Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Polyimides

  • aromatic polyimide
  • photosensitive polyimide

  • Terms modified by Polyimides

  • polyimide fiber
  • polyimide film
  • polyimide foam
  • polyimide membrane
  • polyimide nanocomposite
  • polyimide precursor
  • polyimide substrate

  • Selected Abstracts

    In situ generated hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene nanoparticles in polyimide films

    Anand Kumar Gupta
    Abstract Polyimide (PI) has been extensively investigated as matrices for blends in the search for novel materials for microelectronics and engineering application. The processing of the PI with hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) offers a considerable advantage to develop a material having good mechanical and thermal stability. Taking this into account, the HTPB was blended with polyamic acid, which is precursor to PI to form PI + HTPB films. A number of properties were evaluated for PI + HTPB films with ultra low concentrations of HTPB. The films prepared with ultra low concentration (10,3,1 wt%) showed unusual synergism, which is attributed to the presence of in situ generated micro/nanostructures derived from HTPB. The microhardness study was used to elucidate the actual mechanical performance due to structure formation of HTPB in a nanometer regime within PI matrix. Atomic force microscopy analysis confirmed the dispersion of HTPB at nano regime within PI matrix. The enhanced thermal stability as determined by thermogravimetric analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was attributed to the presence of micro/nanoparticle of HTPB within the PI matrix. The water absorption isotherms were measured and their abnormal behavior was correlated with micro-/nano-sized particles in the PI/HTPB film. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 28:48,59, 2009; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/adv.20144 [source]

    Effect of the origin of ZnO nanoparticles dispersed in polyimide films on their photoluminescence and thermal stability

    Anongnat Somwangthanaroj
    Abstract Polyimide (PI) films containing dispersed ZnO nanoparticles were prepared from both zinc nitrate hexahydrate (designated as Zn(NO3)2/PI) and ZnO nanoparticles, 2-nm average primary size (ZnO/PI). This work shows how the origin of ZnO affects both the photoluminescence and thermal decomposition of the film. The presence of ZnO derived from Zn(NO3)26H2O was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique. The fluorescent intensities from Zn(NO3)2/PI and ZnO/PI were much higher than that from pure PI films. When the ZnO concentration exceeded a certain saturation level, the emission intensity decreased due to the undesirable aggregation of ZnO. At the same concentration, ZnO/PI exhibited higher emission intensity than Zn(NO3)2/PI. All samples prepared under nitrogen emitted higher intensity than their counterparts prepared under argon. The ZnO/PI film was thermally more stable than the Zn(NO3)2/PI one. From TEM images of 117.6 mol% ZnO/PI films, the ZnO aggregates, whose average size was 17,90 nm, were well distributed throughout the film but poorly dispersed in nanometer range. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Colorless polyimide nanocomposite films: Thermomechanical properties, morphology, and optical transparency

    Hyo-Seong Jin
    Abstract Polyimide (PI)/organoclay hybrid films were prepared by the solution intercalation method, using dodecyltriphenylphosphonium-mica (C12PPh-Mica) as the organoclay. The variations with organoclay content of the thermomechanical properties, morphology, and optical transparency of the hybrids were examined for concentrations from 0 to 1.0 wt %. For low clay contents (, 0.5 wt %), the clay particles are better dispersed in the matrix polymer, without the formation of large agglomerates of particles, than they are for high clay contents. However, agglomerated structures form and become denser in the PI matrix for clay contents , 0.75 wt %. This is in agreement with the observed trends in the thermomechanical properties and the optical transparency, which worsen drastically when the clay content of the C12PPh-Mica/PI hybrids reaches 0.75 wt %. However, when the amount of organoclay in the hybrid is 0.75 wt %, the initial modulus of the hybrid film is at its maximum value. The PI hybrid films were found to exhibit excellent optical transparencies and to be almost colorless. It was found, however, that the transparency decreases slightly with increases in the organoclay content because of agglomeration of the clay particles. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Structural, thermal, micromechanical and electrical study of polyimide composite thin films incorporating indium tin oxide

