Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Poly

  • Cross-Link poly
  • active poly
  • alternating poly
  • amorphous poly
  • amphiphilic poly
  • aromatic poly
  • available poly
  • bacterial poly
  • biodegradable poly
  • block copolymer poly
  • carbon poly
  • cationic poly
  • commercial poly
  • conducting poly
  • conductive poly
  • conjugated poly
  • containing poly
  • copolymer poly
  • corresponding poly
  • cross-linked poly
  • crosslinked poly
  • degradable poly
  • dense poly
  • diblock copolymer poly
  • different poly
  • electrospun poly
  • ferroelectric poly
  • flexible poly
  • fluorescent poly
  • fréchet-type poly
  • functional poly
  • functionalized poly
  • grafted poly
  • high molecular weight poly
  • high-molecular-weight poly
  • hybrid poly
  • hydrophilic poly
  • hydrophobic poly
  • hyperbranched poly
  • immiscible poly
  • indium tin poly
  • isotactic poly
  • linear poly
  • loaded poly
  • low-molecular-weight poly
  • macroporou poly
  • magnetic poly
  • methoxy poly
  • modified poly
  • molecular weight poly
  • monodisperse poly
  • nanostructured poly
  • new poly
  • novel poly
  • obtained poly
  • ph-responsive poly
  • plasticized poly
  • polymer poly
  • porous poly
  • pure poly
  • random poly
  • recycled poly
  • regioregular poly
  • rigid poly
  • segmented poly
  • soft poly
  • solid poly
  • soluble poly
  • stable poly
  • star poly
  • star-shaped poly
  • stereoblock poly
  • sulfonated poly
  • syndiotactic poly
  • thermoplastic poly
  • thermoresponsive poly
  • thermosensitive poly
  • tin poly
  • unmodified poly
  • water-soluble poly
  • weight poly
  • well-defined poly

  • Terms modified by Poly

  • poly i

  • Selected Abstracts

    Phenylene vinylene-based electroluminescent polymers with electron transport block in the main chain

    Honghao Sun
    Abstract We report a new route for the design of soluble phenylene vinylene (PV) based electroluminescent polymers bearing electron-deficient oxadizole (OXD) and triazole (TZ) moieties in the main chains with the aryloxy linkage. Both series of the PV-based polymers were prepared by Wittig reaction. By properly adjusting the OXD and/or TZ content through copolymerization, we can achieve an enhanced balance of hole- and electron injections, such that the device efficiency is significantly improved. Light-emitting diodes fabricated from P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, and P7 with the configuration of Indium,Tin Oxide (ITO)/Poly (styrene sulfonic acid) doped poly (ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/polymer/Ca/Al, emit bright green light with the maximum peak around 500 nm. For the device using the optimal polymer (P4) as emitting layer, a maximum brightness of 1300 cd/m2 at 20 V and a maximum luminance efficiency of 0.325 cd/A can be obtained. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part A: Polym Chem 44: 3469,3478, 2006 [source]

    Physically and Chemically Cross-Linked Poly{[(maleic anhydride)- alt -styrene]- co -(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)}/Poly(ethylene glycol) Proton-Exchange Membranes

    lser G. Devrim
    Abstract Novel proton exchange membranes were solvent-cast from DMF solutions of the terpolymers poly[(MA- alt -S)- co -AMPS], containing hydrophobic phenyl and reactive hydrophilic carboxylic and organo-sulfonic acid fragments with different compositions, and PEGs with different molecular weights and amounts. These membranes were formed as a result of physical (via H-bonding) and chemical (via PEG) cross-linking. The structures of membranes were confirmed by FT-IR and 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Mechanical and thermal properties, swellability, and proton conductivity of these membranes were significantly affected both by the chemical composition of the terpolymers (mainly the AMPS content) and also the cross-linker (PEG) molecular weight and content in the final form of the membranes. It was concluded that the membranes prepared by using the terpolymer with an AMPS content of 36.84 mol-% and PEG with a molecular weight of 1,450 and with an initial PEG content of 30 wt.-% are the most suitable ones for fuel cell applications. [source]

