Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Polysaccharides

  • capsular polysaccharide
  • cell wall polysaccharide
  • extracellular polysaccharide
  • natural polysaccharide
  • neutral polysaccharide
  • non-starch polysaccharide
  • o-chain polysaccharide
  • o-specific polysaccharide
  • pectic polysaccharide
  • plant polysaccharide
  • sulfated polysaccharide
  • sulphated polysaccharide
  • wall polysaccharide
  • water-soluble polysaccharide

  • Terms modified by Polysaccharides

  • polysaccharide antigen
  • polysaccharide biosynthesis
  • polysaccharide capsule
  • polysaccharide component
  • polysaccharide derivative
  • polysaccharide fraction
  • polysaccharide isolated
  • polysaccharide production
  • polysaccharide storage myopathy
  • polysaccharide structure
  • polysaccharide vaccine

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT A water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) was isolated from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat. The chemical compositions, molecular weight and inhibitory activities on glycosidase and antioxidant properties of IOPS were investigated. The results indicated that IOPS was an acid protein-bound polysaccharide, with a molecular weight of 1.7 × 104 Da and the contents of neutral sugar, protein and uronic acids being 42.5, 18.5 and 6.1%, respectively. IOPS exhibited an inhibitory activity against ,-glucosidase with the IC50 value of 93.3 µg/mL, whereas it had no effective inhibition on ,-amylase. Results of antioxidant activity assays revealed that IOPS had inhibitory activity on the concentration-dependent quenching of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, IOPS inhibited the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver tissue. These results clearly demonstrated that IOPS was one of the main bioactive components of I. obliquus that contributed to hypoglycemic activity and antioxidant activity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Diabetes mellitus is one of the primary threats to human health because of its increasing prevalence, chronic course and disabling complications. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and complications associated with the disease. One therapeutic approach to decrease postprandial hyperglycemia is to retard the absorption of glucose through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes in the digestive organs. In this study, a polysaccharide isolated from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) was shown to have notable glycosidase inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities. This research will benefit for the investigation of effective and safe ,-glucosidase inhibitors from natural materials. IOPS could be a good candidate for application in food and medicinal fields. It might be developed for functional food or lead compounds for use in antidiabetes. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Malcolm Potts
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    Shi-Yan Li
    Although red algae are known to be obligatory photoautotrophs, the red microalga Porphyridium sp. was shown to assimilate and metabolize floridoside. A pulse-chase experiment with [14C]floridoside showed that at the end of a 240-min pulse, 70% of total 14C-uptake by the cells remained in the floridoside fraction. To evaluate the assimilation of floridoside by Porphyridium sp. cells, we exposed Porphyridium sp. not only to [14C]floridoside but also to its constituents, [14C]glycerol and [14C]galactose, as compared with [14C]bicarbonate. The extent of incorporation of [14C] galactose by the Porphyridium sp. cells was insignificant (50,80 dpm·mL,1), whereas uptake of 14C from [14C]glycerol into the algal cells was evident (2.4 × 103 dpm·mL,1) after 60 min of the pulse. The pattern of 14C distribution among the major constituent sugars, xylose, glucose and galactose, of the labeled soluble polysaccharide was dependent on the 14C source. The relative content of [14C]galactose in the soluble polysaccharide was highest (28.8%) for [14C]floridoside-labeled culture and lowest (19.8%) for the [14C]glycerol-labeled culture. Upon incubation of [14C]floridoside with a crude extract of a cell-free system prepared from nonlabeled cells of Porphyridium sp., the label was indeed found to be incorporated into the sulfated polysaccharide. Our results suggested that the carbon metabolic pathway in Porphyridium sp. passes through the low molecular weight photoassimilatory product,floridoside,toward sulfated cell-wall polysaccharide production. [source]


