Polymorphism Data (polymorphism + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Polymorphism Data

  • fragment length polymorphism data
  • length polymorphism data

  • Selected Abstracts

    Use of longitudinal data in genetic studies in the genome-wide association studies era: summary of Group 14

    Berit Kerner
    Abstract Participants analyzed actual and simulated longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study for various metabolic and cardiovascular traits. The genetic information incorporated into these investigations ranged from selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms to genome-wide association arrays. Genotypes were incorporated using a broad range of methodological approaches including conditional logistic regression, linear mixed models, generalized estimating equations, linear growth curve estimation, growth modeling, growth mixture modeling, population attributable risk fraction based on survival functions under the proportional hazards models, and multivariate adaptive splines for the analysis of longitudinal data. The specific scientific questions addressed by these different approaches also varied, ranging from a more precise definition of the phenotype, bias reduction in control selection, estimation of effect sizes and genotype associated risk, to direct incorporation of genetic data into longitudinal modeling approaches and the exploration of population heterogeneity with regard to longitudinal trajectories. The group reached several overall conclusions: (1) The additional information provided by longitudinal data may be useful in genetic analyses. (2) The precision of the phenotype definition as well as control selection in nested designs may be improved, especially if traits demonstrate a trend over time or have strong age-of-onset effects. (3) Analyzing genetic data stratified for high-risk subgroups defined by a unique development over time could be useful for the detection of rare mutations in common multifactorial diseases. (4) Estimation of the population impact of genomic risk variants could be more precise. The challenges and computational complexity demanded by genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism data were also discussed. Genet. Epidemiol. 33 (Suppl. 1):S93,S98, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Multiple testing in the genomics era: Findings from Genetic Analysis Workshop 15, Group 15

    Lisa J. Martin
    Abstract Recent advances in molecular technologies have resulted in the ability to screen hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms and tens of thousands of gene expression profiles. While these data have the potential to inform investigations into disease etiologies and advance medicine, the question of how to adequately control both type I and type II error rates remains. Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 datasets provided a unique opportunity for participants to evaluate multiple testing strategies applicable to microarray and single nucleotide polymorphism data. The Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 multiple testing and false discovery rate group (Group 15) investigated three general categories for multiple testing corrections, which are summarized in this review: statistical independence, error rate adjustment, and data reduction. We show that while each approach may have certain advantages, adequate error control is largely dependent upon the question under consideration and often requires the use of multiple analytic strategies. Genet. Epidemiol. 31(Suppl. 1):S124,S131, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Comparative genomics and the study of evolution by natural selection

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 21 2008
    Abstract Genomics profoundly affects most areas of biology, including ecology and evolutionary biology. By examining genome sequences from multiple species, comparative genomics offers new insight into genome evolution and the way natural selection moulds DNA sequence evolution. Functional divergence, as manifested in the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions in protein-coding genes, differs among lineages in a manner seemingly related to population size. For example, the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution (dN/dS) is higher in apes than in rodents, compatible with Ohta's nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution, which suggests that the fixation of slightly deleterious mutations contributes to protein evolution at an extent negatively correlated with effective population size. While this supports the idea that functional evolution is not necessarily adaptive, comparative genomics is uncovering a role for positive Darwinian selection in 10,40% of all genes in different lineages, estimates that are likely to increase when the addition of more genomes gives increased power. Again, population size seems to matter also in this context, with a higher proportion of fixed amino acid changes representing advantageous mutations in large populations. Genes that are particularly prone to be driven by positive selection include those involved with reproduction, immune response, sensory perception and apoptosis. Genetic innovations are also frequently obtained by the gain or loss of complete gene sequences. Moreover, it is increasingly realized, from comparative genomics, that purifying selection conserves much more than just the protein-coding part of the genome, and this points at an important role for regulatory elements in trait evolution. Finally, genome sequencing using outbred or multiple individuals has provided a wealth of polymorphism data that gives information on population history, demography and marker evolution. [source]

    Statistical analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism data: a toolbox for molecular ecologists and evolutionists

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 18 2007
    A. Bonin
    Abstract Recently, the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique has gained a lot of popularity, and is now frequently applied to a wide variety of organisms. Technical specificities of the AFLP procedure have been well documented over the years, but there is on the contrary little or scattered information about the statistical analysis of AFLPs. In this review, we describe the various methods available to handle AFLP data, focusing on four research topics at the population or individual level of analysis: (i) assessment of genetic diversity; (ii) identification of population structure; (iii) identification of hybrid individuals; and (iv) detection of markers associated with phenotypes. Two kinds of analysis methods can be distinguished, depending on whether they are based on the direct study of band presences or absences in AFLP profiles (,band-based' methods), or on allelic frequencies estimated at each locus from these profiles (,allele frequency-based' methods). We investigate the characteristics and limitations of these statistical tools; finally, we appeal for a wider adoption of methodologies borrowed from other research fields, like for example those especially designed to deal with binary data. [source]

    Genetic consequences of Pleistocene range shifts: contrast between the Arctic, the Alps and the East African mountains