    Immiscible Poly(L -lactide)/Poly(, -caprolactone) Blends: Influence of the Addition of a Poly(L -lactide)-Poly(oxyethylene) Block Copolymer on Thermal Behavior and Morphology

    Giovanni Maglio
    Abstract Summary: A binary blend of poly (L -lactide) (PLLA) and poly(, -caprolactone) (PCL) of composition 70:30 by weight was prepared using a twin screw miniextruder and investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ternary 70:30:2 blends were also obtained by adding either a diblock copolymer of PLLA and poly(oxyethylene) (PEO) or a triblock PLLA-PCL-PLLA copolymer as a third component. Optical microscopy revealed that the domain size of dispersed PCL domains is reduced by one order of magnitude in the presence of both copolymers. SEM confirmed the strong reduction in particle size upon the addition of the copolymers, with an indication of an enhanced emulsifying effect in the case of the PLLA-PEO copolymer. These results are analyzed on the basis of solubility parameters of the blend components. Optical micrograph of M3EG2 blend melt quenched at 125,°C. [source]

    Miscibility and Physical Properties of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate -co- 3-hydroxyhexanoate)/Poly(ethylene oxide) Binary Blends

    Fang Yu
    Abstract In order to improve some inferior physical properties of bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate -co- 3-hydroxyhexanoate) [P(3HB -co- 3HHx)] by blending with PEO, the miscibility, spherulite morphology, crystallization behavior and mechanical properties of P(3HB -co- 3HHx)/PEO binary biodegradable polymer blends were investigated. A good miscibility between P(3HB -co- 3HHx) with a 3HHx unit content of 11 mol-% and PEO in the amorphous state was found when the PEO weight fraction was 10,wt.-%, while the miscibility decreased dramatically when the PEO weight fraction exceeded 20,wt.-%. Strongly depending on the blend composition, the mechanical properties of P(3HB -co- 3HHx) was found to be significantly improved by blending with PEO with a weight fraction of ,5,17.5,wt.-%. [source]

    Crystallization of Poly(, -caprolactone)/Poly(vinyl chloride) Miscible Blends Under Strain: The Role of Molecular Weight

    Yubao Zhang
    Abstract Summary: The effect of poly(, -caprolactone) (PCL) molecular weight on the orientation of crystalline PCL in miscible poly(, -caprolactone)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/PVC) blends, melt crystallized under strain, has been studied by a combination of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies. An unusual crystal orientation with the b-axis parallel to the stretching direction was observed in miscible PCL/PVC blends with PCL of high molecular weight (>21,000). SAXS showed the presence of nanosize confined PCL in the PCL/PVC blends, which could be preserved at temperatures higher than the Tm of PCL but lower than the Tg of PVC. A mechanism based on the confinement of PCL crystal growth was proposed, which can explain the formation of b-axis orientation in PCL/PVC blends crystallized under strain. SAXS pattern of stretched PCL/PVC blend after annealing at 90,°C for 5 min. [source]

    Differentiation Pattern of Vero Cells Cultured on Poly(L-Lactic Acid)/Poly(Hydroxybutyrate-co-Hydroxyvalerate) Blends

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 4 2004
    Arnaldo R. Santos Jr
    Abstract:, This study evaluates the effect of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-cohydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) bioabsorbable polymers and their blends on the induction of alteration of cell growth pattern in vitro. Vero cells were cultured on PLLA, PHBV, and different blends (100/0, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, and 0/100). The cell adhesion assay showed that the best results were obtained with the (60/40, 50/50) blends. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cells on (100/0) and (60/40) samples grew with a round morphology preferentially in the porous areas. The (50/50) blends had cells in the porous and smooth areas in a similar way. The (40/60) blends showed spreading cells on the smooth areas. The (0/100) sample, which had no pores, had spreading cells interconnected by filaments. Histological sections showed a confluent cell monolayer and the immunocytochemistry showed that the cells produced collagen IV and fibronectin on all substrates. Thus, we conclude that PLLA/PHBV blends were efficient in maintaining cell growth and producing an extracellular ,matrix on them. [source]