    Anand Kumar Gupta
    Abstract Studies of composite films incorporating inorganic materials are of immense importance for current technological applications. Polyimide (PI) composite thin films incorporating indium tin oxide (ITO) at various weight ratios were processed using an in situ generation approach. The resultant product was imidized up to 350 C to test the ability of the material to endure high temperatures without affecting the host matrix. The morphological behaviour of the PI/ITO composite films was investigated using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy characterization techniques. The degrees of crystallinity and ITO particle size within the PI matrix were studied using X-ray diffraction. The thermal, structural and electrical properties were analysed using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, UV-visible spectroscopy and the four-probe technique. The micromechanical properties of the composites were evaluated in terms of tensile strength, tensile modulus and elongation. An overall improvement in the properties of the composite films was observed in comparison to those of pure PI. The synergistic improvement in the composite films is associated with the interaction mechanism between ITO and PI, where ITO becomes dispersed and interacts within the PI matrix. This leads to a decrease in available free-space volume and increases the surface enrichment providing reinforcement to the matrix. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Structural characterization of silica modified polyimide membranes

    Mehtap Safak Boroglu
    Abstract Polyimide and hybrid polyimide-siloxane were synthesized by polycondensation, imidization, and sol-gel reaction. The polyimides were prepared from pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 4,4-oxydianiline (ODA) in N -methyl-2-pyrollidone (NMP). Trimethoxyvinyl silane (TMVS) was used as a source of silica. Their surface morphologies, structures and thermal performances were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the silica particles were finely and rather homogeneously dispersed in polymers. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of hybrid membrane materials increased with the increasing silica content. TGA analysis showed that polyimides were thermally stable with silica. Modified polyimide-siloxane films, thermal characteristics were found to be better than the polyimide films without silica. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reliability Model for Polyimide,Metal Interconnect Shorts in GaAs ASICs

    N. Strifas
    Abstract A physical reliability model has been developed to calculate the time to failure of polyimide,metal multilevel interconnected GaAs components due to the shorts between interconnect metallizations through a polyimide interlayer. The failure mechanism for the shorts between neighboring metals through the polyimide is described as a stress-assisted diffusion process along a polyimide microcrack due to the combination of process defect and high thermal stress concentration. The finite element method has been used to determine the temperature increase during operation and the resulting thermal stress due to the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) of the materials used in the multilevel metallization GaAs module of devices. Numerical methods have been used to solve the partial differential diffusion equations with stress gradients in order to obtain the time to failure of the devices. The time to failure for the shorts between metal level 4 and metal 2 at 123 C operating temperature was calculated to be 20 h for the conditions analyzed. The activation energy for the failure of the shorts between two level metals was calculated to be 0.48 eV. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Pervaporative Dehydration of Alcohols by Carbonized Kapton Polyimide

    A. Sungpet
    Abstract Kapton polyimide was carbonized at 873, 1073 and 1273,K with a heating rate of 1, 3 and 5,K,min,1 and applied to the dehydration of methanol, ethanol and isopropanol by pervaporation. Lowering the heating rate or increasing the carbonization temperature resulted in higher selectivity and a decrease in permeability. X-ray diffraction data revealed that when carbonized at high temperature or with a low heating rate, the membrane had lower interplanar spacing, which corresponded to a reduction in pore size. It was also found that the carbonization temperature had a greater influence on the membrane structure than the heating rate. A comparison between permeability observed from single-component and bi-component feeds indicated that the separation mechanism involved more than molecular sieving alone. [source]

    Direct Laser Interference Structuring as a Tool to Gradually Tune the Wetting Response of Titanium and Polyimide Surfaces

    Michael Hans
    Direct laser interference structuring has been used for topographical surface design on titanium and polyimide. The wetting response of processed materials showed a roughness-dependant increase in contact angle starting at initially hydrophilic conditions. [source]

    Average power-handling capability of the signal line in coplanar waveguides on polyimide and GaAs substrates including the irregular line edge shape effects

