Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Polymorphism

  • RANTE promoter polymorphism
  • abcb1 polymorphism
  • ace d polymorphism
  • adiponectin gene polymorphism
  • aldh2 polymorphism
  • allelic polymorphism
  • amplified fragment length polymorphism
  • amplified polymorphism
  • ancestral polymorphism
  • apolipoprotein e polymorphism
  • bdnf polymorphism
  • biallelic polymorphism
  • c polymorphism
  • c1473g polymorphism
  • c3435t polymorphism
  • c677t polymorphism
  • c825t polymorphism
  • candidate gene polymorphism
  • candidate polymorphism
  • chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism
  • chromosomal polymorphism
  • colour polymorphism
  • common polymorphism
  • common single nucleotide polymorphism
  • comt polymorphism
  • conformation polymorphism
  • conformational polymorphism
  • copy number polymorphism
  • crystal polymorphism
  • cyp2c19 genetic polymorphism
  • cyp2c19 polymorphism
  • cyp2d6 polymorphism
  • cytokine gene polymorphism
  • cytokine polymorphism
  • d gene polymorphism
  • d polymorphism
  • d receptor gene polymorphism
  • d receptor polymorphism
  • deletion polymorphism
  • dna polymorphism
  • drd2 polymorphism
  • e gene polymorphism
  • e polymorphism
  • foki polymorphism
  • fragment length polymorphism
  • fragment-length polymorphism
  • functional genetic polymorphism
  • functional polymorphism
  • functional single nucleotide polymorphism
  • g polymorphism
  • g-2548a polymorphism
  • g894t polymorphism
  • gene d polymorphism
  • gene polymorphism
  • gene promoter polymorphism
  • genetic polymorphism
  • genotype polymorphism
  • high polymorphism
  • high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism
  • i polymorphism
  • ii polymorphism
  • il-10 promoter polymorphism
  • il-18 gene promoter polymorphism
  • important polymorphism
  • informative polymorphism
  • insertion polymorphism
  • intraspecific polymorphism
  • intronic polymorphism
  • inversion polymorphism
  • investigated polymorphism
  • l55m polymorphism
  • length polymorphism
  • little polymorphism
  • locus polymorphism
  • low polymorphism
  • mdr1 polymorphism
  • methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism
  • microsatellite polymorphism
  • missense polymorphism
  • mtdna polymorphism
  • mthfr c677t polymorphism
  • mthfr polymorphism
  • new polymorphism
  • new single nucleotide polymorphism
  • nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism
  • non-synonymou polymorphism
  • non-synonymou single nucleotide polymorphism
  • nonsynonymou polymorphism
  • nonsynonymou single-nucleotide polymorphism
  • novel polymorphism
  • novel single nucleotide polymorphism
  • nucleotide polymorphism
  • number polymorphism
  • observed polymorphism
  • one polymorphism
  • other polymorphism
  • oxide synthase gene polymorphism
  • pai-1 gene polymorphism
  • pcr restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • pcr-restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism
  • promoter polymorphism
  • promoter region polymorphism
  • protein gene polymorphism
  • protein polymorphism
  • putative single nucleotide polymorphism
  • pxr polymorphism
  • q192r polymorphism
  • rare polymorphism
  • reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism
  • receptor gene polymorphism
  • receptor polymorphism
  • reductase polymorphism
  • region polymorphism
  • regulatory polymorphism
  • relevant polymorphism
  • repeat polymorphism
  • resource polymorphism
  • restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • restriction fragment-length polymorphism
  • restriction site polymorphism
  • restriction-fragment length polymorphism
  • sequence polymorphism
  • several polymorphism
  • several single-nucleotide polymorphism
  • sexual polymorphism
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • single polymorphism
  • single strand conformation polymorphism
  • single-nucleotide polymorphism
  • single-strand conformation polymorphism
  • single-strand conformational polymorphism
  • site polymorphism
  • strand conformation polymorphism
  • structural polymorphism
  • studied polymorphism
  • synthase gene polymorphism
  • tag single nucleotide polymorphism
  • tagging single nucleotide polymorphism
  • tandem repeat polymorphism
  • terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism
  • utr polymorphism
  • val158met polymorphism
  • val66met polymorphism
  • vdr polymorphism
  • vitamin d receptor gene polymorphism
  • vitamin d receptor polymorphism
  • vntr polymorphism

  • Terms modified by Polymorphism

  • polymorphism alone
  • polymorphism analysis
  • polymorphism approach
  • polymorphism associate
  • polymorphism data
  • polymorphism detection
  • polymorphism frequency
  • polymorphism genotype
  • polymorphism genotyping
  • polymorphism information content
  • polymorphism marker
  • polymorphism method
  • polymorphism methods
  • polymorphism site
  • polymorphism technique

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2010
    Ryan Calsbeek
    A central problem in evolutionary biology is to understand how spatial and temporal variation in selection maintain genetic variation within and among populations. Brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) exhibit a dorsal pattern polymorphism that is expressed only in females, which occur in "diamond,""bar," and intermediate "diamond-bar" morphs. To understand the inheritance of this polymorphism, we conducted a captive breeding study that refuted several single-locus models and supported a two-locus mode of inheritance. To describe geographic variation in morph frequencies, we surveyed 13 populations from two major islands in The Bahamas. Morph frequencies differed substantially between major islands but were highly congruent within each island. Finally, we measured viability selection on each island to test two hypotheses regarding the maintenance of the polymorphism: (1) that spatial variation in selection maintains variation in morph frequencies between islands, and (2) that temporal variation in selection across years maintains variation within islands. Although bar females had relatively lower survival where they were rare, our data do not otherwise suggest that selection varies spatially between islands. However, diamond-bar females were subject to positive frequency-dependent selection across years, and the relative fitness of bar and diamond females alternated across years. We propose that this polymorphism is maintained by temporal variation in selection coupled with the sheltering of alleles via a two-locus inheritance pattern and sex-limited expression. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2008
    Stephen W. Schaeffer
    Chromosomal rearrangements may play an important role in how populations adapt to a local environment. The gene arrangement polymorphism on the third chromosome of Drosophila pseudoobscura is a model system to help determine the role that inversions play in the evolution of this species. The gene arrangements are the likely target of strong selection because they form classical clines across diverse geographic habitats, they cycle in frequency over seasons, and they form stable equilibria in population cages. A numerical approach was developed to estimate the fitness sets for 15 gene arrangement karyotypes in six niches based on a model of selection,migration balance. Gene arrangement frequencies in the six different niches were able to reach a stable meta-population equilibrium that matched the observed gene arrangement frequencies when recursions used the estimated fitnesses with a variety of initial inversion frequencies. These analyses show that a complex pattern of selection is operating in the six niches to maintain the D. pseudoobscura gene arrangement polymorphism. Models of local adaptation predict that the new inversion mutations were able to invade populations because they held combinations of two to 13 local adaptation loci together. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2004
    Ralph Haygood
    Abstract Sexual conflict, where male and female reproductive interests differ, is probably widespread and often mediated by male or sperm proteins and female or egg proteins that bind to each other during mating or fertilization. One potential consequence is maintenance of polymorphism in these proteins, which might result in reproductive isolation between sympatric subpopulations. I investigate the conditions for polymorphism maintenance in a series of mathematical models of sexual conflict over mating or fertilization frequency. The models represent a male or sperm ligand and a female or egg receptor, and they differ in whether expression of either protein is haploid or diploid. For diploid expression, the conditions imply that patterns of dominance, which involve neither overdominance nor un-derdominance, can determine whether polymorphism is maintained. For example, suppose ligand expression is diploid, and consider ligand alleles L1 and L2 in interactions with a given receptor genotype; if L1/L1 males are fitter than L2/L2 males in these interactions, then polymorphism is more likely to be maintained when L1/L2 males more closely resemble L1/L1 males in these interactions. Such fitter-allele dominance might be typical of a ligand or its receptor due to their biochemistry, in which case polymorphism might be typical of the pair. [source]