    Lable-Free Electrochemical DNA Sensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles/Poly(neutral red) Modified Electrode

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 6 2010
    Keying Zhang
    Abstract We present a new strategy for the label-free electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/poly(neutral red) (PNR) modified electrode. Probe oligonucledotides with thiol groups at the 5-end were covalently linked onto the surface of AuNPs/PNR modified electrode via S-Au binding. The hybridization event was monitored by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) upon hybridization generates electrochemical changes at the PNR-solution interface. A significant decrease in the peak current was observed upon hybridization of probe with complementary target ssDNA, whereas no obvious change was observed with noncomplementary target ssDNA. And the DNA sensor also showed a high selectivity for detecting one-mismatched and three-mismatched target ssDNA and a high sensitivity for detecting complementary target ssDNA, the detection limit is 4.2×10,12,M for complementary target ssDNA. In addition, the DNA biosensor showed an excellent reproducibility and stability under the DNA-hybridization conditions. [source]

    In Vitro Characteristics of Surface-Modified Biphasic Calcium Phosphate/Poly(L -Lactide) Biocomposite

    Weizhong Yang
    Abstract Surface-modified biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)/poly(L -lactide) (PLLA) biocomposite is shown to have improved microstructure and mechanical properties compared to the unmodified system. In vitro biodegradation and bioactivity of the composite are investigated in simulate body fluid for up to four weeks. Weight changes of the samples and the pH changes of the SBF are recorded. Surface properties of the composite after immersion are characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX analyses. Cyto-compatibility was determined by MTT assay with L929 mouse fibroblasts. The difference of the degradation behavior between modified BCP/PLLA and the reference unmodified composite are investigated, and mBCP/PLLA composite is proved to be a better as a scaffold material. The surface formed bio-apatite layer after immersion shows the excellent bioactivity of the mBCP/PLLA composite. L929 cells show a high growth rate and proliferation, demonstrating the good cytocompatibility of mBCP/PLLA composite. [source]

    Potential Bioelectroactive Bone Regeneration Polymer Nanocomposites with High Dielectric Permittivity,

    Zhi-Min Dang
    The frequency dependence of the dielectric permittivity of (barium titanate,hydroxyapatite)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) three-phase nanocomposites is investigated at room temperature and different fractions of barium titanate. The permittivity increases with increasing concentration of barium titanate. A weak decrease in permittivity is also observed for frequencies below 106 Hz. The SEM image inset in a dielectric permittivity vs. frequency curve shows that rod-like hydroxyapatite and sphere-like barium titanate nanoparticles exist in the three-phase nanocomposites. [source]

    Time Controlled Protein Release from Layer-by-Layer Assembled Multilayer Functionalized Agarose Hydrogels

    Sumit Mehrotra
    Abstract Axons of the adult central nervous system exhibit an extremely limited ability to regenerate after spinal cord injury. Experimentally generated patterns of axon growth are typically disorganized and randomly oriented. Support of linear axonal growth into spinal cord lesion sites has been demonstrated using arrays of uniaxial channels, templated with agarose hydrogel, and containing genetically engineered cells that secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, immobilizing neurotrophic factors secreting cells within a scaffold is relatively cumbersome, and alternative strategies are needed to provide sustained release of BDNF from templated agarose scaffolds. Existing methods of loading the drug or protein into hydrogels cannot provide sustained release from templated agarose hydrogels. Alternatively, here it is shown that pH-responsive H-bonded poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)/poly(acrylic acid)(PAA)/protein hybrid layer-by-layer (LbL) thin films, when prepared over agarose, provided sustained release of protein under physiological conditions for more than four weeks. Lysozyme, a protein similar in size and isoelectric point to BDNF, is released from the multilayers on the agarose and is biologically active during the earlier time points, with decreasing activity at later time points. This is the first demonstration of month-long sustained protein release from an agarose hydrogel, whereby the drug/protein is loaded separately from the agarose hydrogel fabrication process. [source]