    Wen-Yan Yin
    Abstract The average power-handling capability (APHC) of the signal line in finite-ground coplanar waveguides (FGCPWs) on polyimide and GaAs substrates is evaluated in this paper. In our approach, the ohmic loss of metal lines is characterized in different ways, and the effects of an irregular edge shape are also considered. The rise in temperature of the signal line is determined by single- and double-layer thermal models, with the temperature-dependent properties of the thermal conductivity of GaAs material treated appropriately. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the overall effects of signal-line width, thickness, conductivity, edge-shape angle, and polyimide thickness on APHC. Some possible ways to enhance the APHC of these FGCPWs are also proposed. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE, 2005. [source]

    Average power handling capability of multilayer microstrip lines

    Inder J. Bahl
    Abstract This article describes the average power handling capability (APHC) of multilayer microstrip lines, including the effect of mismatch at the terminations. The data presented herein are validated by considering an example of a 12-W monolithic microwave integrated circuit power amplifier fabricated using multilayer low-loss microstrip technology. The calculated value of APHC for a 50-, line of a 75-,m-thick GaAs substrate is 1445 W at 10 GHz, whereas the corresponding value for a multilayer microstrip that has 10-,m-thick polyimide is only 44 W. At 40 GHz, these values are reduced by a factor of 2. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE 11: 385,395, 2001. [source]

    Effects of membrane thickness and heat treatment on the gas transport properties of membranes based on P84 polyimide

    Yi Shen
    Abstract P84 polyimide membranes with thicknesses ranging from 6 to 310 ,m were successfully fabricated by spin coating. The glass transition temperature of the P84 powder was found to be 315C using differential scanning calorimetry, whereas its decomposition temperature was 536C using thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology of the membranes. The permeability of single gas (He, N2, O2, and CO2) and the ideal selectivity of gas pair (O2/N2, He/CO2, CO2/N2, and He/O2), as a function of membrane thickness, were determined. The results showed that the permeability of a single gas increased with increasing membrane thickness, whereas the selectivity of a given gas pair was nearly independent of the membrane thickness. The average selectivity of O2/N2, He/CO2, CO2/N2, and He/O2 were found to be 8.2, 10.0, 12.9, and 15.8, respectively. The effects of heat treatment on the membrane morphology and gas transport properties were investigated for three annealing temperatures, i.e., 80C, 200C, and 315C. The membrane annealed at 315C was cracked due to the stress sustained either during heating or cooling, thereby resulting in little or no selectivity. The permeabilities of P84-118 membrane (118 ,m thickness) annealed at 80C were 16.2, 0.196, 1.20, and 2.01 Barrer for He, N2, O2, and CO2, respectively. The permeabilities of P84-118 membrane annealed at 200C decreased by 9.75%, 47.96%, 25.83%, and 30.85% for He, N2, O2, and CO2, respectively, as compared with those at 80C, whereas the ideal selectivities increased by 42.65%, 30.52%, 32.85%, and 21.63% for O2/N2, He/CO2, CO2/N2, and He/O2, respectively. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

    Simulation of dry-spinning process of polyimide fibers

    Gang Deng
    Abstract As one type of high-performance fibers, the polyimide fibers can be prepared from the precursor polyamic acid via dry-spinning technology. Unlike the dry-spinning process of cellulose acetate fiber or polyurethane fiber, thermal cyclization reaction of the precursor in spinline with high temperature results in the relative complex in the dry-spinning process. However, the spinning process is considered as a steady state due to a slight degree of the imidization reaction from polyamic acid to polyimide, and therefore a one-dimensional model based on White-Metzer viscoelastic constitutive equation is adopted to simulate the formation of the fibers. The changes of solvent mass fraction, temperature, axial velocity, tensile stress, imidization degree, and glass transition temperature of the filament along the spinline were predicted. The effects of spinning parameters on glass transition temperature and imidization degree were thus discussed. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    A positive-working photosensitive polyimide based on thermal cross-linking and acidolytic cleavage