    HB Raghavendran
    SUMMARY 1The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of Sargassum polycystum (sulphated polysaccharide) extract against paracetamol-induced DNA strand breaks and modulation of membrane-bound phosphatases, protein thiols and inorganic cations during toxic hepatitis. 2Seaweed extract (200 mg/kg per day for 21 days) was administered to male Wistar rats against paracetamol challenge. Serum and liver tissues were used to assess levels of ATPase, protein thiols and inorganic cations using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The fragmentation of DNA was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. 3Paracetamol induced intracellular stress, accompanied by changes in the structural and functional characteristics of liver cell membranes, which affected DNA integrity, membrane-bound ATPase and inorganic cations homeostasis. Rats intoxicated with paracetamol (800 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant impairment in activities of total ATPase, Mg2+ -ATPase, Ca+ -ATPase and Na+/K+ -ATPase, with concomitant changes in the levels of tissue protein thiols and inorganic cations, such as Na+, K+ and Ca2+. These changes were prevented in animals pretreated with S. polycystum extract, which indicates that S. polycystum supplementation could exert some protective effect against paracetamol-induced toxic hepatitis in rats. 4The protective effect of the seaweed extract may be due to the presence of sulphated compounds that have free radical-scavenging activity. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    Ana Otero
    Many species of the filamentous N2 -fixing heterocyst-forming Cyanobacteria of the genus Nostoc produce large amounts of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), but hitherto no general model has been proposed of the factors that control their synthesis. Previously, we demonstrated a strong correlation between the presence of a glycocalyx (or EPS capsule) and diazotrophic growth in the genus Nostoc. When grown with nitrate, nude morphotypes lacking a glycocalyx were obtained for all the capsulated strains tested. CO2 availability was pro-posed as a key factor that controls the synthesis of the capsule. To test this hypothesis, Nostoc PCC 7936 was cultured diazotrophically (N2) or with nitrate with different CO2 supplies. By tuning the pH and the supply of CO2, capsulated or nude mor-photypes were obtained irrespective of the source of nitrogen. Exocellular polysaccharides were synthesized only when the fixed carbon exceeded the amount of nitrogen available. The glycocalyx is not needed for the optimal functioning of nitrogenase because diazotrophic cultures grew equally well, irrespective of whether they were capsulated or nude. Capsulated cultures possessed protein to carbohydrate ratios that ranged between 1 and 1.5, whereas in nude cultures the ratio ranged between 2 and 2.5. Low protein to carbohydrate ratios were indicative for either nitrogen-limited or carbon-oversaturated cultures. The results demonstrate that in Nostoc EPS serve as a sink for the excess fixed carbon under unbalanced C/N metabolism. [source]

    Structural Studies of the O-Chain Polysaccharide from Plesiomonas shigelloides Strain 302,73 (Serotype O1)

    Giuseppina Pieretti
    Abstract Plesiomonas shigelloides is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It has been found in an aquatic environment in the tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for many gastrointestinal infections in humans, which take place from drinking untreated water or eating uncooked shellfish. Plesiomonas shigelloides has also been reported to provoke extraintestinal infections such as meningitis and bacteremia in immunocompromised adults and neonates. Despite the emerging importance of this pathogenic microorganism, only three different O-antigens have been characterised so far. The structure of the O-chain of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Plesiomonasshigelloides strain 302,73 (serotype O1) was determined by chemical analysis, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The polysaccharide was constituted by a linear pentasaccharidic repeating unit as follows: ,3)-,- L -PneNAc4OAc(1,4)-,- L -FucNAc(1,4)-,- L -FucNAc(1,4)-,- L -FucNAc(1,3)-,- D -QuiNAc4NHb(1, (PneNAc = 2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-talose, Hb = (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl) PneNAc O -acetylation was not stoichiometric and was found to be about 75,%. The position of the O -acetyl group and the amount of acetylation were deduced by NMR spectroscopic analysis. All the monosaccharides included in the repeating unit were deoxyamino sugars, which most probably, together with the presence of O -acetyl groups, were responsible for the recovery of the LPS in the phenol layer of the phenol/water extract of dried bacteria cells.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Structural Determination of the O-Chain Polysaccharide from the Lipopolysaccharide of the Haloalkaliphilic Halomonas pantelleriensis Bacterium,

