Asking Questions (asking + question)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Evaluation of patient opinions in a pharmacy-level intervention study

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY PRACTICE, Issue 3 2003
M. C. M. Pronk PhD researcher
ABSTRACT Objective To explore patients' satisfaction with their community pharmacy's services and to evaluate the effects of an intervention programme in which a trained technician organised patient education activities in the pharmacy. Method We surveyed patients visiting the participating pharmacies at three stages: at the start of the intervention period (0 months, T0), at the end (after 12 months, T1), and 12 months after the intervention had been completed (24 months from baseline, T2). At each stage, 500 questionnaires were distributed by each pharmacy. Setting 28 Dutch community pharmacies: 14 intervention and 14 controls. Key findings The response rates were 54%, 44% and 43% at T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Baseline data showed that patients reported satisfaction with helpfulness, waiting time, ease of asking questions, answers to questions, and patient leaflets provided. Around two thirds (59.5%) of the patients said they would ask a pharmacy employee questions if they were concerned about side effects of their medication. Asking questions was not reported to be difficult for most patients (88.9%). The reasons most often given for experiencing difficulties with asking questions were related to lack of privacy (16.9% of all patients), waiting time of other patients (8.8%) and busy pharmacy employees (6.7%). The most frequently reported reason for being less satisfied with the answers to questions was receiving too little information (7.5%). Our analyses showed a significant improvement only on the outcome variable "helpfulness" experienced by patients between 0 (T0) and 12 months (T1), and this was found to be sustained one year later (T2). Conclusion The overall findings on patient satisfaction showed that almost two-thirds of the respondents saw the pharmacy as a source of information about medication. Community pharmacies clearly have an important role in providing such information. Lack of privacy was the most common reason for patients reporting difficulties in asking questions about medicines and this needs pharmacists' attention. Our analysis showed that the intervention had an effect on "helpfulness" experienced by patients, which slightly increased in the intervention period (T0-T1 differences) and appeared to have remained at the higher level one year later (T2). [source]


Cell fate and timing in the evolution of neural crest and mesoderm development in the head region of amphibians and lungfishes

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
Rolf Ericsson
Abstract Our research on the evolution of head development focuses on understanding the developmental origins of morphological innovations and involves asking questions like: How flexible (or conserved) are cell fates, patterns of cell migration or the timing of developmental events (heterochrony)? How do timing changes, or changes in life history affect head development and growth? Our ,model system' is a comparison between lungfishes and representatives from all three extant groups of amphibians. Within anuran amphibians, major changes in life history such as the repeated evolution of larval specializations (e.g. carnivory), or indeed the loss of a free-swimming larva, allows us to test for developmental constraints. Cell migration and cell fate are conserved in cranial neural crest cells in all vertebrates studied so far. Patterning and developmental anatomy of cranial neural crest and head mesoderm cells are conserved within amphibians and even between birds, mammals and amphibians. However, the specific formation of hypobranchial muscles from ventral somitic processes shows variation within tetrapods. The evolution of carnivorous larvae in terminal taxa is correlated with changes in both pattern and timing of head skeletal and muscle development. Sequence-heterochronic changes are correlated with feeding mode in terminal taxa and with phylogenetic relatedness in basal branches of the phylogeny. Eye muscles seem to form a developmental module that can evolve relatively independently from other head muscles, at least in terms of timing of muscle differentiation. [source]


Prevalence of Migraines in NCAA Division I Male and Female Basketball Players

HEADACHE, Issue 7 2002
Chad M. Kinart MS
Objective.,The purpose of this study was to describe the overall prevalence of migraines within National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's and women's basketball players. In addition, the prevalence of migraines was determined across gender and ethnic groups for the same sample. Background.,Although numerous studies have assessed the prevalence of migraines within the general population, college students, professional groups, industrial/work place settings, and overseas populations, little has been done with athletes. To the best of our knowledge, no study of the incidence of migraines in athletes has been previously conducted. It has also been reported that migraines cause depression, insomnia, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, all of which might hinder athletic performance. Sports medicine clinicians and researchers also agree that migraines in athletes are probably underreported and often misdiagnosed. Methods.,Seven hundred ninety-one Division I men and women basketball players representing 51 colleges and universities were mailed a previously validated survey asking questions about headaches. All surveys were analyzed with a validated diagnostic algorithm consistent with the International Headaches Society's (IHS) criteria for headache diagnosis. Descriptive statistics were used to report the prevalence rate for gender and ethnic groups, as well as the entire sample. Chi-square tests were performed (P = 0.05) to determine if there were any differences in the prevalence of migraines among gender and ethnic groups. Results.,Results showed that 2.9% (n = 23 of 791) of the total sample was classified as having migraines meeting IHS guidelines. In addition, 0.9% (n = 3 of 332) of men and 4.4% (n = 20 of 459) of women were classified as having migraines meeting IHS guidelines. Additionally, results showed that women reported migraines (,2 = 8.140, P = 0.004) more often than men. When comparing the prevalence rates of migraines between ethnic groups, results showed that Caucasians had a rate of 3.3% (n = 14 of 429), whereas African Americans had a rate of 3.1% (n = 9 of 287). There was no significant difference found between ethnic groups in migraine prevalence (,2 = 2.491, P = 0.2888). Conclusions.,In conclusion, it was found that the prevalence of migraines in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's and women's basketball players was generally less than in the general population, that women showed an increased prevalence of migraines when compared with men, and that Caucasians and African Americans did not differ in prevalence of migraines. [source]