    P Molenaar
    SUMMARY 1In atrium and ventricle from failing and non-failing human hearts, activation of ,1 - or ,2 -adrenoceptors causes increases in contractile force, hastening of relaxation, protein kinase A-catalysed phosphorylation of proteins implicated in the hastening of relaxation, phospholamban, troponin I and C-protein, consistent with coupling of both ,1 - and ,2 -adrenoceptors to stimulatory Gsa -protein but not inhibitory Gia -protein. 2Two ,affinity states', namely ,1H and ,1L, of the ,1 -adrenoceptor exist. In human heart, noradrenaline elicits powerful increases in contractile force and hastening of relaxation. These effects are blocked with high affinity by ,-adenoceptor antagonists, including propranolol, (,)-pindolol, (,)-CGP 12177 and carvedilol. Some beta-blockers, typified by (,)-pindolol and (,)-CGP 12177, not only block the receptor, but also activate it, albeit at much higher concentrations (approximately 2 log units) than those required to antagonize the effects of catecholamines. In human heart, both (,)-CGP 12177 and (,)-pindolol increase contractile force and hasten relaxation. However, the involvement of the ,1 -adrenoceptor was not immediately obvious because (,)-pindolol- and (,)-CGP 12177-evoked responses were relatively resistant to blockade by (,)-propranolol. Abrogation of cardiostimulant effects of (,)-CGP 12177 in ,1 -/,2 -adrenoceptor double-knockout mice, but not ,2 -adrenoceptor-knockout mice, revealed an obligatory role of the ,1 -adrenoceptor. On the basis of these results, two ,affinity states' have been designated, the ,1H - and ,1L -adrenoceptor, where the ,1H -adrenoceptor is activated by noradrenaline and blocked with high affinity by beta-blockers and the ,1L -adrenoceptor is activated by drugs such as (,)-CGP 12177 and (,)-pindolol and blocked with low affinity by beta-blockers such as (,)-propranolol. The ,1H - and ,1L -adrenoceptor states are consistent with high- and low-affinity binding sites for (,)-[3H]-CGP 12177 radioligand binding found in cardiac muscle and recombinant ,1 -adrenoceptors. 3There are two common polymorphic locations of the ,1 -adrenoceptor, at amino acids 49 (Ser/Gly) and 389 (Arg/Gly). Their existence has raised several questions, including their role in determining the effectiveness of heart failure treatment with beta-blockers. We have investigated the effect of long-term maximally tolerated carvedilol administration (> 1 year) on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (mean left ventricular ejection fraction 23 ± 7%; n = 135 patients). The administration of carvedilol improved LVEF to 37 ± 13% (P < 0.005); however, the improvement was variable, with 32% of patients showing £ 5% improvement. Upon segregation of patients into Arg389Gly-,1 -adrenoceptors, it was found that carvedilol caused a greater increase in left ventricular ejection faction in patients carrying the Arg389 allele with Arg389Arg > Arg389Gly > Gly389Gly. [source]

    Polymorphism in the sperm ultrastructure among four species of lizards in the genus Tupinambis (Squamata: Teiidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2002
    L. Tavares-Bastos
    Abstract We describe, for the first time, the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of four species of the genus Tupinambis (Squamata, Teiidae). We identified seven polymorphic characters within this genus: the presence and shape of the perforatorial base plate, the presence of the epinuclear lucent zone, the presence of a unilateral ridge in the acrosome, the presence of a central density within the proximal centriole, the number of mitochondria and dense-bodies sets, and the shape of mitochondria. We analysed the evolution of the seven polymorphic characters by mapping them onto a current phylogeny of the species of Tupinambis, using the teiids Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sexlineatus as outgroups. Our results indicate that sperm ultrastucture characters, although of great value for phylogeny at higher taxonomic levels in reptiles and other groups, are poor predictors of phylogeny when considering the species of Tupinambis studied here. We failed to identify evidences that homoplasy in sperm ultrastructure among the species of Tupinambis is due to convergent adaptation, suggesting that the polymorphism may be selectively neutral in this group. [source]

    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.): a review of aspects of their life histories