    M. Michela Corsaro
    Abstract The structural determination of the O-chain repeating unit of the lipopolysaccharide from the haloalkaliphilic Halomonas pantelleriensis bacterium is described. The structure of the repeating unit was suggested on the basis of chemical analysis and NMR and MS data. The 4- O -[(S)-1-carboxyethyl]- D -GlcA residue has been found for the first time in a lipopolysaccharide, being previously only found in capsular polysaccharides. A comparison of the O-chain structures of Halomonas magadiensis and H. pantelleriensis is also reported. The results show that both bacteria present lipopolysaccharides containing a high number of carboxylate groups whose salification might determine a protective buffer effect on bacterium against extreme life conditions. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Structural Determination of a Novel O-Chain Polysaccharide of the Lipopolysaccharide from the Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni

    Antonio Molinaro
    Abstract In this paper, we report the structure of the O-specific polysaccharide of the LPS fraction of the strain type NCPPB416 of X. campestris pv. pruni. It is built up of three different monosaccharides , glucose, rhamnose and xylose , in an intricate block-wise polymer. Herein, the primary structure is elucidated by means of chemical degradation and 2D NMR spectroscopy. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]

    The emulsifying properties of a polysaccharide isolated from the fruit of Cordia abyssinica

    Mudadi Albert Nhamoiesu Benhura
    Summary Polysaccharide was isolated from Cordia abyssinica and its effect, at differing concentrations, on its emulsifying ability was determined. Emulsions of vegetable oil containing up to 1% of the polysaccharide in phosphate pH 7.4 buffer, were prepared by using a hand piston homogenizer. Emulsification was assessed by diluting samples of the emulsions in sodium dodecyl sulphate and measuring absorbance at 500 nm. Addition of increasing concentrations of the polysaccharide up to 1% enhanced emulsification and emulsion stability. Above 1% concentration the polysaccharide solutions were too viscous for making emulsions conveniently. At a constant concentration of the polysaccharide, addition of up to a 1% concentration of salt enhanced emulsion formation. Further addition of salt above 1% resulted in no further changes in emulsifying ability, but the stability of the emulsions formed decreased on increasing the concentration of salt above 1%. The effect of pH on emulsifying ability was investigated by preparing emulsions using buffers of different pH, from pH 3 to pH 13. The polysaccharide had poor emulsifying ability below pH 7. Emulsifying ability increased with pH between pH 7 and 11. At pH above 11 there was a decrease in emulsifying ability. [source]

    Polysaccharide-based artificial extracellular matrix: Preparation and characterization of three-dimensional, macroporous chitosan, and heparin composite scaffold

    Shu-Huei Yu
    Abstract Scaffold-guided tissue engineering based on synthetic and natural occurring polymers has gained many interests in recent year. In this study, the development of a chitosan-heparin artificial extracellular matrix (AECM) is reported. Three-dimensional, macroporous composite AECMs composed of heparin (Hep) and chitosan (Chito) were prepared by an interpolyelectrolyte complex/lyophilization method. The Chito-Hep composite AECMs were, respectively, crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, as well as cocrosslinked with N,N -(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- N,-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC/NHS) and N -hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The crosslinking reactions were examined by FT-IR analysis. In physiological buffer solution (PBS), the EDC/NHS-crosslinked Chito-Hep composite AECM showed a relative lower water retention ratio than its glutaraldehyde-crosslinked counterparts. The EDC/NHS-crosslinked Chito-Hep composite AECMs showed excellent biocompatibility, according to the results of the in vitro cytotoxic test. This result suggested that the EDC/NHS-crosslinked Chito-Hep composite AECMs might be a potential biomaterial for scaffold-guided tissue engineering applications. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Study on the Kinetics for Enzymatic Degradation of a Natural Polysaccharide, Konjac Glucomannan