    Variations in Hole Injection due to Fast and Slow Interfacial Traps in Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes with Interlayers

    M. James Harding
    Abstract Detailed studies on the effect of placing a thin (10,nm) solution-processable interlayer between a light-emitting polymer (LEP) layer and a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonic)-acid-coated indium tin oxide anode is reported; particular attention is directed at the effects on the hole injection into three different LEPs. All three different interlayer polymers have low ionization potentials, which are similar to those of the LEPs, so the observed changes in hole injection are not due to variations in injection barrier height. It is instead shown that changes are due to variations in hole trapping at the injecting interface, which is responsible for varying the hole current by up to two orders of magnitude. Transient measurements show the presence of very fast interfacial traps, which fill the moment charge is injected from the anode. These can be considered as injection pathway dead-ends, effectively reducing the active contact surface area. This is followed by slower interfacial traps, which fill on timescales longer than the carrier transit time across the device, further reducing the total current. The interlayers may increase or decrease the trap densities depending on the particular LEP involved, indicating the dominant role of interfacial chain morphology in injection. Penetration of the interlayer into the LEP layer can also occur, resulting in additional changes in the bulk LEP transport properties. [source]

    Printable Ferroelectric PVDF/PMMA Blend Films with Ultralow Roughness for Low Voltage Non-Volatile Polymer Memory

    Seok Ju Kang
    Abstract Here, a facile route to fabricate thin ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) blend films with very low surface roughness based on spin-coating and subsequent melt-quenching is described. Amorphous PMMA in a blend film effectively retards the rapid crystallization of PVDF upon quenching, giving rise to a thin and flat ferroelectric film with nanometer scale , -type PVDF crystals. The still, flat interfaces of the blend film with metal electrode and/or an organic semi-conducting channel layer enable fabrication of a highly reliable ferroelectric capacitor and transistor memory unit operating at voltages as low as 15,V. For instance, with a TIPS-pentacene single crystal as an active semi-conducting layer, a flexible ferroelectric field effect transistor shows a clockwise I,V hysteresis with a drain current bistability of 103 and data retention time of more than 15,h at ±15,V gate voltage. Furthermore, the robust interfacial homogeneity of the ferroelectric film is highly beneficial for transfer printing in which arrays of metal/ferroelectric/metal micro-capacitors are developed over a large area with well defined edge sharpness. [source]

    Novel Engineered Ion Channel Provides Controllable Ion Permeability for Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules Coated with a Lipid Membrane

    Andrew R. Battle
    Abstract The development of nanostructured microcapsules based on a biomimetic lipid bilayer membrane (BLM) coating of poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) (PSS)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) polyelectrolyte hollow microcapsules is reported. A novel engineered ion channel, gramicidin (bis-gA), incorporated into the lipid membrane coating provides a functional capability to control transport across the microcapsule wall. The microcapsules provide transport and permeation for drug-analog neutral species, as well as positively and negatively charged ionic species. This controlled transport can be tuned for selective release biomimetically by controlling the gating of incorporated bis-gA ion channels. This system provides a platform for the creation of "smart" biomimetic delivery vessels for the effective and selective therapeutic delivery and targeting of drugs. [source]

    A Hybrid Poly(ethylene oxide)/ Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/TiO2 Nanoparticle Solid-State Redox Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Nanocrystalline Solar Cells,

