Policy Guidelines (policy + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


A Perspective on Achieving Equality in Mathematics for Fourth Grade Girls: A Special Case

CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 2 2001
Christine G. Renne
How can and do teachers create equal access within everyday classroom lessons and establish opportunities for girls to participate fully? What contexts contribute to equity? In contrast to classrooms where boys receive more attention, encouragement, and content-area instruction, Ms. Jeffreys conducts whole class lessons in her fourth grade classroom where girls participate equally and successfully with boys during mathematics. To ascertain what contributes to the equal participation, I use interactional analysis to closely examine two mathematics lessons. Part of Ms. Jeffreys' success lies in altering normative classroom discourse and in the assertive context created and sustained by the math, science, and technology magnet school setting. However, another layer of complexity is introduced: to teach her students at their instructional level, Ms. Jeffreys groups her students by their ability to pass timed multiplication tests. By instituting a form of tracking, Ms. Jeffreys also legitimates girls as knowledgeable, both socially and academically, by their membership in the top math group. While policy guidelines exhort teachers to provide equal access to curriculum, actually accomplishing a first step of access to participation in the routine day-to-day classroom talk remains extremely difficult. [source]


Application of a checklisting technique for the assessment of impacts of the Chashma Right Bank Canal on land use and cropping pattern of D.I.Khan District, Pakistan,

IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE, Issue 2 2008
Atta-ur-Rahman
utilisation des terres; assolements; impacts Abstract This paper attempts to discover the ex post impact of the Chashma Right Bank Canal (CRBC) on the land use and cropping pattern of D.I.Khan district. The CRBC commands 250,000,ha and is spread over two provinces. The CRBC project was completed in three stages. Stage I was commissioned in 1987,88, and stages II and III in 1989 and 2001, respectively. The CRBC brought radical changes in the land use and cropping pattern of D.I.Khan district. For this study, three variables were selected including land use, cropping pattern and land values. To discover these changes at micro-level, five sample villages were randomly selected, four from within the CRBC command area and one outside. The analysis found that after commissioning of the CRBC, prime cultivable land was brought under non-agricultural use. The net sown area was also enhanced. Dry farming crops were replaced by water-intensive cash crops, which in effect caused the twin problem of waterlogging and salinity, particularly in stage I. Likewise, land values increased considerably. This study is a sort of ex post evaluation of the CRBC and provides policy guidelines for decision makers and for the proposed Chashma Right Bank 1st Lift Irrigation Project not to repeat the weaknesses of Chashma Right Bank Irrigation Project. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Cet article essaie de mesurer l'impact à postériori du canal de rive droite de la Chashma (CRBC) sur l'utilisation des terres et les assolements du District de D.I.Khan. Le CRBC dessert 250,000,ha, répartis sur deux provinces. Le projet du CRBC a été mené à bien en trois étapes. L'étape I a été réalisée en 1987,1988, et les étapes II et III en 1989 et 2001, respectivement. Le CRBC a apporté des changements radicaux à l'utilisation des terres et aux assolements du District de D.I.Khan. Pour cette étude, les trois variables retenues ont été l'utilisation des terres, les assolements et le prix des terres. Pour mettre en évidence ces changements au niveau micro, cinq villages témoin ont été choisis au hasard, quatre dans la zone de desserte du CRBC et un en dehors. L'analyse a montré qu'après la mise en route du CRBC, les meilleures terres cultivables ont cessé d'être utilisées pour l'agriculture. La surface nette emblavée a également augmenté. Les cultures en sec ont été remplacées par des cultures commerciales fortement consommatrices d'eau, ce qui a en fait créé les problèmes jumeaux de l'engorgement et de la salinité, en particulier au cours de l'étape I. De même, les prix des terres se sont considérablement accrus. Cette étude est une sorte d'évaluation à postériori du CRBC, permettant de fournir des directives aux décideurs et de ne pas répéter pour le projet envisagé d'irrigation haut-service en rive droite de la Chashma les faiblesses du premier projet. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Infection control in wound care: a study of fatalism in community nursing