    A. Klemetsen
    Abstract ,,,Among the species in the family Salmonidae, those represented by the genera Salmo, Salvelinus, and Oncorhynchus (subfamily Salmoninae) are the most studied. Here, various aspects of phenotypic and life-history variation of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., brown trout Salmo trutta L., and Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) are reviewed. While many strategies and tactics are commonly used by these species, there are also differences in their ecology and population dynamics that result in a variety of interesting and diverse topics that are challenging for future research. Atlantic salmon display considerable phenotypic plasticity and variability in life-history characters ranging from fully freshwater resident forms, where females can mature at approximately 10 cm in length, to anadromous populations characterised by 3,5 sea-winter (5SW) salmon. Even within simple 1SW populations, 20 or more spawning life-history types can be identified. Juveniles in freshwater can use both fluvial and lacustrine habitats for rearing, and while most smolts migrate to sea during the spring, fall migrations occur in some populations. At sea, some salmon undertake extensive oceanic migrations while other populations stay within the geographical confines of areas such as the Baltic Sea. At the other extreme are those that reside in estuaries and return to freshwater to spawn after spending only a few months at sea. The review of information on the diversity of life-history forms is related to conservation aspects associated with Atlantic salmon populations and current trends in abundance and survival. Brown trout is indigenous to Europe, North Africa and western Asia, but was introduced into at least 24 countries outside Europe and now has a world-wide distribution. It exploits both fresh and salt waters for feeding and spawning (brackish), and populations are often partially migratory. One part of the population leaves and feeds elsewhere, while another part stays as residents. In large, complex systems, the species is polymorphic with different size morphs in the various parts of the habitat. Brown trout feed close to the surface and near shore, but large individuals may move far offshore. The species exhibits ontogenetic niche shifts partly related to size and partly to developmental rate. They switch when the amount of surplus energy available for growth becomes small with fast growers being younger and smaller fish than slow growers. Brown trout is an opportunistic carnivore, but individuals specialise at least temporarily on particular food items; insect larvae are important for the young in streams, while littoral epibenthos in lakes and fish are most important for large trout. The sexes differ in resource use and size. Females are more inclined than males to become migratory and feed in pelagic waters. Males exploit running water, near-shore and surface waters more than females. Therefore, females feed more on zooplankton and exhibit a more uniform phenotype than males. The Arctic charr is the northernmost freshwater fish on earth, with a circumpolar distribution in the Holarctic that matches the last glaciation. Recent mtDNA studies indicate that there are five phylogeographic lineages (Atlantic, Arctic, Bering, Siberian and Acadian) that may be of Pleistocene origin. Phenotypic expression and ecology are more variable in charr than in most fish. Weights at maturation range from 3 g to 12 kg. Population differences in morphology and coloration are large and can have some genetic basis. Charr live in streams, at sea and in all habitats of oligotrophic lakes, including very deep areas. Ontogenetic habitat shifts between lacustrine habitats are common. The charr feed on all major prey types of streams, lakes and near-shore marine habitats, but has high niche flexibility in competition. Cannibalism is expressed in several cases, and can be important for developing and maintaining bimodal size distributions. Anadromy is found in the northern part of its range and involves about 40, but sometimes more days in the sea. All charr overwinter in freshwater. Partial migration is common, but the degree of anadromy varies greatly among populations. The food at sea includes zooplankton and pelagic fish, but also epibenthos. Polymorphism and sympatric morphs are much studied. As a prominent fish of glaciated lakes, charr is an important species for studying ecological speciation by the combination of field studies and experiments, particularly in the fields of morphometric heterochrony and comparative behaviour. [source]

    An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for the Detection of the Apa I Polymorphism in the Vitamin D Receptor Gene Using Meldola's Blue as a Hybridization Indicator

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 5 2010
    Nilay Aladag
    Abstract Electrochemical detection of nucleic acid base mismatches related to Apa I single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the vitamin D receptor gene was performed successfully using 7-dimethyl-amino-1,2-benzophenoxazinium salt (Meldola's blue, MDB) with 10.9,pmol/100,,L of detection limit. MDB reduction signals obtained from probe, mismatch(probe-SNP containing target) and hybrid(probe-target) modified pencil graphite electrode(PGE) increased respectively. The sensor was able to clearly distinguish perfect match from mismatch DNA in a 30,min. detection time. Several factors affecting on the hybridization and indicator response are studied to maximize sensitivity and selectivity. The advantages of the biosensor are discussed in comparison with previous electrochemical assays for DNA hybridization. [source]

    Chromosomal Polymorphism in Korean Natural Populations of Drosophila immigrans

    Nam Woo KIM
    ABSTRACT To analyze chromosome inversions of Drosophila immigrans, wild flies were captured from large vineyards located in the suburbs of Yecheon and Gyeongsan from October 1999 to 2001. With the egg samples obtained singly at each of the 799 females of D. immigrans, cytological examinations were carried out for the type and frequency of inversions. Two types of different inversions were found only in the second chromosome. The inversions detected were known to be the cosmopolitan inversion "A" and "B". The mean frequency of inversion A was estimated to be 0.074 in Yecheon and 0.066 in Gyeongsan and that of B was to be 0.026 in Yecheon and 0.021 in Gyeongsan, respectively. In the frequency ratio, inversion A was significantly higher than that of B. The present populations of D. immigrans showed subtle differences from other Korean populations in inversion frequencies. To account for the local variations observed in inversion frequencies, several hypotheses are discussed such as founding event or selective force. [source]

    Distribution and diversity of type III secretion system-like genes in saprophytic and phytopathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads

    Sylvie Mazurier
    Abstract Type three secretion systems (TTSSs) are protein translocation mechanisms associated with bacterial pathogenicity in host plants, and hypersensitive reactions in non-host plants. Distribution and diversity of TTSS-like genes within a collection of saprophytic and phytopathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads were characterized. This collection included 16 strains belonging to 13 pathogenic species, and 87 strains belonging to five saprophytic species isolated from plant rhizosphere and soil. Presence of conserved hypersensitive reaction/pathogenicity (hrp) genes (hrc RST) was assessed both by PCR using primers designed to amplify the corresponding sequence and by dot-blot hybridization using a PCR-amplified hrc RST fragment as a probe. PCR allowed the detection of TTSS-like genes in 75% and 32% of the phytopathogenic and saprophytic strains, respectively, and dot-blot hybridization in 100% and 49% of the phytopathogenic and saprophytic strains, respectively. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 26 amplified hrc RST fragments revealed a considerable diversity. Twenty-one distinct RFLP types were identified and one hrc RST fragment was sequenced per RFLP type. The obtained hrc RST sequences clustered into three groups. Two of these groups included both phytopathogenic and saprophytic strains. The diversity of 16S rRNA genes, commonly used as an evolution marker, was characterized using PCR-RFLP. Polymorphism of the 16S rRNA genes corresponded to that of hrc RST genes, suggesting that these genes have followed a similar evolution. However, the occurrence of few mismatches suggests that sometimes TTSS-like genes might have undergone horizontal genetic transfer. [source]

    Direct genotyping of the poplar leaf rust fungus, Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidae, using codominant PCR-SSCP markers