    W. Han
    Abstract High-efficiency all-solid-state dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells have been fabricated using a poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PEO/PVDF)/TiO2 -nanoparticle polymer redox electrolyte, which yields an overall energy-conversion efficiency of about 4.8,% under irradiation by white light (65.2,mW,cm,2). The introduction of PVDF (which contains the highly electronegative element fluorine) and TiO2 nanoparticles into the PEO electrolyte increases the ionic conductivity (by about two orders of magnitude) and effectively reduces the recombination rate at the interface of the TiO2 and the solid-state electrolyte, thus enhancing the performance of the solar cell. [source]

    Generation of Compositional-Gradient Structures in Biodegradable, Immiscible, Polymer Blends by Intermolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions,

    B. Hexig
    Abstract A biodegradable, immiscible poly(butylenes adipate- co -butylenes terephthalate) [P(BA- co -BT)]/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer blend film with compositional gradient in the film-thickness direction has been successfully prepared in the presence of a low-molecular-weight compound 4,4,-thiodiphenal (TDP), which is used as a miscibility-enhancing agent. The miscibilities of the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP ternary blend films and the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP gradient film were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The compositional gradient structure of the P(BA- co -BT)/PEO/TDP (46/46/8 w/w/w) film has been confirmed by microscopic mapping measurement of Fourier-transform infrared spectra and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. We have developed a new strategy for generating gradient-phase structures in immiscible polymer-blend systems by homogenization, i.e., adding a third agent that can enhance the miscibility of the two immiscible polymers through simultaneous formation of hydrogen bonds with two component polymers. [source]

    A Novel Route to Thermosensitive Polymeric Core,Shell Aggregates and Hollow Spheres in Aqueous Media,

    Y. Zhang
    Abstract Poly(,-caprolactone)/poly(N -isopropylacrylamide) (PCL/PNIPAM) core,shell particles are obtained by localizing the polymerization of NIPAM and crosslinker methylene bisacrylamide around the surface of PCL nanoparticles. The resultant particles are converted to hollow PNIPAM spheres by simply degrading the PCL core with an enzyme. The hollow spheres are thermosensitive and display a reversible swelling and de-swelling at ,,32,°C. [source]

    A Random Sequential Adsorption Model for Protein Adsorption to Surfaces Functionalized with Poly(ethylene oxide)

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 16 2009
    Parag Katira
    A random sequential adsorption model for the adsorption of proteins to surfaces functionalized with poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) at a range of molecular weights and grafting densities is presented. An excellent fit of the model predictions to experimental results suggests that the random arrangement of polymer chains leading to polymer-free "bald" spots is a critical factor in primary protein adsorption. [source]

    Ceramic,Polymer Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Composites with Different Type Composite Structures for Electronic Technology

    Hong Wang
    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites with 0,3, 1,3, and 2,2 type structures were prepared and studied. The effect of composite type on the dielectric properties of BST/PMMA composites was comprehensively investigated by both theoretical and experimental methods. The 1,3 type composite shows the highest permittivity and dielectric tunability, while the 2,2 and 0,3 type composites show lower permittivity as well as lower dielectric tunabilities. The experimentally measured dielectric properties are in agreement with the theoretically calculated values. The results help in understanding and tailoring the dielectric properties of ceramic,polymer composites by choosing a suitable composite structure. [source]

    Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol Phosphate) Nanocomposite Biomaterials

    Nabakumar Pramanik
    A hydroxyapatite (HAp)/poly(vinyl alcohol phosphate) (PVAP) nanocomposite has been prepared by a chemical method by varying the HAp content by 10,60% (w/w). The bonding between HAp and PVAP has been investigated through Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analyses. Transmission electron microscopy study shows a homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy study shows enhancement of the surface roughness of the composite with an increase in the nanoparticle content. The mechanical properties of the composites improve significantly with an increase in the HAp content. The HAp/PVAP nanocomposite prepared may have bone,implant applications. [source]

    Morphology and thermal behavior of organo-bentonite clay/poly(styrene- co -methacrylic acid)/poly(isobutyl methacrylate- co -4-vinylpyridine) nanocomposites