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 1 2000
BNurs, Christine E. Hallett PhD, DNCert, HVCert
,,As part of a study of community nurses' perceptions of quality in nursing care, the author conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with seven community-based nurses. ,,As part of the study, nurses were asked to describe episodes of wound care and to discuss the factors which could affect the quality of such care. ,,One of the most interesting themes to emerge from the data was the apparent ambivalence of the nurses' attitudes towards infection control in wound care. ,,Nurses discussed the concept of ,aseptic technique' in fatalistic terms and seemed uncertain about what could be achieved in terms of infection control. ,,Although their policy guidelines referred to ,aseptic technique', their educational experience appeared to have made them feel uncertain about the implementation of the measures involved. ,,With the proviso that this was a small scale qualitative study, the author concludes by suggesting that there is a need for greater clarity, both in what is taught and in what is included in practice policy with regard to infection control in wound care. [source]


Performance and trade-offs in Microfinance Organisations,Does ownership matter?

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2008
Roy Mersland
Abstract Policy advocates argue for the transformation of non-government Microfinance Organisations (MFOs) into shareholder owned firms (SHFs). This paper investigates whether the proposed superiority of shareholder owned MFOs is empirically supported. The findings indicate that the difference between shareholder owned MFOs and non-government MFOs is minimal. Our results contradict established paradigms and policy guidelines in the industry. However, the results are not necessarily surprising since ownership theories support our findings. So do also studies from the general banking markets as well as historical studies. Adaptation of legal frameworks allowing well-performing NGOs to mobilise savings appears to be a better option than transformation. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


An economic model of self-help groups: policy implications for banks and NGO initiatives

JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Issue 8 2001
Sashi Sivramkrishna
In India, the Self-Help Group (SHG) has emerged as a suitable innovative institution in bringing formal financial sector credit to poor. This article constructs an economic typology of SHGs based on four important economic variables, namely, interest on members' savings paid by the SHG, sharing of SHG surpluses by members, members' claim on exit from the SHG and lending rates charged by the SHG to members. An economic analysis of each type of SHG shows these variables to be important in terms of the members' costs of borrowing and demand for credit. Based on the analysis, some leads for a set of policy guidelines for each type of SHG are presented. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Multiprofessional clinical supervision: challenges for mental health nurses

JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC & MENTAL HEALTH NURSING, Issue 3 2001
K. Mullarkey ma bsc(hons) rn cpncert rnt
Recent reform and developments in mental health care provision have increasingly espoused the value of multiprofessional teamwork in order to ensure that clients are offered co-ordinated packages of care that draw on the full range of appropriate services available (DoH 1999a; DoH 2000). Supervision in some form is seen as a key part of all professional practice to provide support to practitioners, enhance ongoing learning, and, to a greater or lesser degree, offer some protection to the public (Brown & Bourne 1996, UKCC 1996). Clinical supervision has gained increasing momentum within the nursing profession, but to a large extent this has been within a uni-professional framework , nurses supervising other nurses. This paper seeks to explore the ways in which multiprofessional working and clinical supervision interlink, and whether supervision across professional boundaries might be desirable, possible, and/or justifiable. Whilst our own view is that multiprofessional supervision is both possible and desirable, we seek to open up a debate, from our perspective as mental health nurses, about some of the issues related to the concept. Our motivation to explore this topic area emanates from our experiences as supervisors to colleagues within multiprofessional teams, as well as the experiences of those attending supervisor training courses. Following a brief overview of the development of clinical supervision in mental health care and recent policy guidelines, some models of clinical supervision are reviewed in terms of their suitability and applicability for multiprofessional working. [source]


School-Based Obesity Prevention: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations

JOURNAL OF SCHOOL HEALTH, Issue 10 2006
Geraldine M. Budd
Schools represent a logical site for prevention because children spend 6-8 hours a day there during most of the year. Although reports of school-based overweight or obesity prevention programs exist, there are no summaries specifying which interventions are effective in preventing weight gain in the school environment. Researchers generally consider randomized controlled trials to be the most reliable and valid findings; so, naturally they are the best for providing evidence on which to base curriculum and policy guidelines. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of school-based randomized controlled studies intended to prevent increases in schoolchildren's body weight or body mass index. This paper addresses the successes and other positive health outcomes, as well as the limitations of the school-based research. The goal of this paper is to assist school health administrators with curriculum decisions related to overweight or obesity prevention in schools. Following the critique, the challenges of childhood overweight or obesity prevention are discussed, and recommendations for further research, school activities, and policy changes are made. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(10):485-495) [source]


Science,policy guidelines as a benchmark: making the European Water Framework Directive

AREA, Issue 4 2008
Emilie Lagacé
In recent years, a number of governments have made moves towards evidenced-based policymaking justified by the assertions that scientific understanding makes for better-informed and more effective legislative and regulatory decisions. Some of these governments have produced generic, almost step-by-step recipes, for the use of evidence in policymaking in the form of ,science,policy guidelines'. The usefulness of these somewhat linear procedures has not been assessed in the actual process of policymaking. Using as a benchmark the guidelines developed by the European Commission, this paper examines the collection and use of scientific advice in the development of the European Water Framework Directive. [source]


Discretion unbound: Reconciling the Charter and soft law

CANADIAN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION/ADMINISTRATION PUBLIQUE DU CANADA, Issue 4 2002
Lorne Sossin
This study explores the relationship between discretion and the Charter and argues for a broader, more contextual approach to remedying the source of unconstitutional discretion. Guidance as to how to exercise broad discretionary authority comes in the form of "soft law," which encompasses a variety of non-legislative instruments such as policy guidelines and training materials, and which, more informally, extends to administrative culture. Administrative discretion involves choices and judgements usually shaped by a range of legal, bureaucratic, social and personal factors. Under present jurisprudence, the less precise a statutory discretion and the greater the reliance on non-legislative guidelines, the more difficult that discretion will be to subject to constitutional scrutiny. This article challenges this logic and concludes that respect for governmental accountability and the rule of law require bringing soft law out of the constitutional shadows. The first part of the analysis examines the regulation of discretion generally and soft law specifically outside the Charter. The second part analyses the leading case law on the regulation of discretion under the Charter. The third section explores the intersection of discretion, soft law and the Charter. Finally, the fourth section considers the problem of remedying unconstitutional exercises of discretionary authority. Alternative principles are suggested for the development and application of soft law, which envisions a central role for the Charter in rendering the discretionary decision-making process more accountable and just. A version of this paper was first presented at a workshop for the Twenty Years Under the Charter Conference, Association of Canadian Studies, Ottawa, 19 April 2002. The author is associate professor, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto. He is grateful to those who participated in that workshop for their suggestions and comments, as well as to Robert Chamey, David Dyzenhaus, Ian Greene, Nicholas Lambert, Ian Morrison and David Mullan, who commented on an earlier version of this paper. He is also indebted to his colleagues Sujit Choudhry and Kent Roach, who have shared their work on related themes. He would like to thank Laura Pottie and Aaron Delaney for their superb research assistance. He wishes to acknowledge the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, the Faculty of Law, University of Toronto, and the Connaught Foundation for their generous financial support of this research. Finally, he acknowledges the Journal's anonymous reviewers for their comments. [source]


Science,policy guidelines as a benchmark: making the European Water Framework Directive

AREA, Issue 4 2008
Emilie Lagacé
In recent years, a number of governments have made moves towards evidenced-based policymaking justified by the assertions that scientific understanding makes for better-informed and more effective legislative and regulatory decisions. Some of these governments have produced generic, almost step-by-step recipes, for the use of evidence in policymaking in the form of ,science,policy guidelines'. The usefulness of these somewhat linear procedures has not been assessed in the actual process of policymaking. Using as a benchmark the guidelines developed by the European Commission, this paper examines the collection and use of scientific advice in the development of the European Water Framework Directive. [source]