Plant Respiration (plant + respiration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Plant respiration in a changing world

Owen Atkin
First page of article [source]

Linking the global carbon cycle to individual metabolism

Summary 1We present a model that yields ecosystem-level predictions of the flux, storage and turnover of carbon in three important pools (autotrophs, decomposers, labile soil C) based on the constraints of body size and temperature on individual metabolic rate. 2The model predicts a 10 000-fold increase in C turnover rates moving from tree- to phytoplankton-dominated ecosystems due to the size dependence of photosynthetic rates. 3The model predicts a 16-fold increase in rates controlled by respiration (e.g. decomposition, turnover of labile soil C and microbial biomass) over the temperature range 0,30 C due to the temperature dependence of ATP synthesis in respiratory complexes. 4The model predicts only a fourfold increase in rates controlled by photosynthesis (e.g. net primary production, litter fall, fine root turnover) over the temperature range 0,30 C due to the temperature dependence of Rubisco carboxylation in chloroplasts. 5The difference between the temperature dependence of respiration and photosynthesis yields quantitative predictions for distinct phenomena that include acclimation of plant respiration, geographic gradients in labile C storage, and differences between the short- and long-term temperature dependence of whole-ecosystem CO2 flux. 6These four sets of model predictions were tested using global compilations of data on C flux, storage and turnover in ecosystems. 7Results support the hypothesis that the combined effects of body size and temperature on individual metabolic rate impose important constraints on the global C cycle. The model thus provides a synthetic, mechanistic framework for linking global biogeochemical cycles to cellular-, individual- and community-level processes. [source]

Humidity parameters from temperature: test of a simple methodology for European conditions

Yvonne Andersson-Skld
Abstract Atmospheric water content is important for local and regional climate, and for chemical processes of soluble and solute species in the atmosphere. Further, vapour pressure deficit (D) is one of the key controls on the opening of stomata in plants and is thus an important force for evapotransporation, plant respiration and biomass production and for the uptake of harmful pollutants such as ozone through the stomata. Most meteorological stations typically measure both temperature and relative humidity (RH). However, even if recorded at finer time resolution, it is usually the daily or often monthly means of RH which are published in climate reports. Unfortunately, such data cannot be used to obtain the changes in RH or vapour pressure deficit over the day, as this depends strongly on the diurnal temperature variation during the day and not upon the mean temperature. Although RH typically changes significantly over the day, the ambient vapour pressure is often remarkably constant. Here a simple method to estimate diurnal vapour pressure is evaluated, based upon an assumed constant vapour pressure, and that recorded minimum temperatures approximate dew-point temperatures. With a knowledge of only temperature, we will show that day to day estimates of vapour pressure, humidity and especially D, can be made with reasonable accuracy. This methodology is tested using meteorological data from 32 sites covering a range of locations in Europe. Such a simple methodology may be used to extract approximate diurnal curves of vapour pressures from published meteorological data which contains only minimum temperatures for each day, or where humidity data are not available. Copyright 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Emerging topics in stable isotope ecology: are there isotope effects in plant respiration?

Diane E. Pataki
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Respiratory Q10 of marigold (Tagetes patula) in response to long-term temperature differences and its relationship to growth and maintenance respiration

Marc W. Van Iersel
Acclimation of respiration to temperature is not well understood. To determine whether whole plant respiration responses to long-term temperature treatments can be described using the Q10 concept, the CO2 exchange rate of marigolds (Tagetes patula L. ,Queen Sophia'), grown at 20C or 30C, was measured for 62 days. When plants of the same age were compared, plants grown at 20C consistently had a higher specific respiration (Rspc) than plants grown at 30C (long-term Q10= 0.71,0.97). This was due to a combination of greater dry mass at 30C and a decrease in Rspc with increasing mass. When plants of the same dry mass were compared, the long-term Q10 was 1.35,1.55; i.e. Rspc was higher at 30C than at 20C. Whole plant respiration could be accurately described by dividing respiration into growth and maintenance components. The maintenance respiration coefficient was higher at 30C than at 20C, while the growth respiration coefficient was lower at 30C, partly because of temperature-dependent changes in plant composition. These results suggest difficulties with interpreting temperature effects on whole plant respiration, because conclusions depend greatly on whether plants of the same age or mass are compared. These difficulties can be minimized by describing whole plant respiration on the basis of growth and maintenance components. [source]

The apparent temperature response of leaf respiration depends on the timescale of measurements: a study of two cold climate species

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
D. Bruhn
Abstract Productivity and climate models often use a constant Q10 for plant respiration, assuming tight control of respiration by temperature. We studied the temperature response of leaf respiration of two cold climate species (the Australian tree Eucalyptus pauciflora and the subantarctic megaherb Pringlea antiscorbutica, both measured in a field setting) on a short timescale (minutes) during different times within a diel course, and on a longer timescale, using diel variations in ambient temperature. There were great variations in Q10 depending on measuring day, measuring time and measuring method. When Q10 was calculated from short-term (15 min) manipulations of leaf temperature, the resulting values were usually markedly smaller than when Q10 was calculated from measurements at ambient leaf temperatures spread over a day. While for E. pauciflora, Q10 estimates decreased with rising temperature (corroborating the concept of a temperature-dependent Q10), the opposite was the case for P. antiscorbutica. Clearly, factors other than temperature co-regulate both leaf respiration rates and temperature sensitivity and contribute to diel and seasonal variation of respiration. [source]

Atmospheric CO2 concentration does not directly affect leaf respiration in bean or poplar

S. Jahnke
Abstract It is a matter of debate if there is a direct (short-term) effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) on plant respiration in the dark. When Ca doubles, some authors found no (or only minor) changes in dark respiration, whereas most studies suggest a respiratory inhibition of 15,20%. The present study shows that the measurement artefacts , particularly leaks between leaf chamber gaskets and leaf surface, CO2 memory and leakage effects of gas exchange systems as well as the water vapour (,water dilution') effect on DCO2 measurement caused by transpiration , may result in larger errors than generally discussed. A gas exchange system that was used in three different ways , as a closed system in which Ca increased continuously from 200 to 4200 mmol (CO2) mol -1 (air) due to respiration of the enclosed leaf; as an intermittently closed system that was repeatedly closed and opened during Ca periods of either 350 or 2000 mmol mol -1, and as an open system in which Ca varied between 350 and 2000 mmol mol -1, is described. In control experiments (with an empty leaf chamber), the respective system characteristics were evaluated carefully. When all relevant system parameters were taken into account, no effects of short-term changes in CO2 on dark CO2 efflux of bean and poplar leaves were found, even when Ca increased to 4200 mmol mol -1. It is concluded that the leaf respiration of bean and poplar is not directly inhibited by elevated atmospheric CO2. [source]