Pothole Region (pothole + region)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Pothole Region

  • prairie pothole region

  • Selected Abstracts

    Tracking palustrine water seasonal and annual variability in agricultural wetland landscapes using Landsat from 1997 to 2005

    Abstract Wetlands densely populate the ecoregion transecting the center of the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) known as the Missouri Coteau and epicenter to the most productive waterfowl-breeding habitat in North America. These palustrine, depressional basin waters vacillate with regional drought and deluge, so surface water fluctuations over time modulate wetland productivity, habitat, and water quality functions. Models predict formidable effects of climate change on glacial basin surface waters, yet large-scale, long-term observation data are lacking to compare against predicted changes. Current, optical-based water detection models do not delineate marsh vegetation from shallow, turbid, high-chlorophyll waters common to the region. We developed a palustrine wetland spectral model for tracking open surface waters using Landsat imagery, which we evaluated for a 2500 km2 landscape that estimates seasonal and annual open water variability for thousands of individual wetlands in the Missouri Coteau ecoregion. Detection accuracy of 96% was achieved for water bodies greater than a half-pixel in size. We identified shifts in the distribution of water permanence classes within and between years for waters emerging in spring, mid-summer, and late summer from 1997 to 2005 and identified a maximum of 19 047 basins with open water (12% of the landscape) populating 2500 km2. For the 2005 growing season, we observed only 8757 basins with open water (6% of the landscape) for the same area. Declines were greatest for water bodies detected only in spring, suggesting a loss of those wetlands functioning to recharge groundwater stores early in the season and a high sensitivity to observed reductions in snowfall. If landscape factors driving open water coverage and wetland density are similar for the entire Missouri Coteau, we estimate the number of basins containing at least a pixel of water for this region declined from 577 600 to 266 000 between 1997 and 2005. [source]

    Spatial Modeling of Wetland Condition in the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 2 2002
    J. Andrew Royle
    Summary. We propose a spatial modeling framework for wetland data produced from a remote-sensing-based waterfowl habitat survey conducted in the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region (PPR). The data produced from this survey consist of the area containing water on many thousands of wetland basins (i.e., prairie potholes). We propose a two-state model containing wet and dry states. This model provides a concise description of wet probability, i.e., the probability that a basin contains water, and the amount of water contained in wet basins. The two model components are spatially linked through a common latent effect, which is assumed to be spatially correlated. Model fitting and prediction is carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The model primarily facilitates mapping of habitat conditions, which is useful in varied monitoring and assessment capacities. More importantly, the predictive capability of the model provides a rigorous statistical framework for directing management and conservation activities by enabling characterization of habitat structure at any point on the landscape. [source]

    Population ecology and prey consumption by fathead minnows in prairie wetlands: importance of detritus and larval fish

    B. R. Herwig
    Abstract,,, The fathead minnow Pimephales promelas occurs in high densities in wetlands of the prairie pothole region (PPR) of North America, but food resources sustaining these populations are poorly known. We assessed population dynamics and prey consumption of fathead minnow populations in three PPR wetlands for 2 years. Fish density peaked at 107 fish per m2 for all age classes combined. Larval and juvenile fish dominated these populations in terms of abundance and accounted for 83% of total prey consumption. Detritus dominated fish diets, representing 53%, 40% and 79% of diet mass for larval, juvenile and adult fish respectively. Detritus consumption was positively related to minnow density and negatively related to invertebrate abundance, but only for adult fish. Seasonal production:biomass ratios were unrelated to proportions of detritus in the diet for all ages of fish, indicating that detritus is an important food resource capable of meeting metabolic demands and sustaining fish growth in high-density populations. Detritus consumption may also weaken links between abundance of invertebrate prey and minnows, promoting dense fish populations with strong, consistent influences on wetland ecosystems. [source]

    Modelling blowing snow redistribution to prairie wetlands

    X. Fang
    Abstract Blowing snow transports and sublimates a substantial portion of the seasonal snowfall in the prairies of western Canada. Snow redistribution is an important feature of prairie hydrology as deep snowdrifts provide a source of meltwater to replenish ponds and generate streamflow in this dry region. The spatial distribution of snow water equivalent in the spring is therefore of great interest. A test of the distributed and aggregated modelling strategies for blowing snow transport and sublimation was conducted at the St. Denis National Wildlife Area in the rolling, internally drained prairie pothole region east of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. A LiDAR-based DEM and aerial photograph-based vegetation cover map were available for this region. A coupled complex windflow and blowing snow model was run with 262,144 6 m 6 m grid cells to produce spatially distributed estimates of seasonal blowing snow transport and sublimation. The calculation was then aggregated to seven landscape units that represented the major influences of surface roughness, topography and fetch on blowing snow transport and sublimation. Both the distributed and aggregated simulations predicted similar end-of-winter snow water equivalent with substantial redistribution of blowing snow from exposed sparsely vegetated sites across topographic drainage divides to the densely vegetated pothole wetlands. Both simulations also agreed well with snow survey observations. While the distributed calculations provide a fascinating and detailed visual image of the interaction of complex landscapes and blowing snow redistribution and sublimation, it is clear that blowing snow transport and sublimation calculations can be successfully aggregated to the spatial scale of the major landscape units in this environment. This means that meso and macroscale hydrological models can represent blowing snow redistribution successfully in the prairies. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The development of vegetative zonation patterns in restored prairie pothole wetlands

    Eric W. Seabloom
    Summary 1The spatial structure of plant communities can have strong impacts on ecosystem functions and on associated animal communities. None the less, spatial structure is rarely used as a measure of restoration success. 2The restoration of hundreds of wetlands in the prairie pothole region in the mid-western USA provided an excellent opportunity to determine whether the re-establishment of abiotic conditions is sufficient to restore structure, composition and spatial patterning of the vegetation. 3We mapped the topography and vegetative distributions in 17 restored and nine natural wetlands. We used these data to compare the composition and spatial structure of the vegetation in both wetlands types. 4The composition of the plant communities differed between restored and natural wetlands; the restored wetlands lacked the well-developed sedge-meadow community found in most natural wetlands. However, the spatial heterogeneity was similar, although the zonation patterns were less well-developed in the restored wetlands. 5Although the overall structure was similar, species distributions differed among wetland types, such that species were found more than 10 cm higher in restored wetlands than in natural wetlands. 6Synthesis and applications. This study illustrates that restored plant community composition and spatial structure may converge on their targets at different rates. Evaluations of restoration success should consider spatial structure of communities along with compositional and functional metrics. [source]