    FOREST PATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    M. Bourassa
    Summary Two anonymous DNA markers that are revealed by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis were developed for detection of polymorphisms in Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidae (Mmd). Mono-uredinial isolates of Mmd were first obtained, DNA was extracted from urediniospores and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products of eight mono-uredinial isolates were separated on a SSCP gel to identify differences among them. Bands representing putative polymorphic loci among the eight isolates tested were excised from the SSCP gel and re-amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then cloned and sequenced. A primer pair was designed to amplify a DNA fragment of a size suitable for SSCP analysis (<600 bp) for two out of three DNA fragments sequenced. Each set of primers amplified a PCR product for all eight isolates that were initially used to generate them and the resulting PCR products were analysed by SSCP. Polymorphisms among isolates were identified for both putative loci. The two primer pairs amplified a PCR product of the expected size on an additional 32 mono-uredinial isolates of Mmd tested. From the overall 40 mono-uredinial isolates tested, 5 and 11 alleles were detected, and 12 and 34 isolates showed to be heterozygous, as indicated by the presence of more than two bands on the SSCP gel, at loci A and B, respectively. The primer pairs were tested for specificity against 106 fungal isolates belonging to various taxa, including other rusts, and against DNA extracted from greenhouse-grown healthy poplar leaves. DNA amplification products of the expected size were obtained only when Mmd DNA was present. Optimization of PCR conditions with these two primer pairs allowed genotyping directly from single uredinia extracted from infected leaves, thus alleviating the need to culture the fungus to characterize individuals, hence making it possible to process large numbers of samples for population studies. Résumé Deux marqueurs génétiques anonymes, révélés par analyse SSCP (Single-Strand Conformational Polymorphism) ont été développés afin de détecter des polymorphismes génétiques chez le Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidae (Mmd). Dans un premier temps, des isolats mono-urédiniaux ont été obtenus, puis l'ADN a été extrait à partir des urédiniospores, les produits d'amplification RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) ont été générés à partir de huit de ces isolats mono-urédiniaux et les résultats d'amplification ont par la suite été séparés sur gel SSCP afin d'identifier des polymorphismes entre les isolats. Les bandes sur gel SSCP représentant des loci polymorphiques putatifs entre les isolats ont été prélevées du gel, ré-amplifiées par la technique d'amplification PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), clonées, puis séquencées. Pour deux fragments d'ADN séquencés sur un total de trois, une paire d'amorces a été développée afin de permettre l'amplification d'un fragment de taille adéquate pour analyse SSCP (<600 pb). Chaque paire d'amorces a produit un signal d'amplification positif pour chacun des huit isolats à l'origine de ces nouvelles amorces; les produits PCR ont ensuite été analysés par la technique SSCP. Les deux loci putatifs ont révélé des polymorphismes génétiques entre les isolats. Les deux paires d'amorces ont produit un fragment d'amplification de la taille attendue pour chacun des 32 isolats mono-urédiniaux supplémentaires testés. Des 40 isolats testés, 5 et 11 allèles ont été détectés, alors que 12 et 34 isolats se sont révélés hétérozygotes (tel qu'indiqué par la présence de plus de deux bandes sur gel SSCP) pour les loci A et B, respectivement. La spécificité des deux paires d'amorces a été testée à partir de 106 isolats fongiques appartenant à différents groupes taxonomiques, incluant d'autres rouilles, de même qu'à partir de l'ADN extrait de feuilles de peupliers cultivés en serre. Un signal d'amplification positif n'a été obtenu qu'en présence d'ADN du Mmd. Les conditions d'amplification PCR ont été optimisées pour les deux paires d'amorces développées afin de permettre le génotypage directement à partir d'urédinies individuelles prélevées sur des feuilles de peuplier infectées. La possibilité de génotyper directement des urédinies individuelles permet d'éviter l'obligation de cultiver le champignon pour génotyper les individus, ce qui représente un avantage important des marqueurs génétiques développés ici, puisqu'il devient dès lors possible de traiter un grand nombre d'échantillons lors de la réalisation d'études de populations. Zusammenfassung Zum Nachweis von Polymorphismen bei Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidae wurden zwei anonyme DNA Marker aus einer SSCP-Analyse entwickelt. Zunächst wurden Isolate aus einzelnen Uredinien gewonnen, die DNA wurde aus den Uredosporen extrahiert und polymorphe RAPD, Amplifikationsprodukte von acht Mono-Uredinium-Isolaten wurden auf einem SSCP-Gel getrennt, um Unterschiede zwischen ihnen nachzuweisen. Banden, die bei den acht geprüften Isolaten mögliche polymorphe Loci darstellten, wurden aus dem SSCP-Gel ausgeschnitten und mit PCR reamplifiziert, dann geklont und sequenziert. Für zwei von insgesamt drei sequenzierten DNA-Fragmenten wurde ein Primerpaar entwickelt, um ein in der Grösse für die SSCP-Analyse (<600 bp) geeignetes DNA-Fragment zu amplifizieren. Jedes Primerpaar amplifizierte bei allen acht ursprünglich für ihre Entwicklung verwendeten Isolaten ein PCR-Produkt, und diese wurden anschliessend mit SSCP analysiert. Für beide putativen Loci wurden bei den Isolaten Polymorphismen festgestellt. Die beiden Primerpaare amplifizierten ein PCR-Produkt der erwarteten Grösse bei allen 32 zusätzlich geprüften Mono-Uredinium-Isolaten des Pilzes. Bei den insgesamt 40 geprüften Mono-Uredinium-Isolaten wurden für die Loci A und B 5 bzw. 11 Allele gefunden, und 12 bzw. 34 Isolate erwiesen sich als heterozygot, was durch mehr als zwei Banden auf den SSCP-Gelen angezeigt wurde. Die Spezifität der Primerpaare wurden mit 106 Pilzisolaten aus verschiedenen Taxa geprüft, darunter andere Roste sowie DNA aus gesunden Pappelblättern aus Gewächshauskulturen. DNA-Amplifikationsprodukte der erwarteten Grösse wurden nur erhalten, wenn DNA von Melampsora medusae f. sp. deltoidae präsent war. Die PCR-Amplifikations-Bedingungen mit diesen beiden Primerpaaren wurde so optimiert, dass ein Genotyping direkt bei einzelnen von infizierten Blättern entnommenen Uredinien erfolgen kann und somit eine Pilzkultur zur Charakterisierung von Individuen entfällt. Dies ermöglicht grosse Probenzahlen in Populationsstudien. [source]

    Microsatellites versus single-nucleotide polymorphisms in confidence interval estimation of disease loci

    Charalampos Papachristou
    Abstract With cost-effective high-throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) arrays now becoming widely available, it is highly anticipated that SNPs will soon become the choice of markers in whole genome screens. This optimism raises a great deal of interest in assessing whether dense SNP maps offer at least as much information as their microsatellite (MS) counterparts. Factors considered to date include information content, strength of linkage signals, and effect of linkage disequilibrium. In the current report, we focus on investigating the relative merits of SNPs vs. MS markers for disease gene localization. For our comparisons, we consider three novel confidence interval estimation procedures based on confidence set inference (CSI) using affected sib-pair data. Two of these procedures are multipoint in nature, enabling them to capitalize on dense SNPs with limited heterozygosity. The other procedure makes use of markers one at a time (two-point), but is much more computationally efficient. In addition to marker type, we also assess the effects of a number of other factors, including map density and marker heterozygosity, on disease gene localization through an extensive simulation study. Our results clearly show that confidence intervals derived based on the CSI multipoint procedures can place the trait locus in much shorter chromosomal segments using densely saturated SNP maps as opposed to using sparse MS maps. Finally, it is interesting (although not surprising) to note that, should one wish to perform a quick preliminary genome screening, then the two-point CSI procedure would be a preferred, computationally cost-effective choice. Genet. Epidemiol. 30:3,17, 2006. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Temperature dependence of Fe(III) and sulfate reduction rates and its effect on growth and composition of bacterial enrichments from an acidic pit lake neutralization experiment

    GEOBIOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    J. MEIER
    ABSTRACT Microbial Fe(III) and sulfate reduction are important electron transport processes in acidic pit lakes and stimulation by the addition of organic substrates is a strategy to remove acidity, iron and sulfate. This principle was applied in a pilot-scale enclosure in pit lake 111 (Brandenburg, Germany). Because seasonal and spatial variation of temperature may affect the performance of in situ experiments considerably, the influence of temperature on Fe(III) and sulfate reduction was investigated in surface sediments from the enclosure in the range of 4,28 °C. Potential Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction rates increased exponentially with temperature, and the effect was quantified in terms of the apparent activation energy Ea measuring 42,46 kJ mol,1 and 52 kJ mol,1, respectively. Relatively high respiration rates at 4 °C and relatively low Q10 values (,2) indicated that microbial communities were well adapted to low temperatures. In order to evaluate the effect of temperature on growth and enrichment of iron and sulfate-reducing bacterial populations, MPN (Most Probable Number) dilution series were performed in media selecting for the different bacterial groups. While the temperature response of specific growth rates of acidophilic iron reducers showed mesophilic characteristics, the relatively high specific growth rates of sulfate reducers at the lowest incubation temperature indicated the presence of moderate psychrophilic bacteria. In contrast, the low cell numbers and low specific growth rates of neutrophilic iron reducers obtained in dilution cultures suggest that these populations play a less significant role in Fe and S cycling in these sediments. SSCP (Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism) or DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) fingerprinting based on 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria indicated different bacterial populations in the MPN dilution series exhibiting different temperature ranges for growth. [source]

    No Influence of 5-HTTLPR Gene Polymorphism on Migraine Symptomatology, Comorbid Depression, and Chronification

    HEADACHE, Issue 3 2010
    Thomas Wieser MD
    (Headache 2010;50:420-430) Background., The serotonergic system is thought to play an important role for mediating susceptibility to migraine and depression, which is frequently found comorbid in migraine. The functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR/SLC6A4) was previously associated with attack frequency and, thus, possibly with chronification. Objective., We hypothesized that patients with the "s" allele have higher attack frequency and, paralleling results in depression research, higher scores of depression. Methods., Genetic analysis of the SLC6A4 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) was performed in 293 patients with migraine with and without aura. Self-rating questionnaires were used for assessment of depression. Results., Multinomial logistic regression analysis found no evidence for association of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with either depression or migraine attack frequency. Conclusion., We were not able to demonstrate any influence of the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on migraine phenomenology (attack frequency or comorbid depression), thereby excluding this variant to be a common genetic denominator for chronic migraine and depression. [source]

    Serotonin Transporter Protein Polymorphism and Harm Avoidance Personality in Migraine without Aura

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2006
    Jeong Wook Park MD
    Objective.,To investigate polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter protein gene and harm avoidance personality dimension in patients with migraine without aura (MWOA). Background.,The serotonin transporter protein is a key modulator of serotonergic synaptic neurotransmission. Two polymorphic regions of the gene for serotonin transporter protein have been found, and are associated with variations in the functional activity of serotonin caused by differing transcriptional efficiency. The harm avoidance (HA) personality trait may also be heritable and associated with altered serotonergic neurotransmitter activity. Design.,We amplified the polymorphism in the promoter of serotonin transporter protein (5-HTTLPR) and the variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism within intron 2 (VNTR) using the polymerase chain reaction and performed genotype polymorphism analyses in 97 patients with MWOA and 100 healthy controls. We investigated serotonin-related personality traits by evaluating the HA personality dimension using a tridimensional questionnaire. Results.,The genotype frequencies and allele distributions of 5-HTTLPR did not differ between patients with MWOA and controls. The VNTR genotype STin2.12/STin2.12 was significantly more common in patients with MWOA (90%) than in controls (77%; P= .017). Patients with MWOA also had HA scores (21.9 ± 6.4) significantly higher than those of controls (16.3 ± 6.1; P < .001). Conclusions.,Serotonergic activity might be involved in the development of MWOA and VNTR of serotonin transporter gene might be one of the genetically contributing factors. [source]

    The Interleukin-1 RN Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Development of Duodenal Ulcer

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2004
    Ping-I Hsu
    ABSTRACT Background., The host genetic factors that determine the clinical outcomes for Helicobacter pylori -infected individuals remain unclear. Aims., To elucidate the relations among interleukin-1 locus polymorphisms, and H. pylori infection in the development of duodenal ulcers. Materials and methods., In a case,control study involving 168 control subjects and 147 patients with duodenal ulcer, biallelic polymorphisms of two interleukin-1 loci, IL-1B,511 and IL-1B+3954, as well as the penta-allelic variable number of tandem repeats of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist IL-1RN, were genotyped, and the H. pylori states of controls and patients were examined. Results.,Helicobacter pylori infection, male gender and the carriage of IL-1RN*2 independently increased the risk of duodenal ulcer with odds ratios of 6.4 (95% confidence interval, 3.7,11.0), 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1,3.4) and 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.1,6.8), respectively. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between IL-1RN*2 and H. pylori infection with the duodenal ulcer risk conferred by the H. pylori infection substantially increased (odds ratios, 22.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.9,86.5) by the carriage of IL-1RN*2. In addition, a synergistic interaction between IL-1RN*2 and blood group O existed. The combined risk of H. pylori infection, the carriage of IL-1RN*2 and blood group O for duodenal ulcer was 27.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.1,243.6). Conclusions., This work is the first to verify IL-1RN*2 as an independent factor that governs the development of duodenal ulcers. Our data indicate that H. pylori infection and IL-1RN*2 synergistically determine susceptibility to duodenal ulcer. The blood group phenotype is possibly a crucial determinant for the outcome of the impact of an interleukin-1 locus polymorphism on H. pylori -infected individuals. [source]

    Multiple Lyotropic Polymorphism of a Poly(ethylene glycol)-Peptide Conjugate in Aqueous Solution,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 23 2008
    Ian W. Hamley
    Nematic and hexagonal columnar liquid crystal phase formation by a PEG,peptide conjugate is reported. The results are relevant to peptide,polymer conjugates and bionanomaterial self-assembly (with relevance to PEGylated peptides used in therapeutic applications). The use of modified fragments of the amyloid beta peptide is especially interesting with respect to amyloid fibrillization and its control. [source]

    Glutathione S -transferase M3 (A/A) genotype as a risk factor for oral cancer and leukoplakia among Indian tobacco smokers