    Guangji Li
    Abstract The enzymatic degradation of konjac glucomannan (KGM) was conducted using ,-mannanase from an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. in the aqueous medium (pH 9.0) at 30°C. The intrinsic viscosity ([,]), molecular weight (Mw) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the degraded KGM were measured. The mathematical relation between [,] and Mw, [,] = 5.06 × 10,4Mw0.754, was established. The kinetic analysis reveals a dependence of the rate constant (k) on the period of reaction and the initial substrate concentration (c0) over the range of substrate concentration (1.0,2.0%) used in this work. The results indicate that the enzymatic degradation of KGM is a complex reaction combining two reaction processes with different orders. In the initial phase of degradation k is inversely proportional to c0, which is characteristic of a zeroth-order reaction; while in the following phase k is independent of c0, implying the degradation follows a first-order reaction. The reactivity difference in breakable linkages of KGM, the action mechanism of an enzyme on KGM macromolecules, and the theory concerning the formation of an enzyme-substrate complex and ,substrate saturation' can be used to explain such a kinetic behavior. In addition, the enzymatic degradation of KGM was also carried out using the other enzymes like ,-mannanase from a Norcardioform actinomycetes, ,-glucanase Finizym and a compound enzyme Hemicell as a biocatalyst. By comparing and analyzing the degradation processes of KGM catalyzed by four different enzymes, it can be observed that there is a two-stage reaction with two distinct kinetic regimes over a certain range of degradation time for each of the degradation processes. These results are useful to realize controllable degradation of polysaccharides via an environmental benign process. [source]

    A Polysaccharide-Based Container Transportation System Powered by Molecular Motors,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 4 2010
    Youichi Tsuchiya Dr.
    Molekularer Güterzug: Polysaccharide (,-1,3-Glucane) können verschiedene Nanomaterialien einschließen (z.,B. einwandige Kohlenstoffnanoröhren) und entlang einer Schiene (F-Actin) transportieren, wobei anhängende Myosin-Einheiten als Räder und molekulare Motoren wirken (siehe Bild). Dieses künstliche System hat ein Transportsystem zum Vorbild, das auf der Bewegung von Vesikeln in biologischen Zellen beruht. [source]

    Synthesis of Structures Corresponding to the Capsular Polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis Group A.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 4 2006
    Rikard Slaettegaard
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Synthesis of the Trisaccharide Repeating Unit of the Atypical O-Antigen Polysaccharide from Danish Helicobacter pylori Strains Employing the 2,-Carboxybenzyl Glycoside.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 7 2005
    Yong Tae Kwon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    An Expedient Synthesis of the Repeating Unit of the Acidic Polysaccharide of the Bacteriolytic Complex of Lysoamidase,

    Remy E. J. N. Litjens
    Abstract The first synthesis of the trisaccharide repeating unit of the acidic polysaccharide of the bacteriolytic complex of lysoamidase is presented. The construction is based on a linear glycosylation strategy that starts from the reducing end and employs thio- and selenoglycosides in a highly stereoselective manner by a single set of activation conditions. The thus-formed trisaccharide is selectively deprotected and oxidised, after which a final deprotection step furnishes the desired repeating unit. [source]

    Structure of an Extracellular Polysaccharide from a Strain of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Xiao-Mei Gu
    Abstract A new extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-I) isolated and purified from Z222, a strain of Lactic acid bacteria has been investigated. Sugar composition analysis, methylation analysis and 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy reveal that the EPS-I is composed of a pentasaccharide repeating unit. The sequence of sugar residue was determined by using two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, including heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) and nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY). [source]

    Fluorous "racemic" mixture synthesis: Polysaccharide-based chiral columns for simultaneous demix and enantioseparation of racemic fluorous tagged compounds

    CHIRALITY, Issue 3-4 2008
    Takayuki Tonoi
    Abstract The proof of concept experiments of fluorous "racemic" mixture synthesis (FRMS) is shown using polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases. The mixture of racemic O -benzoylmandelate derivatives bearing different lengths of fluorous cleavable tags undergoes sequential reactions to provide individual derivatives as well as their enantiomers resolved on polysaccharide-based chiral HPLC columns (DAICEL CHIRALCEL® and CHIRALPAK® series). Chirality, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hydrophilic Polymers with Potassium Salt and Microporous Polysaccharides for Use as Hemostatic Agents