Evaluation of patient opinions in a pharmacy-level intervention study

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY PRACTICE, Issue 3 2003
M. C. M. Pronk PhD researcher
ABSTRACT Objective To explore patients' satisfaction with their community pharmacy's services and to evaluate the effects of an intervention programme in which a trained technician organised patient education activities in the pharmacy. Method We surveyed patients visiting the participating pharmacies at three stages: at the start of the intervention period (0 months, T0), at the end (after 12 months, T1), and 12 months after the intervention had been completed (24 months from baseline, T2). At each stage, 500 questionnaires were distributed by each pharmacy. Setting 28 Dutch community pharmacies: 14 intervention and 14 controls. Key findings The response rates were 54%, 44% and 43% at T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Baseline data showed that patients reported satisfaction with helpfulness, waiting time, ease of asking questions, answers to questions, and patient leaflets provided. Around two thirds (59.5%) of the patients said they would ask a pharmacy employee questions if they were concerned about side effects of their medication. Asking questions was not reported to be difficult for most patients (88.9%). The reasons most often given for experiencing difficulties with asking questions were related to lack of privacy (16.9% of all patients), waiting time of other patients (8.8%) and busy pharmacy employees (6.7%). The most frequently reported reason for being less satisfied with the answers to questions was receiving too little information (7.5%). Our analyses showed a significant improvement only on the outcome variable "helpfulness" experienced by patients between 0 (T0) and 12 months (T1), and this was found to be sustained one year later (T2). Conclusion The overall findings on patient satisfaction showed that almost two-thirds of the respondents saw the pharmacy as a source of information about medication. Community pharmacies clearly have an important role in providing such information. Lack of privacy was the most common reason for patients reporting difficulties in asking questions about medicines and this needs pharmacists' attention. Our analysis showed that the intervention had an effect on "helpfulness" experienced by patients, which slightly increased in the intervention period (T0-T1 differences) and appeared to have remained at the higher level one year later (T2). [source]


Using a synthesised technique for grounded theory in nursing research

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 16 2009
Hsiao-Yu Chen
Aims., To introduce a synthesised technique for using grounded theory in nursing research. Background., Nursing increasingly uses grounded theory for a broadened perspective on nursing practice and research. Nurse researchers have choices in how to choose and use grounded theory as a research method. These choices come from a deep understanding of the different versions of grounded theory, including Glaser's classic grounded theory and Strauss and Corbin's later approach. Design., Grounded theory related literature review was conducted. Methods., This is a methodological review paper. Results., Nursing researchers intent on using a grounded theory methodology should pay attention to the theoretical discussions including theoretical sampling, theoretical sensitivity, constant comparative methods and asking questions, keeping memoranda diagramming, identification of a core category and a resultant explanatory theory. A synthesised approach is developed for use, based on Strauss and Corbin's style of sampling and memoranda writing, but selecting theoretical coding families, that differ from the paradigm model of Strauss and Corbin, from the wide range suggested by Glaser. This led to the development of a multi-step synthesised approach to grounded theory data analysis based on the works of Glaser, Charmaz and Strauss and Corbin. Conclusions., The use of this synthesised approach provides a true reflection of Glaser's idea of ,emergence of theory from the data' and Strauss and Corbin's style of sampling and memoranda writing is employed. This multi-step synthesised method of data analysis maintains the philosophical perspective of grounded theory. Relevance to clinical practice., This method indicates how grounded theory has developed, where it might go next in nursing research and how it may continue to evolve. [source]


Anxiety disorders in advanced cancer patients

CANCER, Issue 7 2010
Correlates, predictors of end-of-life outcomes
Abstract BACKGROUND: The authors explored associations between anxiety disorders and advanced cancer patients' physical performance status, physician-patient relationships, end-of-life (EOL) treatment preferences and outcomes, and quality of death. METHODS: The Coping with Cancer study was a National Cancer Institute/National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored, prospective, longitudinal, multicenter cohort study of patients with advanced cancer. Six hundred thirty-five patients completed the anxiety disorders module of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV. The results were compared with patients' baseline physical performance status, treatment preferences, perceptions of the physician-patient relationship, and advance care planning (ACP). RESULTS: Approximately 7.6% of patients met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Patients who were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder were more likely to be women and younger and to have a worse physical performance status. Although there were no significant differences in patients' EOL treatment preferences or care, ACP, hospice enrollment, or patients' location of death, there were significant differences in how patients with anxiety disorders perceived the physician-patient relationship. Patients with anxiety disorders had less trust in their physicians, felt less comfortable asking questions about their health, and felt less likely to understand the clinical information that their physicians presented. They also were more likely to believe that their physicians would offer them futile therapies and would not adequately control their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Women, patients who were more physically impaired, and younger patients with advanced cancer were more likely to meet criteria for an anxiety disorder. Patients with advanced cancer who had an anxiety disorder were more likely to experience greater challenges to the physician-patient relationship. Cancer 2010. 2010 American Cancer Society. [source]