    Nilabja Sikdar
    Abstract Polymorphism in glutathione S -transferase (GST) genes, causing variations in enzyme activities, may influence susceptibility to oral cancer and leukoplakia in smokers and/or smokeless tobacco users. In this case-control study consisting of 109 leukoplakia and 256 oral cancer patients and 259 controls, genotype frequencies at GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3 and GSTP1 loci were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods and analyzed by multiple logistic regression to determine the risks of the diseases. There were no significant differences in the distributions of GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 genotypes in patients and controls when all individuals were compared. In contrast, frequencies of ile/ile genotype at codon 105 and variant val-ala haplotype of GSTP1 was significantly higher (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0,2.0) and lower (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0,1.9) in oral cancer patients compare to controls, respectively. The impacts of all genotypes on risks of oral cancer and leukoplakia were also analyzed in patients with different tobacco habits and doses. Increased risks of cancer and leukoplakia were observed in tobacco smokers with GSTM3 (A/A) genotype (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0,4.0; OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0,4.4, respectively). So, GSTM3 (A/A) genotype could become one of the markers to know which of the leukoplakia would be transformed into cancer. Heavy tobacco chewing (> 124 chewing-year) increased the risk of cancer in individuals with GSTT1 homozygous null genotype (OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.0,9.8). Furthermore, increased lifetime exposure to tobacco smoking (> 11.5 pack-year) increased the risk of leukoplakia in individuals with GSTM1 homozygous null genotype (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.0,5.7). It may be suggested that polymorphisms in GSTP1, GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 genes regulate risk of cancer and leukoplakia differentially among different tobacco habituals. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Polymorphism in the proximal promoter region of the perforin gene and its impact on the course of HIV infection

    D. McIlroy
    Summary Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an essential role in the control of viral replication during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, the efficacy of the CTL response varies between individuals. We tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in the lytic effector molecule perforin could influence the progression of HIV infection. The perforin gene was screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). Correlations were sought between perforin genotype, perforin expression and lytic function of CD8+ T lymphocytes from HIV-positive patients. Association of perforin genotype with disease progression was investigated in 426 seroconverters enrolled in the French SEROCO cohort. AIDS-free survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan,Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Three SNPs were found in the proximal promoter region of the perforin gene: 63G (allelic frequency 0.029), 112G (allelic frequency 0.071) and 1012T (allelic frequency 0.070). The presence of the 1012T genotype correlated with fewer perforin+ cells among circulating CD8+ CTL. However, CTL lines from HIV -positive individuals heterozygous for the perforin 1012T SNP displayed normal lysis of target cells, and within the SEROCO cohort, patients heterozygous for the 1012T SNP showed normal disease progression. However, 1012T/T homozygotes showed a tendency towards slower disease progression (P = 0.08). In conclusion, polymorphism in the perforin gene is limited, and although the 1012T genotype appears to influence perforin expression, it was not conclusively associated with disease progression in HIV infection. [source]

    Polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene encoding human allograft inflammatory factor-1

    D. M. Turner
    Summary We have identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism within the promoter region of the human allograft inflammatory factor (AIF-1) gene. The polymorphism, defined by Genbank accession number AF097515, was characterized as a C/T single base pair substitution at position ,932. The T allele is associated with both HLA-DR2 and HLA-B7. Also, this allele creates the consensus binding site for the E-box that has high affinity for the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors. [source]

    Polymorphism of LMP2, TAP1, LMP7 and TAP2 in Brazilian Amerindians and Caucasoids: implications for the evolution of allelic and haplotypic diversity

    F. Rueda Faucz
    In the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), four genes implicated in processing of MHC class I-presented antigens have been described. Two of these (TAP1 and TAP2) code for endoplasmic reticulum membrane transporter proteins and the other two (LMP2 and LMP7) for proteasome subunits. These genes are polymorphic, although much less so than classical MHC class I and II genes. There is controversy concerning the possible functional implications of this variation. Population genetics is one of the means of investigating the evolutionary and functional significance of genetic polymorphisms; however, few populations have been analysed with respect to TAP and LMP diversity. We present here the polymorphism of TAP1, TAP2, LMP2 and LMP7 genes in the Kaingang and Guarani Amerindian tribes, and in the Caucasoid population of the Brazilian State of Paraná. Allele frequencies found in the Caucasoids were close to those described for similar populations. Amerindians had a somewhat more restricted polymorphism, and allele and haplotype frequencies differed greatly between the two tribes. Overall linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the four genes was low in the Caucasoids, but high in the Amerindians, for which significant LD was seen for all informative pairs of loci. Comparing results of this and previous studies we observed that, whenever significant LD occurs in non-Amerindians, it tends to be similar in the different ethnic groups. While this might be interpreted as evidence of co-evolution of genes in the TAP-LMP region, the high haplotypic diversity in all populations and low LD in non-Amerindians indicate absence of co-evolution of the different genes. Distributions of allele and genotype frequencies are consistent with the hypothesis of selective neutrality. We conclude that genetic polymorphism of the human TAP and LMP genes and haplotypes is of little, if any, functional significance. [source]

    Sex Steroid Level, Androgen Receptor Polymorphism, and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Elderly Men

    Guy G. T'Sjoen MD
    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of depression in a cohort of elderly men as assessed using a 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) score and to describe the association between this score and sex steroids, androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism, and general health status. Design: Observational study on the relationship between sex steroid status and health-related parameters. Setting: Community-based. Participants: Ambulatory men (n=236 in 1997, n=192 in 2000) aged 70 and older at inclusion in 1996, interviewed in 1997 and 2000. Measurements: Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, and the AR gene cytosine, adenine, guanine (CAG)-repeat length polymorphism were determined. Free testosterone and free estradiol were calculated. Questionnaires included GDS, 36-item Short Form, and Rapid Disability Rating Scale,2. Results: Median age was 75.3 years (interquartile range=73.5,78.5). A GDS score of 11 or greater was found in 30 (12.7%) men. Age and GDS score were significantly interrelated (P<.01), as were all health-assessment scores. GDS scores were not related to (free) testosterone or AR polymorphism in 1997 or 2000. In 1997 only (n=236), higher GDS scores were related to higher estradiol, free estradiol, and DHEAS levels. Conclusion: The data did not support a role for testosterone in depression in elderly community-based men as assessed using the GDS. [source]

    The Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha ,308G>A Polymorphism Is Associated with Dementia in the Oldest Old

    Helle Bruunsgaard MD
    Objectives: To test the hypothesis that the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ,308 G>A promoter gene polymorphism is a risk factor in age-related dementia and longevity. Design: A cross-sectional and a longitudinal study. Setting: A population-based sample of Danish centenarians. Participants: One hundred-year-old Danes (n=122) from "The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians." Octogenarians (n=174) and healthy volunteers aged 18 to 30 (n=47) served as reference groups. Methods: Whether the distribution of TNF ,308 GG/GA/AA genotypes were different in centenarians than in younger age groups was investigated (Fischer exact test). Furthermore, whether the TNF ,308 G>A polymorphism was associated with the prevalence of dementia (logistic regression analysis), the plasma level of TNF-, (analysis of variance), and mortality in the following 5 years (Cox regression analysis) within the cohort of centenarians was tested. Results: The distribution of TNF ,308 genotypes was not different across the three different age groups, but the GA genotype was associated with decreased prevalence of dementia in centenarians. The few centenarians with AA carrier status had higher mortality risk and tended to show higher plasma levels of TNF-,, but the significance was questionable due to a low number of subjects with this genotype. Conclusion: It is possible that the TNF ,308 A allele is maintained during aging because subjects who are heterozygous for this polymorphism possess the optimal inflammatory response with regard to protection against age-related neurodegeneration. [source]