    BACKGROUND Postoperative bleeding can lead to complications such as hematoma, infection, dehiscence, and an unscheduled office visit. Topical hemostatic agents can be used to aid in hemostasis. OBJECTIVE The objective is to familiarize physicians with topical hemostatic agents,hydrophilic polymers with potassium salts (Urgent QR powder) and microporous polysaccharide hemispheres (Bleed-X). METHODS Two hemostatic agents, microporous polysaccharide hemospheres and hydrophilic polymers with potassium salt, are discussed. The literature is reviewed. RESULTS Numerous types of hemostatic agents exist. Topical hemostatic agents are safe, cost-effective, and efficient. CONCLUSION Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres and hydrophilic polymers with potassium salts can be an adjunct to hemostasis after cautery and ligation. Patients can apply hemostatic agents if they experience any bleeding leading to decreased office visits. Hemostatic agents used intraoperatively shorten bleeding time and enable the physician to use less cautery. Using hemostatic agents can lead to fewer hematomas, infections, and office visits. [source]

    In-Film Bioprocessing and Immunoanalysis with Electroaddressable Stimuli-Responsive Polysaccharides

    Xiaohua Yang
    Abstract Advances in thin-film fabrication are integral to enhancing the power of microelectronics while fabrication methods that allow the integration of biological molecules are enabling advances in bioelectronics. A thin-film-fabrication method that further extends the integration of biology with microelectronics by allowing living biological systems to be assembled, cultured, and analyzed on-chip with the aid of localized electrical signals is described. Specifically, the blending of two stimuli-responsive film-forming polysaccharides for electroaddressing is reported. The first, alginate, can electrodeposit by undergoing a localized sol,gel transition in response to electrode-imposed anodic signals. The second, agarose, can be co-deposited with alginate and forms a gel upon a temperature reduction. Electrodeposition of this dual polysaccharide network is observed to be a simple, rapid, and spatially selective means for assembly. The bioprocessing capabilities are examined by co-depositing a yeast clone engineered to display a variable lymphocyte receptor protein on the cell surface. Results demonstrate the in-film expansion and induction of this cell population. Analysis of the cells' surface proteins is achieved by the electrophoretic delivery of immunoreagents into the film. These results demonstrate a simple and benign means to electroaddress hydrogel films for in-film bioprocessing and immunoanalysis. [source]

    Engineering Nanoassemblies of Polysaccharides

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 28 2010
    Soheil Boddohi
    Abstract Polysaccharides offer a wealth of biochemical and biomechanical functionality that can be used to develop new biomaterials. In mammalian tissues, polysaccharides often exhibit a hierarchy of structure, which includes assembly at the nanometer length scale. Furthermore, their biochemical function is determined by their nanoscale organization. These biological nanostructures provide the inspiration for developing techniques to tune the assembly of polysaccharides at the nanoscale. These new polysaccharide nanostructures are being used for the stabilization and delivery of drugs, proteins, and genes, the engineering of cells and tissues, and as new platforms on which to study biochemistry. In biological systems polysaccharide nanostructures are assembled via bottom-up processes. Many biologically derived polysaccharides behave as polyelectrolytes, and their polyelectrolyte nature can be used to tune their bottom-up assembly. New techniques designed to tune the structure and composition of polysaccharides at the nanoscale are enabling researchers to study in detail the emergent biological properties that arise from the nanoassembly of these important biological macromolecules. [source]

    Dispatches from the Last Frontier of Molecular and Cell Biology: Biosynthesis of Polysaccharides and Proteoglycans of the Cell Surface and Extracellular Matrix

    IUBMB LIFE, Issue 4 2002
    Bruce Stone
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Addition of Soluble Soybean Polysaccharides to Dairy Products as a Source of Dietary Fiber

    Wenpu Chen
    Abstract:, Increasing consumption of dietary fiber in food leads to many important health benefits: for example, reduction in blood cholesterol, reduced risk of diabetes, and improved laxation. Water soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS) is a dietary fiber extracted and refined from okara, a byproduct of soy manufacturing. It was incorporated into 3 categories of dairy-based products, thickened milkshake-style beverages, puddings, and low-fat ice cream, to the maximum amount without over-texturing the food. Rheological measurements and sensory tests were used to develop desirable SSPS-fortified products. From the rheological data, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverages and 4% SSPS -fortified puddings were in the range of commercial products. From sensory analyses, 4% SSPS-fortified dairy beverage with 0.015%,,carrageenan, 4% SSPS-fortified pudding with 0.1%,,carrageenan, and 2% SSPS-fortified low-fat ice cream gained the highest scores in consumer hedonic rating. Panelists also indicated their willingness to consume those products if they were available commercially. Practical Application:, Since the dietary fiber intake of many people is below their suggested adequate intake values, strategies to successfully fortify foods with fiber may help alleviate this gap. We have developed 3 dairy products, a beverage, a pudding, and a low-fat ice cream, that have been fortified with soluble soybean polysaccharide at levels of 4%, 4%, and 2%, respectively. These products were within acceptable ranges of rheological parameters and other physical stability measurements and were judged to be acceptable by sensory analyses. [source]