    Myung-Sup Jung
    Abstract A novel positive-working photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) based on a poly(hydroxyimide) (PHI), a crosslinking agent having vinyl ether groups, and a photoacid generator (PAG) was prepared. The PHI as a base resin of the three-component PSPI was synthesized from 4,4,-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 2,2,-bis(3-amino-4-hydroxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane through ring-opening polymerization and subsequent thermal cyclization. 2,2,-bis(4-(2-(vinyloxy)ethoxy)phenyl)propane (BPA-DEVE) was used as a vinylether compound and diphenyliodonium 5-hydroxynaphthalene-1-sulfonate was used as a PAG. The phenolic hydroxyl groups of the PHI and the vinyl ether groups of BPA-DEVE are thermally crosslinked with acetal structures during prebake step, and the crosslinked PHI becomes completely insoluble in an aqueous basic solution. Upon exposure to UV light (365 nm) and subsequent postexposure bake (PEB), a strong acid generated from the PAG cleaves the crosslinked structures, and the exposed area is effectively solubilized in the alkaline developer. The dissolution behavior of the PSPI containing each 11.5 wt % of BPA-DEVE and of the PAG was studied after UV exposure (365 nm) and PEB. It was found that the difference in dissolution rates between exposed and unexposed areas was enough to get high resolution. A fine positive pattern with a resolution of 5 ,m in a 3.7-,m-thick film was obtained from the three-component PSPI. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Preparation of poly(amic acid) and polyimide derived from 3,3,,4,4,-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride with different diamines by microwave irradiation

    Quantao Li
    Abstract Polycondensation-type poly(amic acid) (PAA) was synthesized with 3,3,,4,4,-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride as a dianhydride monomer and 4,4,-diaminodiphenylmethane and 4,4,-oxydianiline as diamine monomers under microwave irradiation in dimethylformamide. Then, PAA was used to make polyimide (PI) by imidization at a low temperature. The structure and performance of the polymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), viscosity, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TG) curve analyses. The FTIR spectra of the polymers showed characteristic peaks of PI around 1779 and 1717 cm,1. The 1H-NMR spectrum of PAA indicated a singlet at 6.55 ppm assigned to NHCO and a singlet at 10.27 ppm assigned to carboxylic acid protons. The XRD spectrum demonstrated that the obtained PI had a low-order aggregation structure with a d -spacing of 0.5453 nm. The TG results revealed that the PI was thermally stable with 10% weight loss at 565C in an N2 atmosphere. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 2008 [source]

    CO2 Plasticization of polyethersulfone/polyimide gas-separation membranes

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2003
    G. C. Kapantaidakis
    This work reports the CO2 plasticization of gas-separation hollow-fiber membranes based on polyimide and polyethersulfone blends. The feed pressure effect on the permeance of pure gases (CO2, N2) and the separation performance of a gaseous mixture (CO2/N2, 55/45%) is examined. Contrary to dense membranes, the permeance of CO2 through ultrathin asymmetric fibers increases immediately with pressure resulting in pronounced apparent plasticization and reduction of the ideal CO2/N2 selectivity. However, no evidence of plasticization was observed when a CO2/N2, 55/45% mixture was fed to the hollow-fiber membranes. In all cases, CO2 permeance decreased with pressure, while that of N2 remained constant. Experimental results were validated by means of mathematical modeling. Membrane-separation performance was overestimated when pressure-independent permeabilities were used in the model, while pressure-dependent permeabilities, due to the overall effect of plasticization and competition phenomena, explained excellently, the obtained stage-cut and permeate purity. [source]

    Flexible nanocrystalline-titania/polyimide hybrids with high refractive index and excellent thermal dimensional stability

    Guey-Sheng Liou
    Abstract In this study, a novel synthetic route was developed to prepare polyimide,nanocrystalline,titania hybrid optical films with a relatively high titania content (up to 50 wt %) and thickness (20,30 ,m) from soluble polyimides containing hydroxyl groups. Two series of newly soluble polyimides were synthesized from the hydroxy-substituted diamines with various commercial tetracarboxylic dianhydrides. The hydroxyl groups on the backbone of the polyimides could provide the organic,inorganic bonding and resulted in homogeneous hybrid solutions by controlling the mole ratio of titanium butoxide/hydroxyl group. AFM, SEM, TEM, and XRD results indicated the formation of well-dispersed nanocrystalline-titania. The flexible hybrid films could be successfully obtained and revealed relatively good surface planarity, thermal dimensional stability, tunable refractive index, and high optical transparency. A three-layer antireflection coating based on the hybrid films was prepared and showed a reflectance of less than 0.5% in the visible range indicated its potential optical applications. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 48: 1433,1440, 2010 [source]

