Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (Polyunsaturat + fatty_acid)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of Trans and Conjugated LC N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Lipid Composition and Abdominal Fat Weight in Rats

T. Okada
ABSTRACT:,Trans and conjugated fatty acids may exhibit either beneficial or detrimental bioactive effects depending on their metabolic properties. This study was conducted to elucidate if isomerization and conjugation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) demonstrate more favorable bioactivity on lipid metabolism compared to unmodified EPA and DHA. The effects of dietary intake of trans and conjugated forms of EPA and DHA on lipid metabolism were evaluated in animal trials and compared to a control group fed soybean oil. None of the experimental diets showed significant differences from the control in terms of body weight; however, the white adipose tissue weight of rodents fed trans DHA, conjugated EPA (CEPA), and conjugated DHA (CDHA) was significantly lower than the control. Triacylglycerol levels in plasma were significantly decreased in groups fed trans DHA (17.2 mg/dL) and CDHA (31.9 mg/dL) relative to the control (51.3 mg/dL). The total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than the control (68.0 mg/dL) in all experimental groups (47.3 to 53.7 mg/dL) except CEPA (58.3 mg/dL). Fatty acid compositions of lipids extracted from rodent livers were influenced by the dietary fatty acid profiles, with all groups showing higher concentrations of stearic acid and lower levels of linoleic acid compared to the control. Rodents fed trans DHA did not have detectable levels of these fatty acid isomers in their livers, suggesting either quick metabolism or a difficulty with bio-absorption. [source]

Effect of n -3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Risk Reduction of Sudden Death

Article first published online: 16 SEP 200
Two recent reports confirm the role ofn -3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption in risk reduction for sudden death. The mechanism likely involves an antiarrhythmic effect, further supporting the role of dietaryn -3 PUFA in maintenance of human health. [source]

Hepatoprotective Activity of Polyherbal Formulation (Normeta®) in Oxidative Stress Induced by Alcohol, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Iron in Rats

Shilpa N. Patere
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of oral treatment with polyherbal formulation Normeta® (2 ml and 4 ml/kg) on hepatic damage induced by alcohol 10,30% (blood alcohol was maintained at levels between 150 and 350 mg/dl), thermally oxidized oil (polyunsaturated fatty acids) (15% of diet) and carbonyl iron (1.5,2% of diet) for 30 days in rats. In vitro studies with 1, 1-Diphenyl, 2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide and Ferric chloride (Fe+3 ions) showed that Normeta® possesses antioxidant and metal chelating activity. Alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron feeding produced an increase in serum levels of iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and decrease in serum proteins. It was also associated with elevated lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and disruption of antioxidant defence mechanism in liver, decreased body weight and increased liver to body weight ratio. Oral administration of Normeta® along with alcohol, polyunsaturated fatty acids and iron decreased the serum iron, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase levels and increased serum protein levels. The levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased. Improvement in body weight and liver to body weight ratio was also observed. The effects of Normeta® on physico-metabolic parameters were comparable with silymarin. This indicates that Normeta® has favourable effect in bringing down the severity of hepatotoxicity. [source]

Interacting effects of dietary lipid level and temperature on growth, body composition and fatty acid profile of rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton)

K. Mishra
Abstract Three isonitrogenous (320 g kg,1 crude protein, casein and gelatine) semi-purified diets with 80 (L8), 130 (L13) and 180 (L18) g kg,1 lipid (sunflower oil at increasing levels and cod liver oil fixed at 50 g kg,1) at three digestible energy levels (12 096, 13 986 and 15 876 kJ kg,1 dry weight) and were tested, in triplicate, on rohu fingerlings (3.2 ± 0.08 g) at two different temperatures (21 and 32 °C). Fish were fed to apparent satiation, twice daily, at 09.00 and 15.00 h, 7 days a week for 56 days. Maximum growth was obtained at a lipid level of 80 g kg,1 (L8) at 21 °C (439.37%) and 130 g kg,1 (L13) at 32 °C (481.8%). In general growth rate was higher at 32 °C than at 21 °C at all lipid levels. Tissue monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) contents decreased with increasing lipid level at 32 °C, but the reverse occurred at 21 °C. At 21 °C, Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) level increased significantly (P > 0.05) over initial values, but was affected insignificantly by dietary lipid level. At 32 °C, fish fed diet L13 had more n-3 fatty acid (FA) in liver and muscle than the other two dietary groups while at 21 °C, both liver and muscle FA profiles exhibited significant change (P > 0.05) in n-3 and n-6 FA content which corresponded to variation in percent addition of dietary lipid. However, n-3/n-6 ratio was higher for fish fed diet L13 at 32 °C and diet L8 at 21 °C and may be correlated with fish growth. [source]

Local application of n,3 or n,6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of human experimental gingivitis