    Characterization of Phase Separation Behavior, Emulsion Stability, Rheology, and Microstructure of Egg White,Polysaccharide Mixtures

    E. Alben Erçelebi
    ABSTRACT:, Phase separation behavior of egg white-pectin/guar gum mixtures was investigated. These systems led to phase separation arisen by either depletion flocculation or thermodynamic incompatibility. The influence of polysaccharides on the emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsifying stability index (ESI), creaming stability, microstructure, and rheological properties was also studied at different polysaccharide concentrations (0% to 0.5%, [w/v]). Increasing pectin and guar gum concentration from 0.01% to 0.5% significantly improved EAI by 51% and 25%, respectively. The highest ESI and EAI values were obtained in the presence of 0.5% (w/v) pectin/guar gum. Microscopic images showed that emulsions containing polysaccharides had small droplets as compared to that of emulsions without polysaccharides. The addition of polysaccharides improved emulsion stability against creaming. Egg white-stabilized emulsions with and without polysaccharides reflect the pseudoplastic behavior with,n,< 1.0. Polysaccharides, especially at high concentrations, affected the viscoelastic behavior of the emulsions; storage (G,) and loss modulus (G,) crossed-over at lower frequency values as compared to that of emulsions containing no polysaccharide. [source]

    Improved Anti-Inflammatory Properties for Naproxen with Cyclodextrin-Grafted Polysaccharides,

    Héctor L. Ramírez
    Abstract Summary: Mannan and carboxymethylcellulose, previously activated by periodate oxidation, were grafted with mono-6-butylenediamino-6-deoxy- , -cyclodextrin derivatives by reductive alkylation in the presence of sodium borohydride. The formation of supramolecular complexes between these polymers and Naproxen was confirmed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The solubility of the drug was 3.8,4.6 fold increased in the presence of the cyclodextrin-grafted polysaccharides. The in vivo anti-inflammatory property of Naproxen was 1.7 times higher after supramolecular association with , -cyclodextrin-branched mannan. [source]

    Interpolymer Complexes of Water-Soluble Nonionic Polysaccharides with Polycarboxylic Acids and Their Applications

    Zauresh S. Nurkeeva
    Abstract Literature data as well as our own experimental results devoted to the complexation of polycarboxylic acids with various water-soluble polysaccharides (methylcellulose, hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, starch, and dextran) by means of hydrogen bonding are systematized and analyzed. The specific peculiarities of interpolymer complexes based on polysaccharides-polycarboxylic acids are demonstrated. The perspectives for the application of these interpolymer complexes are considered. It was shown that these materials possess good biocompatibility and adhesive properties. The promising directions for further study of interpolymer complexes between polycarboxylic acids and nonionic polysaccharides as well as existing gaps in the knowledge in this field are pointed out. Formation of compact IPCs and hydrophilic interpolymer associates. [source]

    Sulphated Polysaccharides: New Insight in the Prevention of Cyclosporine A-Induced Glomerular Injury