    Synthesis and hierarchical superstructures of side-chain liquid crystal polyacetylenes containing galactopyranoside end-groups

    Ming-Shou Ho
    Abstract Three kinds of chiral saccharide-containing liquid crystalline (LC) acetylenic monomers were prepared by click reaction between 2-azidoethyl-2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl-,- D -galactopyranoside and 1-biphenylacetylene 4-alkynyloxybenzoate. The obtained monomers were polymerized by WCl6 -Ph4Sn to form three side-chain LC polyacetylenes containing 1-[2-(2,3,4,6-tetraacetyl-,- D -galactopyranos-1-yl)-ethyl]-1H -[1,2,3]-triazol-4,-biphenyl 4-alkynyloxybenzoate side groups. All monomers and polymers show a chiral smectic A phase. Self-assembled hiearchical superstructures of the chiral saccharide-containing LCs and LCPs in solution state were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Because of the LC behavior, the LC molecules exhibit a high segregation strength for phase separation in dilute solution (THF/H2O = 1:9 v/v). The self-assembled morphology of LC monomers was dependent upon the alkynyloxy chain length. Increasing the alkynyloxy chain length caused the self-assembled morphology to change from a platelet-like texture (LC-6) to helical twists morphology (LC-11 and LC-12). Furthermore, the helical twist morphological structure can be aligned on the polyimide rubbed glass substrate to form two-dimensional ordered helical patterns. In contrast to LC monomers, the LCP-11 self-assembled into much more complicate morphologies, including nanospheres and helical nanofibers. These nanofibers are evolved from the helical cables ornamented with entwining nanofibers upon natural evaporation of the solution in a mixture with a THF/methanol ratio of 3:7. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 6596,6611, 2009 [source]

    Synthesis of high-refractive index polyimide containing selenophene unit

    Nam-Ho You
    Abstract A highly refractive and transparent aromatic polyimide (PI) containing a selenophene unit has been developed. The PI was prepared by a two-step polycondensation procedure from 2,5-bis(4-aminophenylenesulfanyl)selenophene (APSP) and 4,4,-[p -thiobis(phenylenesulfanyl)]diphthalic anhydride (3SDEA), and shows high thermal stabilities, such as a relatively high-glass transition temperature of 189 C and 5% weight loss temperature (T5%) of 418 C. The optical transmittance of the PI film at 450 nm is higher than 50%. The selenophene unit provides the PI with a refractive index of 1.7594, which is higher than corresponding PIs containing a thiophene or a phenyl unit because of the high polarizability per unit volume of the selenium atom. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 47: 4428,4434, 2009 [source]

    Nanometer-scale surface modification by polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene on polymer substrates in supercritical fluoroform

    Toshiaki Mori
    Abstract Surface penetrated polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) was carried out on a polycarbonate (PC) plate in supercritical fluoroform (scCHF3). Since the high diffusiveness is one of peculiar features of supercritical fluids, TFE monomers and initiators (perfluorinated benzoyl peroxide) could penetrate into the surface of polymer substrates and be photo-polymerized. After washing physisorbed homopolymers on the surface, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was found to penetrate into 50,800 nm depth from the surface and covered the PC surface in the proportion of 85%. The surface coverage density and the penetration depth could be controlled by adjusting of the pressure of scCHF3. The TFE-penetrated polymerization could be applied for various polymer plates such as polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, poly(ethylene terephthalate), and polyimide. In addition to polymer plates, this technique could be applied to a cellulose paper, a nylon textile, and a porous PC membrane. The PTFE-penetrated nylon textile showed a high resistance for washing test with detergents, compared with the commercial fluoropolymer-sprayed nylon textile. The PTFE-penetrated porous PC membrane showed high oxygen permeability (P/P = 5.2), compared with that of the untreated PC membrane (P/P = 3.5) in gas permeation experiments of O2 and N2. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 1577,1585, 2008 [source]