    Survival in Finnish Centenarians in Relation to Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism

    J. Louhija MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Association of the VDR Translation Start Site Polymorphism and Fracture Risk in Older Women,,

    Susan P Moffett PhD
    Abstract We evaluated the association between the VDR translation start site polymorphism and osteoporotic phenotypes among 6698 older white women. Women with the C/C genotype had lower wrist BMD and an increased risk of wrist and all non-spine/low-trauma fractures. The high frequency of this variant confers a population attributable risk that is similar to several established risk factors for fracture. Introduction: The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates bone formation, bone resorption, and calcium homeostasis. A common C to T polymorphism in exon 2 of the VDR gene introduces a new translation start site and a protein that differs in length by three amino acids (T = 427aa, C = 424aa; rs10735810). Materials and Methods: We conducted genetic association analyses of this polymorphism, BMD, and fracture outcomes in a prospective cohort of 6698 white American women ,65 years of age. Incident fractures were confirmed by physician adjudication of radiology reports. There were 2532 incident nontraumatic/nonvertebral fractures during 13.6 yr of follow-up including 509 wrist and 703 hip fractures. Results: Women with the C/C genotype had somewhat lower distal radius BMD compared with those with the T/T genotype (CC = 0.358 g/cm2, CT = 0.361 g/cm2, TT = 0.369 g/cm2, p = 0.003). The C/C genotype was also associated with increased risk of non-spine, low traumatic fractures (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.33) and wrist fractures (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.75) compared with the T/T genotype in age-adjusted models. Further adjustments for distal radius BMD only slightly attenuated these associations. The VDR polymorphism was not associated with hip fracture. The population attributable risk (PAR) of the C/C genotype for incident fractures was 6.1%. The PAR for established risk factors for fracture were: low femoral neck BMD (PAR = 16.3%), maternal history of fracture (PAR = 5.1%), low body weight (PAR = 5.3%), corticosteroid use (PAR = 1.3%), and smoking (PAR = 1.6%). Similar PAR results were observed for wrist fractures. Conclusions: The common and potentially functional VDR translation start site polymorphism confers a modestly increased relative risk of fracture among older white women. However, the high frequency of this variant confers a population attributable risk that is similar to or greater than several established risk factors for fracture. [source]

    The Influence of an Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Gene Promoter Polymorphism on Hip Bone Geometry and the Risk of Nonvertebral Fracture in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study,

    Fernando Rivadeneira
    Abstract The absence of the wildtype allele of a promoter polymorphism of the IGF-I gene is associated with increased risk (1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0) of fragility fracture in women (n = 4212) but not in men (n = 2799). An approximation of hip bone geometry (from DXA) suggested the polymorphism is associated with bone strength and stability in gender-specific ways. Introduction: Previously, we found a CA-repeat promoter polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene associated with IGF-I levels and BMD in postmenopausal women, but the relationship with fractures is unclear. In this large population-based study of elderly men and women, we examined the association between this IGF-I promoter polymorphism with parameters of bone geometry and the occurrence of fractures. Material and Methods: Within the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort, the IGF-I polymorphism was analyzed in relation to incident nonvertebral fractures in 2799 men and 4212 women followed on average for 8.6 years. Furthermore, we estimated structural parameters of hip bone geometry indirectly from DXA outputs of the femoral neck in 2372 men and 3114 women. We studied neck width, cortical thickness, and the cortical buckling ratio and the section modulus as indexes of bone stability and bending strength. Results: Women heterozygotes and noncarriers of the allele had, respectively, 1.2 (95% CI, 1.0-1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1-2.0) increased risk of having a fragility fracture at older age compared with homozygotes for the 192-bp allele (p trend = 0.0007). In men, fracture risk was not influenced by the polymorphism. Compared with homozygotes for the 192-bp allele, noncarrier males had ,1% narrower femoral necks and 2.2% lower section moduli (p trend < 0.05). Noncarrier females had 1.7% thinner cortices and 1.6% higher buckling ratios (p trend < 0.05) but no significant differences in femoral neck widths and section moduli. In women with low body mass index, genotype differences in bone strength (section modulus) and fracture risk were accentuated (p interaction = 0.05). The genotype-dependent differences in hip bone geometry did not fully explain the genotype-dependent differences in fracture risk. Conclusions: The CA-repeat promoter polymorphism in the IGF-I gene is associated with the risk for fragility fracture at old age in women and with bone structure in both genders. [source]

    Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphism Is Related to Bone Mineral Density During and After Puberty in Healthy White Males: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    Mattias Lorentzon
    Abstract Bone mineral density (BMD) is under strong genetic control and is the major determinant of fracture risk. The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important regulator of bone metabolism and is involved in mediating the effects of androgens and estrogens on bone. Recently, a G/C polymorphism in position ,174 of the IL-6 gene promoter was found. We investigated this genetic polymorphism in relation to BMD during late puberty and to peak bone mass, in healthy white males. We identified the IL-6 genotypes (GG, GC, and CC) in 90 boys, age 16.9 ± 0.3 years (mean ± SD), using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). BMD (g/cm2) at the femoral neck, lumbar spine, and total body was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The volumetric BMD (vBMD; mg/cm3) of the lumbar spine was estimated. Differences in BMD in relation to the genotypes were calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Subjects with the CC genotype had 7.9% higher BMD of the femoral neck (p = 0.03), 7.0% higher BMD of the lumbar spine (p < 0.05), and 7.6% higher vBMD of the lumbar spine (p = 0.04), compared with their GG counterparts. Using multiple regression, the IL-6 genotypes were independently related to total body BMD (CC > GG; p = 0.03), humerus BMD (CC > GG; p < 0.05), neck BMD (CC > GG; p = 0.01), spine BMD (CC > GG; p = 0.01), and spine vBMD (CC > GG; p = 0.008). At age 19.3 ± 0.7 years (mean ± SD; 88 men) the IL-6 genotypes were still independent predictors for total body BMD (CC > GG; p = 0.03), humerus BMD (CC > GG; p = 0.03), spine BMD (CC > GG; p = 0.02), and spine vBMD (CC > GG; p = 0.003), while the IL-6 genotypes were not related to the increase in bone density seen after 2 years. We have shown that polymorphism of the IL-6 gene is an independent predictor of BMD during late puberty and of peak bone mass in healthy white men. [source]