    Abderrahmane Habi
    Abstract Poly(styrene- co -methacrylic acid) containing 29 mol % of methacrylic acid (SMA-29) and poly(isobutyl methacrylate- co -4-vinylpyridine) containing 20 mol % of 4-vinylpyridine (IBM4VP-20) were synthesized, characterized, and used to elaborate binary and ternary nanocomposites of different ratios with a 3% by weight hexadecylammonium-modified bentonite from Maghnia (Algeria) by casting method from tetrahydrofuran (THF) solutions. The morphology and the thermal behavior of these binary and ternary elaborated nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry. Polymer nanocomposites and nanoblends of different morphologies were obtained. The effect of the organoclay and its dispersion within the blend matrix on the phase behavior of the miscible SMA29/IBM4VP20 blends is discussed. The obtained results showed that increasing the amount of SMA29 in the IBM4VP20/SMA29 blend leads to near exfoliated nanostructure with significantly improved thermal stability. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Mechanical properties and flammability of polycarbonate alloys containing nanosize additives

    Zhiyi Zhang
    Abstract Different organic,inorganic composite particles [montmorillonite/poly(butyl acrylate) (PBA)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), SiO2/PBA/PMMA, and CaCO3/PBA/PMMA] were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. Furthermore, polycarbonate (PC) alloys were prepared via the doping of these composite particles into PC with a twin-screw extruder. The structure, mechanical properties, and flammability of the PC alloys were studied in detail. Although the tensile modulus of PC decreased a little, the flexibility and impact resistance were improved by the addition of these composite particles. This result was attributed to the fact that the composite particles were well dispersed in the PC matrix, with a cocontinuous phase formed between the particles and PC. In addition, the combustion behavior of the PC alloys, compared with that of the pure PC, resulted from a ceramic-like char that formed on the surface of the PC alloys during burning. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    Morphology, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of poly(L -lactic acid)/poly(butylene succinate- co -adipate)/silicon dioxide composites

    Ruyin Wang
    Abstract Poly(butylene succinate- co -adipate) (PBSA) and two types of SiO2 (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) were used to modify poly(L -lactic acid) (PLLA). The mechanical properties, rheological and thermal behavior, phase morphology, and thermal stability of PLLA/PBSA/SiO2 composites were investigated. The impact strength, flexural strength, and modulus of PLLA/PBSA blends increased after the addition of hydrophobic SiO2 without decreasing the elongation at break, and the elongation at break monotonically decreased with increasing hydrophilic SiO2 content. The melt elasticity and viscosity of the PLLA/PBSA blend increased with the addition of SiO2. The hydrophilic SiO2 was encapsulated by the dispersed PBSA phase in the composites, which led to the formation of a core,shell structure, whereas the hydrophobic SiO2 was more uniformly dispersed and mainly located in the PLLA matrix, which was desirable for the optimum reinforcement of the PLLA/PBSA blend. The thermogravimetric analysis results show that the addition of the two types of SiO2 increased the initial decomposition temperature and activation energy and consequently retarded the thermal degradation of PLLA/PBSA. The retardation of degradation was prominent with the addition of hydrophobic SiO2. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2009 [source]

    The effect of ionic interaction on the miscibility and crystallization behaviors of poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(L -lactic acid) blends

    Wei-Chi Lai
    Abstract The effect of end groups (2NH2) of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on the miscibility and crystallization behaviors of binary crystalline blends of PEG/poly(L -lactic acid) (PLLA) were investigated. The results of conductivity meter and dielectric analyzer (DEA) implied the existence of ions, which could be explained by the amine groups of PEG gaining the protons from the carboxylic acid groups of PLLA. The miscibility of PEG(2NH2)/PLLA blends was the best because of the ionic interaction as compared with PEG(2OH, 1OH-1CH3, and 2CH3)/PLLA blends. Since the ionic interaction formed only at the chain ends of PEG(2NH2) and PLLA, unlike hydrogen bonds forming at various sites along the chains in the other PEG/PLLA blend systems, the folding of PLLA blended with PEG(2NH2) was affected in a different manner. Thus the fold surface free energy played an important role on the crystallization rate of PLLA for the PEG(2NH2)/PLLA blend system. PLLA had the least fold surface free energy and the fast crystallization rate in the PEG(2NH2)/PLLA blend system, among all the PEG/PLLA systems studied. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Behavior of flexible poly(vinyl chloride)/poly(hydroxybutyrate valerate) blends