    Poly(vinyltriethoxysilane) modified MWCNT/polyimide nanocomposites,Preparation, morphological, mechanical, and electrical properties

    Siu-Ming Yuen
    Abstract Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified by vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) via free radical reaction has been prepared (poly (vinyltriethoxysilane) modified MWCNTs, PVTES-MWCNT). Precursor of polyimide, polyamic acid has been synthesized by reacting 4,4,-oxydianiline with 3,3,,4,4,-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride. PVTES-MWCNT were then mixed with polyamic acid and heated to 300 C to form CNT/polyimide composite. During the imidization processes, the silanes on CNT surface reacted with each other and may be connected together by covalent bond (SiOSi). The PVTES-MWCNT was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The PVTES-MWCNT/polyimide composites were analyzed by CP/MAS solid state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Morphological properties of the PVTES-MWCNT/polyimide composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Electrical conductivity increased dramatically comparing to the unmodified MWCNT/polyimide composites. Mechanical properties of nanocomposite were enhanced significantly by PVTES-MWCNT. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 46: 803,816, 2008 [source]

    Synthesis and properties of poly(amic acid)s and polyimides based on 2,2,,6,6,-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride

    Katsuya Sakayori
    Abstract Poly(amic acid)s (PAAs) having the high solution stability and transmittance at 365 nm for photosensitive polyimides have been developed. PAAs with a twisted conformation in the main chains were prepared from 2,2,,6,6,-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (2,2,,6,6,-BPDA) and aromatic diamines. Imidization of PAAs was achieved by chemical treatment using trifluoroacetic anhydride. Among them, the PAA derived from 2,2,,6,6,-BPDA and 4,4,-(1,3-phenylenedioxy)dianiline was converted to the polyimide by thermal treatment. The heating at 300 C under nitrogen did not complete thermal imidization of PAAs having glass-transition temperatures (Tg)s higher than 300 C to the corresponding PIs. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 6385,6393, 2006 [source]

    Synthesis and properties of novel polyimides derived from 2,2,,3,3,-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride

    Xing-Zhong Fang
    Abstract A new synthetic route to 2,2,,3,3,-BTDA (where BTDA is benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride), an isomer of 2,3,,3,,4,-BTDA and 3,3,,4,4,-BTDA, is described. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 2,2,,3,3,-BTDA has shown that this dianhydride has a bent and noncoplanar structure. The polymerizations of 2,2,,3,3,-BTDA with 4,4,-oxydianiline (ODA) and 4,4,-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene (TPEQ) have been investigated with a conventional two-step process. A trend of cyclic oligomers forming in the reaction of 2,2,,3,3,-BTDA and ODA has been found and characterized with IR, NMR, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses. Films based on 2,2,,3,3,-BTDA/TPEQ can only be obtained from corresponding polyimide (PI) solutions prepared by chemical imidization because those from their polyamic acids by thermal imidization are brittle. PIs from 2,2,,3,3,-BTDA have lower inherent viscosities and worse thermal and mechanical properties than the corresponding 2,3,,3,,4,-BTDA- and 3,3,,4,4,-BTDA-based PIs. PIs from 2,2,,3,3,-BTDA and 2,3,,3,,4,-BTDA are amorphous, whereas those from 3,3,,4,4,-BTDA have some crystallinity, according to wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, PIs from 2,2,,3,3,-BTDA have better solubility, higher glass-transition temperatures, and higher melt viscosity than those from 2,3,,3,,4,-BTDA and 3,3,,4,4,-BTDA. Model compounds have been prepared to explain the order of the glass-transition temperatures found in the isomeric PI series. The isomer effects on the PI properties are discussed. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 42: 2130,2144, 2004 [source]