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Abstract In wide-ranging species, the genetic consequences of range shifts in response to climate change during the Pleistocene can be predicted to differ among different parts of the distribution area. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism data to compare the genetic structure of Arabis alpina, a widespread arctic-alpine and afro-alpine plant, in three distinct parts of its range: the North Atlantic region, which was recolonized after the last ice age, the European Alps, where range shifts were probably primarily altitudinal, and the high mountains of East Africa, where the contemporary mountain top populations result from range contraction. Genetic structure was inferred using clustering analyses and estimates of genetic diversity within and between populations. There was virtually no diversity in the vast North Atlantic region, which was probably recolonized from a single refugial population, possibly located between the Alps and the northern ice sheets. In the European mountains, genetic diversity was high and distinct genetic groups had a patchy and sometimes disjunct distribution. In the African mountains, genetic diversity was high, clearly structured and partially in accordance with a previous chloroplast phylogeography. The fragmented structure in the European and African mountains indicated that A. alpina disperses little among established populations. Occasional long-distance dispersal events were, however, suggested in all regions. The lack of genetic diversity in the north may be explained by leading-edge colonization by this pioneer plant in glacier forelands, closely following the retracting glaciers. Overall, the genetic structure observed corresponded to the expectations based on the environmental history of the different regions. [source]

    Comparison of genetic diversity estimates within and among populations of maritime pine using chloroplast simple-sequence repeat and amplified fragment length polymorphism data

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    M. M. Ribeiro
    Abstract We compared the genetic variation of Pinus pinaster populations using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and chloroplast simple-sequence repeat (cpSSR) loci. Populations' levels of diversity within groups were found to be similar with AFLPs, but not with cpSSRs. The high interlocus variance associated with the AFLP loci could account for the lack of differences in the former. Although AFLPs revealed much lower genetic diversity than cpSSRs, the levels of among-population differentiation found with the two types of marker were similar, provided that loci showing fewer than four null-homozygotes, in any population, were pruned from the AFLP data. Moreover, the French and Portuguese populations were clearly differentiated from each other, with both markers. The Mantel test showed that the genetic distance matrix calculated using the AFLP data was correlated with the matrix derived from the cpSSRs. Because of the concordance found between markers we conclude that gene flow was indeed the predominant force shaping nuclear and chloroplastic genetic variation of the populations within regions, at the geographical scale studied. [source]

    INFERRING PROCESSES DURING INTRODUCTION AND RANGE EXPANSION: Detecting strong positive selection in the genome

    Abstract New statistical tests have been developed in the past decade that enable us to infer evidence of recent strong positive selection from genome-wide data on single-nucleotide polymorphism and to localize the targets of selection in the genome. Based on these tests, past demographic events that led to distortions of the site-frequency spectrum of variation can be distinguished from selection, in particular if linkage disequilibrium is taken into account. These methods have been successfully applied to species from which complete sequence information and polymorphism data are available, including Drosophila melanogaster, humans, and several plant species. To make full use of the available data, however, the tests that were primarily designed for panmictic populations need to be extended to spatially structured populations. [source]

    AtMap1: a DNA microarray for genomic deletion mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 6 2008
    Atsushi J. Nagano
    Summary We have designed a novel tiling array, AtMap1, for genomic deletion mapping. AtMap1 is a 60-mer oligonucleotide microarray consisting of 42 497 data probes designed from the genomic sequence of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0. The average probe interval is 2.8 kb. The performance of the AtMap1 array was assessed using the deletion mutants mag2-2, rot3-1 and zig-2. Eight of the probes showed threefold lower signals in mag2-2 than Col-0. Seven of these probes were located in one region on chromosome 3. We considered these adjacent probes to represent one deletion. This deletion was consistent with a reported deleted region. The other probe was located near the end of chromosome 4. A newly identified deletion around the probe was confirmed by PCR. We also detected the responsible deletions for rot3-1 and zig-2. Thus we concluded that the AtMap1 array was sufficiently sensitive to identify a deletion without any a priori knowledge of the deletion. An analysis of the result of hybridization of Ler and previously reported polymorphism data revealed that the signal decrease tended to depend on the overlap size of sequence polymorphisms. Mutation mapping is time-consuming, laborious and costly. The AtMap1 array removes these limitations. [source]

    Interspecies and intergenus transferability of barley and wheat D-genome microsatellite markers

    A. Castillo
    A selection of 147 wheat D-genome and 130 barley genomic simple sequence repeat (gSSR) markers were screened for their utility in Hordeum chilense, as an alien donor genome for cereal breeding. Fifty-eight wheat D-genome and 71 barley PCR primer pairs consistently amplified products from H. chilense. Nineteen wheat D-genome and 20 barley gSSR markers were polymorphic and allowed wide genome coverage of the H. chilense genome. Twenty-three of the wheat D-genome and 11 barley PCR primer pairs were suitable for studying the introgressions of H. chilense into wheat, amplifying H. chilense products of distinct size. In 88% of the markers tested, H. chilense products were maintained in the expected homeologous linkage group, as revealed by the analysis of wheat/H. chilense addition lines. Twenty-nine microsatellite markers (eight gSSRs and 21 expressed sequence tags-SSRs) uniformly distributed across the genome were tested for their utility in genetic diversity analysis within the species. Three genetic clusters are reported, in accordance with previous morphological and amplified fragment length polymorphism data. These results show that it is possible to discriminate the three previously established germplasm groups with microsatellite markers. The reported markers represent a valuable resource for the genetic characterisation of H. chilense, for the analysis of its genetic variability, and as a tool for wheat introgression. This is the first intraspecific study in a collection of H. chilense germplasm using microsatellite markers. [source]