 mutations identified so far and the variable clinical evolution of the disease. We have evaluated 108 consecutive MYH9 -RD patients belonging to 50 unrelated pedigrees. The risk of noncongenital manifestations associated with different genotypes was estimated over time by event-free survival analysis. We demonstrated that all subjects with mutations in the motor domain of NMMHC-IIA present with severe thrombocytopenia and develop nephritis and deafness before the age of 40 years, while those with mutations in the tail domain have a much lower risk of noncongenital complications and significantly higher platelet counts. We also evaluated the clinical course of patients with mutations in the four most frequently affected residues of NMMHC-IIA (responsible for 70% of MYH9 -RD cases). We concluded that mutations at residue 1933 do not induce kidney damage or cataracts and cause deafness only in the elderly, those in position 702 result in severe thrombocytopenia and produce nephritis and deafness at a juvenile age, while alterations at residue 1424 or 1841 result in intermediate clinical pictures. These findings are relevant not only to patients' clinical management but also to the elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease. Hum Mutat 29(3), 409,417, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Oxindoles Bearing a Tetrasubstituted Stereocenter at the C-3 Position

    Feng Zhou
    Abstract The 3,3,-disubstituted oxindole structural motif is a prominent feature in many alkaloid natural products, which include all kinds of tetrasubstituted carbon stereocenters, spirocyclic or not, all-carbon or heteroatom-containing. The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the tetrasubstituted carbon stereocenter at the C-3 position of the oxindole framework integrates new synthetic methods and chiral catalysts, reflects the latest achievements in asymmetric catalysis, and facilitates the synthesis of sufficient quantities of related compounds as potential medicinal agents and biological probes. This review summarizes the recent progress in this area, and applications in the total synthesis of related bioactive compounds. [source]

    Variation in Perspective: The Employment Success of Ethnic Minority Males in the Netherlands, 1988,2002

    Pieter Bevelander
    This article investigates the job chances of ethnic minority males in the Dutch labour market. Using information from the Social Position and Use of Facilities by Immigrants (SPVA) surveys for the years 1988, 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002, we trace the employment pattern of various ethnic minority groups and Dutch natives, and study some determining factors for the job chances in the Netherlands during this period. The analysis reveals a clear variation in the employment patterns for different ethnic minority groups. Individual characteristics, such as marital status and especially educational level, turn out to be important factors in explaining the job chances for all groups. Moreover, support is found for the effect of the regional demand for labour on the employment chances for most of the analysed ethnic groups, which implies that no support is found for the queuing theory. [source]

    Taking a Position: A Reinterpretation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    This paper examines methodological issues associated with the theory of planned behaviour and explains that an alternative account of data used to support this theory can be provided by positioning theory. A case is presented that shows tests of the theory of planned behaviour fail to eliminate the possibility of alternative explanations for co-variation in its data. An agency or person-centered alternative shows how a causal interpretation can be reinterpreted as evidence of the actions of a person. Unlike the conceptualisation of the individual as behaving in keeping with postulated underlying cognitive laws or rules we assume that the person has, through socialisation, acquired the skills necessary to initiate and manage their own actions. Unlike the interest in TPB data as a causal explanation of action we draw attention to the interpretation of patterns in these data as an aggregate of each person using a common mode of explanation to justify and explain their intentions. [source]

    The Concept of Subject Position in Empirical Social Research

    Jukka Törrönen

    Parents labelled with Intellectual Disability: Position of the IASSID SIRG on Parents and Parenting with Intellectual Disabilities

    IASSID Special Interest Research Group on Parents, Parenting with Intellectual Disabilities
    Background, On August 5th, 2006, the third meeting of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Special Interest Research Group (SIRG) on Parents and Parenting with Intellectual Disabilities was convened in Maastricht, The Netherlands, coinciding with the 2nd International Congress of IASSID-Europe. The SIRG Parents and Parenting with Intellectual Disabilities membership includes scholars from a number of countries including the United States, Canada, England, Germany, The Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. These scholars come from a range of academic and professional disciplines, including sociology, psychology, education, nursing, social work and occupational therapy. Method, This position paper developed by the Parenting SIRG brings into sharp relief the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities adopted by the General Assembly in December 2006. The convention affirms the right of persons with disabilities to marry and found a family (Article 23, (1)(a)). Further, states parties are bound to ,take effective action and appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against persons with disabilities in all matters relating to marriage, family, parenthood and relationships,' (Article 23 (1)), and ,,render appropriate assistance to persons with disabilities in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities' (Article 23 (2)). Results, This position paper synthesizes messages from research about the challenges that parents labelled with intellectual disability face, and how they can be assisted in their parenting role. [source]

    Sitting on the Evidence: What Is the Proper Patient Position for the Office Measurement of Blood Pressure?

    Ari Mosenkis MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]