    Novel side-chain liquid-crystalline polyimide for film materials

    Haojun Fan
    Abstract A novel side-chain liquid-crystalline polyimide (SLCPI) was prepared via copolycondensation from 3,5-diamino-benzonic-4,-biphenyl ester, 4,4,-diamino- biphenyl ether, and 3,3,,4,4,-oxydiphthalic dianhydride. The energy-minimized structure and liquid crystallinity of SLCPI were investigated by molecular modeling, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray scattering, and polarized optical microscopy, respectively. The results indicated that this polyimide (PI) with side-chain mesogenic units exhibited a nematic NI phase. Because of the in situ self-reinforcement of side-chain mesogenic units, the improved tensile strength and modulus of PI films reached 270% and 300%, respectively. The coefficient of thermal expansion of films decreased by 40%. DSC and thermogravimetric analyses indicated that the phase-transition temperature of SLCPI was above 240 C, and the 5% weight-loss temperature was above 520 C. Moreover, copolycondensation of two diamines with dianhydride and incorporation of pendent mesogenic units diminished the regularity and symmetry of main chains; as a result, SLCPI exhibits good film processability. 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 41: 554,559, 2003 [source]

    Synthesis of nonlinear optical polyimides containing azodiamine derivative chromophores and their electrooptic and thermal properties

    Yuming Zhou
    Abstract Some thermally stable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) polyimides were synthesized. The polyimides were prepared by the ring-opening polyaddition of 4,4,-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic anhydride and pyromellitic dianhydride with two aromatic azodiamine derivatives as the NLO chromophores. These chromophores, based on a nitro group connected with azobenzene as the acceptor end of a donor,,-bridge,acceptor chromophore and a diamine group as the donor end, had specific chemical stability. On the basis of ZERNER'S INDO methods, according to the sum-over-states formula, a program for the calculation of nonlinear second-order optical susceptibilities was devised. The resulting polyimides had high number-average and weight-average molecular weights of up to 26,000 and 53,500, respectively, and a large glass-transition temperature of 248 C. With an in situ poling and temperature ramping technique, the optimal temperatures (Topt's) for corona poling were obtained for the largest second-order NLO response. The electrooptic coefficient (,33) of a polyimide at a wavelength of 830 nm was up to 21 pm/V after corona poling under its Topt, and the value remained at elevated temperatures (>90.6% was retained at 240 C for >120 h). The thermal stability of the NLO polyimides was studied with UV spectrometry after poling of the films. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 40: 2478,2486, 2002 [source]

    Synthesis and characterization of novel polyimide from bis-(3-aminophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl phosphine oxide

    Kwang Un Jeong
    Abstract A novel diamine, bis-(3-aminophenyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl phosphine oxide (mDA3FPPO), containing phosphine oxide and fluorine moieties was prepared via the Grignard reaction from an intermediate, 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl diphenyl phosphine oxide, that was synthesized from diphenylphosphinic chloride and 4-(trifluoromethyl)bromobenzene, followed by nitration and reduction. The monomer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 1H NMR, 31P NMR, 19F NMR spectroscopies; elemental analysis; melting point measurements; and titration and was used to prepare polyimides with a number of dianhydrides such as pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 5,5,-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyliden]-bis-1,3-isobenzofuranedione (6FDA), 3,3,,4,4,-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA), and 4,4,-oxydiphthalic dianhydride (ODPA). Polyimides were synthesized via a conventional two-step route; preparation of polyamic acids, followed by solution imidization, and the molecular weight were controlled to 20,000 g/mol. Resulting polyimides were characterized by FTIR, NMR, DSC, and intrinsic viscosity measurements. Refractive-index, dielectric constant, and adhesive properties were also determined. The properties of polyimides were compared with those of polyimides prepared from 1,1-bis-(4-aminophenyl)-1-phenyl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (3FDAm) and bis-(3-aminophenyl) phenyl phosphine oxide (mDAPPO). The polyimides prepared from mDA3FPPO provided high glass-transition temperatures (248,311 C), good thermal stability, excellent solubility, low birefringence (0.0030,0.0036), low dielectric constants (2.9,3.1), and excellent adhesive properties with Cu foils (107 g/mm). 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 39: 3335,3347, 2001 [source]