    Anthony Josephine
    Nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporine A continues to be a major problem despite its potent immunosuppressive action. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were categorized into four groups. Two groups (II and IV) were administered cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg body weight, orally) for 21 days, in which Group IV rats were also treated simultaneously with sulphated polysaccharides (5 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously) for the same period. A significant loss in body weight was noted in the cyclosporine A-induced rats. Renal damage was assessed in terms of decreased creatinine clearance and increased activity of lysosomal enzymes. The levels of glycoproteins were found to be decreased in the renal tissue, and a noticeable rise in glycosaminoglycanuria coupled with marked proteinuria was more prominent in the cyclosporine A-induced animals. Furthermore, the extent of kidney damage was assessed by histopathological findings. Toxic manifestations were also confirmed by transmission electron microscopic studies. These morphological abnormalities and other alterations in the renal tissue were significantly offset by sulphated polysaccharides supplementation. These findings underline that restoration of normal cells accredits sulphated polysaccharides, from Sargassum wightii, with nephroprotective role, against cyclosporine A-induced renal injury. [source]

    Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Branched Oligo- and Polysaccharides as Potential Substrates for Starch Active Enzymes.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 9 2004
    Lionel Greffe
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Tuneable Mesoporous Materials from ,- D -Polysaccharides

    Holey starch! Mesoporous materials with tuneable characteristics have been prepared from biomass-derived ,- D -polysaccharides by a microwave-assisted strategy. Careful selection of the preparation temperature allows control of the crystallinity, particle morphology and textural properties of the resulting materials, leading to surface areas approaching 200,m2,g,1 and mesopore volumes over 0.6,cm3,g,1. [source]

    Effectiveness of Microporous Polysaccharide Hemospheres for Achieving Hemostasis in Mohs Micrographic Surgery

    FRCPC, Stephen R. Tan MD
    Background. Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres consist of controlled-porosity spherical particles manufactured from bioinert plant polysaccharide. Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres facilitate hemostasis by rapidly absorbing the fluid component of blood, concentrating platelets and clotting factors to accelerate blood clotting. Objective. The objective was to compare a microporous polysaccharide hemosphere bandage and electrocautery in achieving hemostasis. Methods. Twenty-four patients with a total of 48 stages of Mohs micrographic surgery were included. Patients were stratified by whether or not they were taking anticoagulant medications. Within each group, patients were randomized to receive either the microporous polysaccharide hemosphere bandage or electrocautery. Outcomes included bleeding through the dressing (early time point) and active bleeding upon dressing removal (late time point). Results. Nineteen patients not taking anticoagulants had 40 stages, of which 18 received the study bandage and 22 received electrocautery. The remaining 5 patients on anticoagulants had 8 stages, of which 4 received the study bandage and 4 received electrocautery. In both total and subgroup analysis, there was a higher incidence of bleeding through the dressing with the study bandage (p<0.05), but no increase in the incidence of active bleeding upon dressing removal (p>0.05). Conclusion. The microporous polysaccharide hemosphere study bandage had an increased incidence of bleeding through the dressing compared to electrocautery, but did not have an increased incidence of active bleeding upon dressing removal. [source]

    Computer-assisted 2-D agarose electrophoresis of Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis vaccines and analysis of polydisperse particle populations in the size range of viruses: A review

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 4 2007
    Dietmar Tietz Dr.
    Abstract When protein,polysaccharide conjugated vaccines were first developed for the immunization of small children against meningitis caused by infection with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), the vaccine preparations varied in immunogenicity. Testing for immunogenicity was time-consuming and alternative analytical procedures for determining vaccine quality were unsatisfactory. For example, due to the very high molecular weight of the vaccine particles, immunogens could only be physically characterized as a fraction in the void volume of Sepharose gel filtration. In search of better analytical methods, a computer-assisted electrophoretic technique for analyzing such vaccines was developed in the period from 1983 to 1995. This new approach made it possible to analyze highly negatively charged particles as large as or larger than intact viruses. 2-D gel patterns were generated that varied depending on the conditions of the particular vaccine preparation and were therefore characteristic of each vaccine sample. Thus, vaccine particle populations with a continuous size variation over a wide range (polydisperse) could be characterized according to size and free mobility (related to particle surface net charge density). These advances are reviewed in this article, since the developed methods are still a promising tool for vaccine quality control and for predicting immunogen effectiveness in the production of vaccines. The technique is potentially beneficial for Hib immunogens and other high-molecular-mass vaccines. Additional biomedical applications for this nondenaturing electrophoretic technique are briefly discussed and detailed information about computational and mathematical procedures and theoretical aspects is provided in the Appendices. [source]