Polyphenolic Extracts (polyphenolic + extract)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Stability of Copigmented Anthocyanins and Ascorbic Acid in Muscadine Grape Juice Processed by High Hydrostatic Pressure

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
D. Del Pozo-Insfran
ABSTRACT:, Intermolecular copigmentation is one of the mechanisms of stabilization of anthocyanins in nature and is also responsible for the characteristic color and stability of aged red wines. In the present study, the effect of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity on phytochemical stability of an ascorbic acid-fortified muscadine grape juice following high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (400 and 550 MPa for 15 min) and after 21 d of storage at 25 C was investigated. Addition of rosemary and thyme polyphenolic extracts (copigmentation) was evaluated as a means to stabilize anthocyanins and ascorbic acid during pressurization and subsequent storage. Polyphenolic extracts were partially purified in order to reduce their content of PPO substrates, and improve their stabilization properties within juice matrix. Overall PPO activity increased (3- and 2.5-fold) following HHP at 400 and 550 MPa, respectively, although it was significantly lower in copigmented treatments. Higher anthocyanin losses occurred at 400 (,70%) than at 550 MPa (,46%), which were correlated to antioxidant losses (r= 0.89). Similarly, greater ascorbic acid losses were observed at 400 (84%) than at 550 MPa (18%). Copigmentation increased anthocyanin retention in reference to pressurized controls (3- and 3.2-fold for rosemary and thyme treatments, respectively) and decreased ascorbic degradation (20 to 32%). In stored samples, higher anthocyanin content (>2-fold) and antioxidant capacity (>1.5-fold) was observed for copigmented treatments when compared to control juices. Addition of partially purified copigments increased muscadine grape juice color, antioxidant activity and also reduced phytochemical losses during HHP processing and storage. [source]


Cranberry proanthocyanidins are cytotoxic to human cancer cells and sensitize platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells to paraplatin

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 8 2009
Ajay P. Singh
Abstract Polyphenolic extracts of the principal flavonoid classes present in cranberry were screened in vitro for cytotoxicity against solid tumor cells lines, identifying two fractions composed principally of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with potential anticancer activity. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of the proanthocyanidins (PACs) fractions indicated the presence of A-type PACs with 1,4 linkages containing between 2,8 epicatechin units with a maximum of 1 epigallocatechin unit. PACs exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against platinum-resistant human ovarian, neuroblastoma and prostate cancer cell lines (IC50 = 79,479 g/mL) but were non-cytotoxic to lung fibroblast cells (IC50 > 1000 g/ml). SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells treated with PACs exhibited classic apoptotic changes. PACs acted synergistically with paraplatin in SKOV-3 cells. Pretreatment of SKOV-3 cells with PACs (106 g/ml) resulted in a significant reduction of the paraplatin IC50 value. Similarly, in a BrdU incorporation assay, co-treatment of SKOV-3 cells with PACs and paraplatin revealed reduced cell proliferation at lower concentrations than with either individually. In SKOV-3 cell cultures co-treated with PAC-1 and paraplatin, an HPLC analysis indicated differential quantitative presence of various PAC oligomers such as DP-8, -9, -11 and -14 indicating either selective binding or uptake. Cranberry proanthocyanidins exhibit cell-line specific cytotoxicity, induce apoptotic markers and augment cytotoxicity of paraplatin in platinum-resistant SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Reduction of ciclosporin and tacrolimus nephrotoxicity by plant polyphenols

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY: AN INTERNATI ONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE, Issue 11 2006
Zhi Zhong
The immunosuppressants ciclosporin (cyclosporin A, CsA) and tacrolimus can cause severe nephrotoxicity. Since CsA increases free radical formation, this study investigated whether an extract from Camellia sinensis, which contains several polyphenolic free radical scavengers, could prevent nephrotoxicity caused by CsA and tacrolimus. Rats were fed powdered diet containing polyphenolic extract (0-0.1%) starting 3 days before CsA or tacrolimus. Free radicals were trapped with ,-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)- N - tert -butylnitrone (POBN) and measured using an electron spin resonance spectrometer. Both CsA and tacrolimus decreased glomerular filtration rates (GFR) and caused tubular atrophy, vacuolization and calcification and arteriolar hyalinosis, effects that were blunted by treatment with dietary polyphenols. Moreover, CsA and tacrolimus increased POBN/radical adducts in urine nearly 3.5 fold. Hydroxyl radicals attack dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to produce a methyl radical fragment. Administration of CsA or tacrolimus with 12C-DMSO produced a 6-line spectrum, while CsA or tacrolimus given with 13C-DMSO produced a 12-line ESR spectrum, confirming formation of hydroxyl radicals. 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a product of lipid peroxidation, accumulated in proximal and distal tubules after CsA or tacrolimus treatment. ESR changes and 4-HNE formation were largely blocked by polyphenols. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both CsA and tacrolimus stimulate free radical production in the kidney, most likely in tubular cells, and that polyphenols minimize nephrotoxicity by scavenging free radicals. [source]


Stability of Copigmented Anthocyanins and Ascorbic Acid in Muscadine Grape Juice Processed by High Hydrostatic Pressure

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
D. Del Pozo-Insfran
ABSTRACT:, Intermolecular copigmentation is one of the mechanisms of stabilization of anthocyanins in nature and is also responsible for the characteristic color and stability of aged red wines. In the present study, the effect of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity on phytochemical stability of an ascorbic acid-fortified muscadine grape juice following high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (400 and 550 MPa for 15 min) and after 21 d of storage at 25 C was investigated. Addition of rosemary and thyme polyphenolic extracts (copigmentation) was evaluated as a means to stabilize anthocyanins and ascorbic acid during pressurization and subsequent storage. Polyphenolic extracts were partially purified in order to reduce their content of PPO substrates, and improve their stabilization properties within juice matrix. Overall PPO activity increased (3- and 2.5-fold) following HHP at 400 and 550 MPa, respectively, although it was significantly lower in copigmented treatments. Higher anthocyanin losses occurred at 400 (,70%) than at 550 MPa (,46%), which were correlated to antioxidant losses (r= 0.89). Similarly, greater ascorbic acid losses were observed at 400 (84%) than at 550 MPa (18%). Copigmentation increased anthocyanin retention in reference to pressurized controls (3- and 3.2-fold for rosemary and thyme treatments, respectively) and decreased ascorbic degradation (20 to 32%). In stored samples, higher anthocyanin content (>2-fold) and antioxidant capacity (>1.5-fold) was observed for copigmented treatments when compared to control juices. Addition of partially purified copigments increased muscadine grape juice color, antioxidant activity and also reduced phytochemical losses during HHP processing and storage. [source]