    Chemical modification and surface reactions on carbon fibers studied by SERS

    Bing Xu
    Abstract Carbon fibers were modified by reacting with maleic anhydride (MA) and oxidation in nitric acid to alter their inert nature. Bismaleimide, acting as a model compound of polyimide, was chosen to react with the surface-active carbon fibers. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering was performed by chemically depositing Ag colloids on different carbon fiber samples, including raw, modified and post-reaction materials. The obtained enhanced Raman spectra explained the surface chemistry of the different carbon fiber samples and their further interaction with bismaleimide. The results could serve as a guide for the design of functional groups on carbon fibers and the manufacture of the carbon-fiber-reinforced polyimide matrix composites. Moreover, the effect of different laser powers and laser irradiation times on the carbon fiber surface was studied and is discussed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The use of post-mortem Raman spectroscopy in explaining friction and wear behaviour of sintered polyimide at high temperature

    P. Samyn
    Abstract Due to their thermal stability and high strength, polyimides are an aromatic type of polymer that is used in sliding equipment functioning under high loads and elevated temperature. However, its tribological behaviour under high temperature and atmospheric conditions is not fully understood. It has been reported that a transition from high towards lower friction occurs ,somewhere' in the temperature region between 100C and 200C; however, a correlation with changes in the polyimide molecular structure remains difficult to illustrate and it is not certain whether or not this transition is correlated to lower wear. In the present work sliding experiments under controlled bulk temperatures between 100C and 260C are performed. A transition is observed in both friction and wear at 180C which is further explained by microscopic analysis of the transfer film on the steel counterface and Raman spectroscopy of the worn polymer surfaces. A close examination of the spectra reveals transitions in relative intensity of certain absorption bands, pointing to different orientation effects of the molecular conformation at the polymer sliding surface at 180C. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    In situ Preparation of Polyimide Composites Based on Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Rohit Srivastava
    Abstract Three series of composite films based on polyimide and MWNTs were prepared by conversion of pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4,-oxydianiline in the presence of the nanotubes, followed by thermal imidization. Carboxy- and amino-functionalized as well as unmodified nanotubes were used. It was demonstrated that just 0.5 wt.-% of nanotubes increased the tensile properties of the composite films distinctly. Surprisingly, a significant influence of the functional groups on the mechanical performance of the composite films could not be demonstrated. However, it was shown that functional groups may reduce the conductivity of the films. Furthermore, the influence of ultrasonication is discussed. [source]

    Synthesis and Optical Properties of Soluble Polyimide/Titania Hybrid Thin Films

    Chih-Ming Chang
    Abstract Summary: In this study high-refractive-index polyimide/titania hybrid optical thin films were successfully prepared using a sol-gel process combined with spin coating and multistep baking. The hybrid thin films were prepared from a soluble polyimide, a coupling agent, and a titania precursor. Transparent hybrid thin films can be obtained at TiO2 content as high as 40 wt.-%. The FE-SEM results suggest that the TiO2 particles in the hybrid thin films have diameters in the nanometer range. The thermal decomposition temperatures of the prepared hybrid materials are above those of the respective polyimide except for the highest TiO2 content hybrids. The refractive indices at 633 nm of the prepared hybrid thin films increase linearly from 1.66 to 1.82 with increasing TiO2 content. The excellent optical transparency, thermal stability, and tunable refractive index provide the potentials of the polyimide/titania hybrid thin films in optical applications. [source]

    Optical Non-Linearity from Montmorillonite Intercalated with a Chromophore-Containing Dendritic Structure: A Self-Assembly Approach

    Yung-Chung Chen
    Abstract Chromophore-containing dendritic structures (G1, G2) are utilized to intercalate layered silicates, which results in a large d -spacing up to 126 . An exfoliated morphology is obtained by mixing the dendritic structure intercalated layered silicates with polyimide in N,N -dimethylacetamide solution. The dendritic structures attached on the clay template would arrange in a non-centrosymmetric manner. This self-assembled arrangement brought about the electro-optical coefficients of 5,6 pm,,V,1 for these relatively low chromophore-containing organic/inorganic nanocomposites without resorting to poling. Excellent temporal stability (100,C) is also achieved. [source]