Jörg Eberhard
Abstract Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids have the potential to attenuate inflammation by the synthesis of mediators of the 15-lipoxygenase pathways, which show opposite effects to the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Aims: The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effects of topical application of n,6 or n,6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with experimental gingivitis. Methods: In each subject, similar teeth served as experimental and control over a 21-day non-hygiene phase and a 9-day resolving phase. Efficacy assessment was based on the bleeding on probing frequency (BOP) and the gingivocrevicular fluid volume (GCF). GCF was determined by inserting a filter paper strip for 30 s and measurements were performed on a Periotron 8000. The LTB4 concentration was analyzed by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results: After 21 days of plaque growth, the BOP, GCF and LTB4 levels were significantly increased in all groups, with no differences between the control and experimental side. Rinsing of an area with established gingivitis for a 9-day period significantly reduced the GCF in the n,6 group (71.9 (18.7) versus 47.4 (11.4) Periotron Units, median (inter quartile range)). Conclusion: The topical application of n,6 or n,6 fatty acids failed to inhibit the development of experimental gingivitis. Rinsing with n,6 fatty acids could reduce the level of GCF in established experimental gingivitis. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: Vielfach ungesättigte Fettsäuren haben das Potential, die Entzündung durch die Synthese von Mediatoren des 15-Lipoxygenaseweges zu behindern. Dies zeigt Gegeneffekte zu den pro-inflammatorischen Arachnoidonsäuremetaboliten wie Leukotrien B4 (LTB4). Ziele: Das Ziel dieser klinischen Studie war die Überprüfung des Effektes einer topischen Applikation von n,3 oder n,6 vielfach ungesättigten Fettsäuren bie Patienten mit experimenteller Gingivitis. Methoden: Bei jeder Person dienten ähnliche Zähne als Experiment und Kontrollen über eine 21tägige Nichthygiene-Phase und einer 9tägigen Erholungsphase. Wirksamkeitsmessungen basierten auf der Häufigkeit von Provokationsblutung (BOP) und dem Volumen der gingivalen krevikulären Flüssigkeit (GCF). GCF wurde durch Einbringen von Filterpapierstreifen für 30 Sekunden bestimmt. Die Messungen wurden mit einen Periotron 8000 durchgeführt. Die LTB4 Konzentration wurde mit der Umkehrphasen-Hochdruck-Flüssigkeitschromatographie analysiert. Ergebnisse: Nach 21 Tagen des Plaquewachstums waren die Level für BOP, GCF und LTB4 in allen Gruppen signifikant erhöht, ohne Differenzen zwischen den Kontrollen und den experimentellen Flächen. Die Spülung eines Gebietes mit etablierter Gingivitis für eine 9tägige Periode reduzierte die GCF in der n,6 Gruppe signifikant (71.9 (18.7) versus 47.4 (11.4) Peritron-Einheiten, Median (Zwischenquartilstreuung)). Zusammenfassung: Die topische Applikation von n,3 oder n,6 Fettsäuren verhindert die Entwicklung einer experimentellen Gingivitis nicht. Die Spülung mit n,6 Fettsäure konnte den Level der GCF bei einer bestehenden experimentellen Gingivitis reduzieren. Résumé Origine: Les acides gras poly-insaturés ont le potentiel d'atténuer l'inflammation en synthétisant des médiateurs des voies de la lipoxygénase 15 qui montrent des effets opposés aux métabolites de l'acide arachidonique pro-inflammatoire comme la leucotriène B4 (LTB4). But: Le but de cette étude clinique a été d'évaluer les effets de l'application topique d'acide gras poly-insaturés n,3 ou n,6 chez des patients effectuant d'une gingivite expérimentale. Méthodes: Chez chaque sujet, des dents semblables ont servi de sites tests et contrôles durant une phase sans hygiène buccale de 21 jours et une phase de retour à la normale de 9 jours. L'efficacité a été mesurée sur base de la fréquence du saignement au sondage (BOP) et le volume de fluide gingivale (GCF). Le GCF a été déterminé en insérant des papiers filtres pendant 30 s et les mesures ont été lues à l'aide du Périotron 8000. La concentration de LTB4 a été analysée par chromotographie liquide à haute pression à phrase arrière. Résultats: Après 21 jours d'accumulation de plaque dentaire les niveaux de BOP, GCF et LTB4 ont augmenté significativement dans tous les groupes sans aucune différence entre les sites tests et contrôles. Le rinçage d'une zone avec gingivite établie durant une période de 9 journées diminuait les GCF dans le groupe n,6 (unités du Péritron 72 (médian 19) versus 47 (11)). Conclusion: L'application topique d'acide gras n,3 ou n,6 ne permettait pas d'inhiber le développement de la gingivite expérimentale. Le rinçage avec des acides gras n,6 pouvait réduire le niveau de GCF dans la gingivite expérimentale établie. [source]

The potential interactions between polyunsaturated fatty acids and colonic inflammatory processes

S C. Mills
Summary n- 3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are recognized as having an anti-inflammatory effect, which is initiated and propagated via a number of mechanisms involving the cells of the immune system. These include: eicosanoid profiles, membrane fluidity and lipid rafts, signal transduction, gene expression and antigen presentation. The wide-range of mechanisms of action of n- 3 PUFAs offer a number of potential therapeutic tools with which to treat inflammatory diseases. In this review we discuss the molecular, animal model and clinical evidence for manipulation of the immune profile by n- 3 PUFAs with respect to inflammatory bowel disease. In addition to providing a potential therapy for inflammatory bowel disease there is also recent evidence that abnormalities in fatty acid profiles, both in the plasma phospholipid membrane and in perinodal adipose tissue, may be a key component in the multi-factorial aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Such abnormalities are likely to be the result of a genetic susceptibility to the changing ratios of n- 3 : n- 6 fatty acids in the western diet. Evidence that the fatty acid components of perinodal adipose are fuelling the pro- or anti-inflammatory bias of the immune response is also reviewed. [source]