Populus Nigra (populus + nigra)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Lymantria dispar herbivory induces rapid changes in carbon transport and partitioning in Populus nigra

Benjamin A. Babst
Abstract We tested for rapid changes in photosynthate transport and partitioning in response to Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) (gypsy moth) herbivory in Populus nigra L. (Salicaceae). Transport and partitioning of [11C]-photosynthate from young mature leaves were measured in vivo before and 18 h after leaf chewing by gypsy moth larvae, which were caged on three older leaves. Following herbivory, there was an increase in export speed of recently fixed carbon from younger mature leaves. The increased export speed was due to a quicker transit time of 11C through the leaf, rather than a change in transport speed through the phloem. Additionally, basipetal partitioning of [11C]-photosynthate was increased following herbivory. Neither of these changes was observed in control plants. This enhancement of export occurs even though herbivores are well known to induce increases in carbon allocation to secondary metabolites within leaves. Our results demonstrate that the use of non-destructive imaging of 11C tracer is a powerful tool for examining plant responses to herbivory. Although the mechanisms underlying the rapid increase in carbon flux to stems and roots remain to be elucidated, our results raise the possibility of a coordinated whole plant response to herbivory. Thus, even when the herbivore specializes on only one plant tissue type, a whole plant approach may be key to understanding how plants respond to herbivory. [source]

Population dynamics of the ectomycorrhizal fungal species Tricholoma populinum and Tricholoma scalpturatum associated with black poplar under differing environmental conditions

Hervé Gryta
Summary Fungi combine sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. The balance between these two reproductive modes affects establishment dynamics, and ultimately the evolutionary potential of populations. The pattern of colonization was studied in two species of ectomycorrhizal fungi: Tricholoma populinum and Tricholoma scalpturatum. The former is considered to be a host specialist whereas T. scalpturatum is a generalist taxon. Fruit bodies of both basidiomycete species were mapped and collected over several years from a black poplar (Populus nigra) stand, at two different sites. Multilocus genotypes (= genets) were identified based on the analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) patterns and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (rDNA IGS). The genetic analyses revealed differences in local population dynamics between the two species. Tricholoma scalpturatum tended to capture new space through sexual spores whereas T. populinum did this by clonal growth, suggesting trade-offs in allocation of resources at the genet level. Genet numbers and sizes strongly differ between the two study sites, perhaps as a result of abiotic disturbance on mycelial establishment and genet behaviour. [source]

Dispersal and gene flow of Populus nigra (Salicaceae) along a dynamic river system

Eric Imbert
Summary 1,We used genetic markers to study gene flow of the riparian pioneer tree species Populus nigra along the Drôme river (France). This dioecious species is supposed to have more efficient dispersal mechanisms for pollen (wind) and seeds (wind and water) than other trees. 2,Seedlings belonging to the same reproduction/migration event were sampled in 22 riparian forest fragments along the river and their genetic diversity assessed through six nuclear microsatellites. 3,We found a high level of diversity and significant differentiation among populations. The significant isolation by distance allowed us to reject the infinite island model of migration. 4,Gene flow parameters were higher in the upper, mountainous part than in the alluvial plain downstream. There was no accumulation of diversity downstream, indicating migration rates were symmetrical upstream and downstream. This was confirmed by computing individual migration parameters between adjacent populations. 5,The results are discussed with regard to the dispersal mechanisms of seeds and pollen. The discrepancy between potential gene flow and effective gene flow is interpreted as an effect of fragmentation, due to the alteration of the natural dynamics of the riparian ecosystem rather than to physical barriers. [source]

Carbohydrate translocation determines the phenolic content of Populus foliage: a test of the sink,source model of plant defense

Tom Arnold
Summary ,,Here, we examine the influence of source-to-sink carbohydrate (CHO) flow on the development of constitutive and inducible levels of phenylpropenoids in hybrid poplar (Populus nigra × P. deltoides) foliage to determine if secondary metabolic processes in plant modules can be inhibited in a predictable manner by events such as herbivory and the development of new leaves and reproductive structures, which alter the path of phloem-borne resources. ,,Phenylpropenoid concentrations were determined for developing foliage after CHO flow, measured as the translocation of 13C from labeled sources was manipulated. ,,Phenylpropenoid metabolism in both unwounded and induced sink leaves was directly and positively linked to rates of CHO import. Alterations in rates of translocation yielded different results, depending on how CHO import was affected: the removal of competing sinks rapidly and dramatically increased leaf phenolic contents, whereas phenolic levels (and their inducibility) tended to be reduced when import was interrupted. ,,High and inducible sink strength in developing poplar leaves provides resources for phenolic biosynthesis and, as a result, restrictions or re-directions of CHOs affect the foliar quality. Sink strength and the vascular architecture of plants, which confer upon them a modular nature, can determine the direction and magnitude of defense responses in trees. [source]

Stress generation in the tension wood of poplar is based on the lateral swelling power of the G-layer

Luna Goswami
Summary The mechanism of active stress generation in tension wood is still not fully understood. To characterize the functional interdependency between the G-layer and the secondary cell wall, nanostructural characterization and mechanical tests were performed on native tension wood tissues of poplar (Populus nigra × Populus deltoids) and on tissues in which the G-layer was removed by an enzymatic treatment. In addition to the well-known axial orientation of the cellulose fibrils in the G-layer, it was shown that the microfibril angle of the S2-layer was very large (about 36°). The removal of the G-layer resulted in an axial extension and a tangential contraction of the tissues. The tensile stress,strain curves of native tension wood slices showed a jagged appearance after yield that could not be seen in the enzyme-treated samples. The behaviour of the native tissue was modelled by assuming that cells deform elastically up to a critical strain at which the G-layer slips, causing a drop in stress. The results suggest that tensile stresses in poplar are generated in the living plant by a lateral swelling of the G-layer which forces the surrounding secondary cell wall to contract in the axial direction. [source]

Enzymatic digestibility and pretreatment degradation products of AFEX-treated hardwoods (Populus nigra)

Venkatesh Balan
Abstract There is a growing need to find alternatives to crude oil as the primary feed stock for the chemicals and fuel industry and ethanol has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative. Among the various feed stocks for producing ethanol, poplar (Populus nigra × Populus maximowiczii) is considered to have great potential as a biorefinery feedstock in the United States, due to their widespread availability and good productivity in several parts of the country. We have optimized AFEX pretreatment conditions (180°C, 2:1 ammonia to biomass loading, 233% moisture, 30 minutes residence time) and by using various combinations of enzymes (commercical celluloses and xylanases) to achieve high glucan and xylan conversion (93 and 65%, respectively). We have also identified and quantified several important degradation products formed during AFEX using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). As a part of degradation product analysis, we have also quantified oligosaccharides in the AFEX water wash extracts by acid hydrolysis. It is interesting to note that corn stover (C4 grass) can be pretreated effectively using mild AFEX pretreatment conditions, while on the other hand hardwood poplar requires much harsher AFEX conditions to obtain equivalent sugar yields upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Comparing corn stover and poplar, we conclude that pretreatment severity and enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency are dictated to a large extent by lignin carbohydrate complexes and arabinoxylan cross-linkages for AFEX. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]