    A. Marcilla
    Abstract Blends of flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and a poly(hydroxybutyrate valerate) (PHBV) copolymer were prepared and characterized with different techniques. The tensile strength of PVC did not show a marked reduction at PHBV concentrations up to 50 phr, despite a lack of miscibility between the two polymers. The crystallization of the PHBV copolymer was markedly hindered by the presence of PVC, as calorimetric results revealed. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Solid state structure and mechanical properties of melt mixed poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/polycarbonate blends

    I. González
    Abstract Poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)/poly (carbonate of bisphenol A) (PC) blends were obtained in the melt state by direct injection molding and also by extrusion followed by injection molding. The blends rich in PTT were monophasic, while the blends rich in PC were biphasic with the two components of the blends present in both phases. Both the monophasic and biphasic blends were partially miscibilized, and also partially reacted, as observed by FTIR. The extent of the reaction was greater in previously mixed blends. The observed synergism in the modulus of elasticity was attributed to the increased orientation of the blend components upon blending. Although decreases in elongation at break were observed and attributed to degradation of PTT, the blends were clearly ductile and compatible. This was a consequence of either their monophasic structure, or of the presence of the two components in the two phases of the blends. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Preparation and characterization of interpenetration polymer network films based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(acrylic acid) for drug delivery

    Yu-Mei Yue
    Abstract A series of full interpenetrating polymer network (full-IPN) films of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by radical solution polymerization and sequential IPN technology. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, swelling properties, mechanical properties, morphology, and glass transition temperature of the films were investigated. FTIR spectra analysis showed that new interaction hydrogen bonds between PVA and PAA were formed. Swelling property of the films in distilled water and different pH buffer solution was studied. Swelling ratio increased with increasing PAA content of IPN films in all media, and swelling ratio decreased with increasing PVA crosslink degree. Tensile strength and elongation at break related not only to the constitution of IPNs but also to the swelling ratio of IPNs. Mechanical property of glutaraldehyde (0.5%) for poly(vinyl alcohol) crosslinking was better than that of glutaraldehyde (1.0%). DSC of the IPN films showed only a single glass transition temperature (Tg) for each sample, and Tg data showed a linear relationship with network composition. Morphology was observed a homogeneous structure, indicating the good compatibility and miscibility between PAA and PVA. Potential application of the IPN films in controlled drug delivery was also examined using crystal violet as a model drug. The release rate of the drug was higher at 37°C than 25°C for all IPNs and also increased slightly with decreasing of poly(acrylic acid) content. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Compatibility of liquid deproteinized natural rubber having epoxy group (LEDPNR)/poly (L -lactide) blend

    Phan Trung Nghia
    Abstract Reaction after mixing of liquid epoxidized natural rubber/poly(L -lactide) blend was performed to enhance the compatibility of the blend. The liquid epoxidized natural rubber was prepared by epoxidation of deproteinized natural rubber with peracetic acid in latex stage followed by depolymerization with peroxide and propanal. The resulting liquid deproteinized natural rubber having epoxy group (LEDPNR) was mixed with poly(L -lactide) (PLLA) to investigate the compatibility of the blend through differential scanning calorimetry, optical light microscopy, and NMR spectroscopy. After heating the blend at 473 K for 20 min, glass transition temperature (Tg) of LEDPNR in LEDPNR/PLLA blend increased from 251 to 259 K, while Tg and melting temperature (Tm) of PLLA decreased from 337 to 332 K and 450 to 445 K, respectively, suggesting that the compatibility of LEDPNR/ PLLA blend was enhanced by a reaction between the epoxy group of LEDPNR and the ester group of PLLA. The reaction was proved by high-resolution solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Thermal properties and phase morphology of melt-mixed poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/poly(hexamethylene isophthalamide) blends