    Genetic Polymorphism of KCNH2 Confers Predisposition of Acquired Atrial Fibrillation in Chinese

    Introduction: Nonfamiliar atrial fibrillation (AF) is usually associated with acquired structural heart disease, including valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, and hypertension. Suggestive evidence indicates that these forms of acquired AF are more likely to occur in individuals with a genetic predisposition. We investigated the effect of the potassium channel voltage-gated subfamily member 2 (KCNH2) gene on the prevalence of acquired AF in a Chinese population. Methods: In a pair-matched, hospital-based case control study (297 vs 297) conducted in Chinese Hans, we investigated 4 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs), rs1805120, rs1036145, rs3807375, and rs2968857 in the KCNH2 gene, and determined their association with AF acquired from structural heart diseases. Results: We did not observe the association of rs1036145, rs3807375, and rs2968857 with AF. However, we determined that the tSNP, rs1805120, in exon 6 confers the risk of AF in Chinese Hans. Both genotype and allele frequencies of rs1805120 were distributed differently in cases and controls (P = 0.0289 and P = 0.0172, respectively). The most significant association was observed under a recessive model for the minor GG genotype with a 1.45-fold risk of developing AF (95% confidence interval 1.09,1.93, P = 0.012). The significance remained after controlling for the covariates of age, smoking, BMI, hypertension, and diabetes. Conclusion: We report a new genetic variation (rs1805120) in the KCNH2 gene that predisposes Chinese Han individuals to the risk of acquired AF. Further genetic and functional studies are required to identify the etiological variants in linkage disequilibrium with this polymorphism. [source]

    Interaction of Implantable Defibrillator Therapy with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Deletion/Insertion Polymorphism

    Introduction: The angiotensin-converting enzyme deletion allele (ACE D) decreases survival in patients with advanced heart failure. Whether the adverse impact on survival reflects an increased risk of pump failure or arrhythmic sudden death remains uncertain. If the ACE D genotype increases the risk of sudden death, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy should diminish its negative impact. We sought to evaluate the effect of ICD therapy on ACE D genetic risk. Methods and Results: The Genetic Risk Assessment of Cardiac Events (GRACE) study enrolled 479 patients at the University of Pittsburgh between 1996 and 2001. Blood was genotyped for the ACE D/I (deletion/insertion) polymorphism. Of the 479 patients, 82 (77% male, 84% Caucasian, age 56 ± 11 years, 60% ischemic, left ventricular ejection fraction 0.23 ± 0.08) received an ICD and were selected for outcomes analysis (mean follow-up 871 ± 538 days). Transplant-free survival and survival alone were compared in ACE DD patients (n = 24, 29%) versus ACE DI/II patients (n = 58, 71%). Survival was significantly improved in ACE DI/II patients compared to those without an ICD (1 year: 93% vs 87%; 2 year: 89% vs 77%; P = 0.02) but not in ACE DD patients. Transplant-free survival among patients with an ICD was significantly worse in ACE DD versus ACE DI/II (1 year: 67% vs 88%, 2 year: 55% vs 80%, P = 0.03). Analysis of survival as a single endpoint revealed a similar result (1 year = 78% vs 94%; 2 year: 72% vs 88%; P = 0.05). ICD telemetry data showed a nonsignificant trend toward fewer individuals with arrhythmias in the ACE-DD group (46% vs 65%, P = 0.22) Conclusion: ICDs do not diminish the adverse influence of the ACE DD genotype on survival. This finding suggests that mortality in this high-risk genetic subset of patients is due to progression of heart failure rather than arrhythmic sudden death. [source]

    Evidence for a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the KCNQ1 Potassium Channel that Underlies Susceptibility to Life-Threatening Arrhythmias

    Ion Channel Polymorphism and Cardiac Arrhythmia. Introduction: Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetically heterogeneous arrhythmogenic disorder caused by mutations in at least five different genes encoding cardiac ion channels. It was suggested recently that common polymorphisms of LQTS-associated genes might modify arrhythmia susceptibility in potential gene carriers. Methods and Results: We examined the known LQTS genes in 95 patients with definitive or suspected LQTS. Exon-specific polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequence analyses identified six patients who carried only a single nucleotide polymorphism in KCNQ1 that is found in , 11% of the Japanese population. This 1727G> A substitution that changes the sense of its coding sequence from glycine to serine at position 643 (G643S) was mostly associated with a milder phenotype, often precipitated by hypokalemia and bradyarrhythmias. When heterologously examined by voltage-clamp experiments, the in vitro cellular phenotype caused by the single nucleotide polymorphism revealed that G643S- KCNQ1 forms functional homomultimeric channels, producing a significantly smaller current than that of the wild-type (WT) channels. Coexpression of WT- KCNQ1 and G643S- KCNQ1 with KCNE1 resulted in , 30% reduction in the slow delayed rectifier K+ current IKs without much alteration in the kinetic properties except its deactivation process, suggesting that the G643S substitution had a weaker dominant-negative effect on the heteromultimeric channel complexes. Conclusion: We demonstrate that a common polymorphism in the KCNQ1 potassium channel could be a molecular basis for mild IKs dysfunction that, in the presence of appropriate precipitating factors, might predispose potential gene carriers to life-threatening arrhythmias in a specific population. [source]

    Comparison of genetic polymorphisms of the NAT2 gene between Korean and four other ethnic groups

    T. S. Kang MS
    Summary Background and objective:,N -acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is responsible for the acetylation of numerous drugs and in the transformation of aromatic and heterocyclinc amines into carcinogenic intermediates. Polymorphism of NAT2 may contribute to interindividual variability in such acetylation. The aim of this study was to determine the allele frequencies of polymorphisms of the NAT2 gene, analyse linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and haplotypes in Koreans and compare them with those of other ethnic groups. Methods:, We analysed genetic polymorphisms in all functional promoter and exons of the NAT2 gene by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from 192 healthy Korean subjects. The LD and haplotype blocks of these subjects were constructed from genotype data using an expectation,maximization algorithm. We compared these allele frequencies, LD block and haplotype structure with those of other ethnic groups registered on the International HapMap database. Results and discussion:, We identified 33 polymorphisms including six novel single nucleotide polymorphisms, ,10778T>C, ,10777A>G, ,10351A>G, ,10199C>T and ,10104G>T in promoter and 578C>T in exon2 (T193M) in the Korean subjects tested. All allele frequencies reported in the Koreans were similar to those of Asians except for one allele (rs4345600, ,9306A>G), whereas African and European groups had different frequencies in exon2. The haplotype structure and LD block among the five groups also revealed significant differences. Conclusion:, Ethnic differences in the NAT2 genotype frequencies may be one of the important factors explaining variability in cancer incidence and drug toxicity. Our observations could be useful in assessing the susceptibility of different populations to cancer and contribute to better predictions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs that are metabolized by NAT2, in different populations. [source]