    Fang-Chyou Chiu
    Abstract This work examines the thermal properties and phase morphology of melt-mixed poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)/poly(hexamethylene isophthalamide) (PA 6I) blends. Two temperatures, i.e., 250 and 260°C, are used to prepare the blends, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicate the immiscible feature of the blends. It is thus concluded that the ester-amide interchange reaction hardly occurred in the PTT/PA 6I blends. Depending on the composition and mixing temperature, the crystallization ability of PTT in the blends is either enhanced or hindered. Basically, a lower PA 6I content shifts the PTT melt crystallization to a higher temperature, whereas a higher PA 6I content causes an opposing outcome. The original complex melting behavior of neat PTT becomes more regular after the incorporation of 60 wt % or 80 wt % of PA 6I. Thermogravimetry analyses (TGA) show that the thermal stability of the blends improves as the PA 6I content increases. The two-phased morphology of the blends is examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Polarized light microscopy (PLM) results reveal that the PTT spherulites become coarser with the inclusion of PA 6I; only smaller/dispersed crystallites are observed in the blend with 20 wt % of PTT. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Effective preparation and characterization of montmorillonite/poly(,-caprolactone)-based polyurethane nanocomposites

    Eun Hwan Jeong
    Abstract In this study, montmorillonite (MMT)/poly(,-caprolactone)-based polyurethane cationomer (MMT/PCL-PUC) nanocomposites were prepared and their mechanical properties, thermal stability, and biodegradability were investigated. PCL-PUC has 3 mol % of quaternary ammonium groups in the main chain. The MMT was successfully exfoliated and well dispersed in the PCL-PUC matrix for up to 7 wt % of MMT. The 3 mol % of quaternary ammonium groups facilitated exfoliation of MMT. The 1 wt % MMT/PCL-PUC nanocomposites showed enhanced tensile properties relative to the pure PCL-PU. As the MMT content increased in the MMT/PCL-PUC nanocomposites, the degree of microphase separation of PCL-PUC decreased because of the strong interactions between the PCL-PUC chains and the exfoliated MMT layers. This resulted in an increase in the Young's modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break and maximum stress of the MMT/PCL-PUC nanocomposites. Biodegradability of the MMT/PCL-PUC nanocomposites was dramatically increased with increasing content of MMT, likely because of the less phase-separated morphology of MMT/PCL-PUC. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Crystallization of poly(butylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene octene) blends: Nonisothermal crystallization

    Jiann-Wen Huang
    Abstract Poly(ethylene octene) (POE), maleic anhydride grafted poly(ethylene octene) (mPOE), and a mixture of POE and mPOE were added to poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) to prepare PBT/POE (20 wt % POE), PBT/mPOE (20 wt % mPOE), and PBT/mPOE/POE (10 wt % mPOE and 10 wt % POE) blends with an extruder. The melting behavior of neat PBT and its blends nonisothermally crystallized from the melt was investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Subsequent DSC scans exhibited two melting endotherms (TmI and TmII). TmI was attributed to the melting of the crystals grown by normal primary crystallization, and TmII was due to the melting of the more perfect crystals after reorganization during the DSC heating scan. The better dispersed second phases and higher cooling rate made the crystals that grew in normal primary crystallization less perfect and relatively prone to be organized during the DSC scan. The effects of POE and mPOE on the nonisothermal crystallization process were delineated by kinetic models. The dispersed phase hindered the crystallization; however, the well- dispersed phases of an even smaller size enhanced crystallization because of the higher nucleation density. The nucleation parameter, estimated from the modified Lauritzen,Hoffman equation, showed the same results. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]