Plant Breeding (plant + breeding)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Assessment of the resistance of potato cultivars to Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Per. in Poland

EPPO BULLETIN, Issue 2 2008
J. Przetakiewicz
In Poland the Plant Breeding and Acclimatization Institute is responsible for officially assessing the resistance to Synchytrium endobioticum of domestic potato breeding lines and cultivars from other countries. Cultivation of potato cultivars in Poland requires confirmation of resistance to potato wart disease. The official assessment uses the modified Glynne-Lemmerzahl method (laboratory tests) and pot tests. The full cycle of assessment of resistance to wart disease requires 52 seed potatoes per variety/breeding line. Forty two tubers are used in laboratory tests. To complete the laboratory tests the next 10 tubers are grown in pot tests (in soil with winter sporangia) during the vegetation season. The final results for domestic breeding lines of potato are available after 3 years of investigation. For cultivars from other countries the authorization of resistance to S. endobioticum takes approximately one year. The Polish breeders (breeding lines) or the breeder's representative (cultivars from other countries) receive the certificate only for lines/cultivars with laboratory and field resistance to S. endobioticum. [source]

Effects of continuous or rotational grazing of two perennial ryegrass varieties on the chemical composition of the herbage and the performance of finishing lambs

C. L. Marley
Abstract Plant breeding has developed perennial ryegrass varieties with increased concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) compared with conventional varieties. Water-soluble carbohydrates are major metabolic and storage components in ryegrass. Therefore, if perennial ryegrass herbage is allowed to grow to greater heights it should contain higher water-soluble carbohydrates concentrations, for example as under rotational grazing rather than continuous grazing by livestock. This study investigated this hypothesis and measured the performance of lambs grazed rotationally and continuously. Replicated plots of the variety AberDart (bred to express high WSC concentrations) or the variety Fennema were grazed by a core group of ten male Cheviot lambs for 10 weeks. Lambs were weighed and replicate forage samples were taken every 7 d. Concentrations of WSC in AberDart herbage were significantly (P < 0·05), but not substantially, higher than those in Fennema herbage. Rotational grazing did not increase the differential in WSC concentration between the AberDart and Fennema varieties. However, there was a tendency (P = 0·07) for lambs rotationally grazing the AberDart swards to have a higher final live weight than lambs grazing the Fennema swards. Overall, lamb performance was increased when either perennial ryegrass variety was rotationally rather than continuously grazed (P < 0·001). [source]

The Ozone Component of Global Change: Potential Effects on Agricultural and Horticultural Plant Yield, Product Quality and Interactions with Invasive Species

Fitzgerald Booker
The productivity, product quality and competitive ability of important agricultural and horticultural plants in many regions of the world may be adversely affected by current and anticipated concentrations of ground-level ozone (O3). Exposure to elevated O3 typically results in suppressed photosynthesis, accelerated senescence, decreased growth and lower yields. Various approaches used to evaluate O3 effects generally concur that current yield losses range from 5% to 15% among sensitive plants. There is, however, considerable genetic variability in plant responses to O3. To illustrate this, we show that ambient O3 concentrations in the eastern United States cause substantially different levels of damage to otherwise similar snap bean cultivars. Largely undesirable effects of O3 can also occur in seed and fruit chemistry as well as in forage nutritive value, with consequences for animal production. Ozone may alter herbicide efficacy and foster establishment of some invasive species. We conclude that current and projected levels of O3 in many regions worldwide are toxic to sensitive plants of agricultural and horticultural significance. Plant breeding that incorporates O3 sensitivity into selection strategies will be increasingly necessary to achieve sustainable production with changing atmospheric composition, while reductions in O3 precursor emissions will likely benefit world food production and reduce atmospheric concentrations of an important greenhouse gas. [source]

Can improvement in photosynthesis increase crop yields?

ABSTRACT The yield potential (Yp) of a grain crop is the seed mass per unit ground area obtained under optimum growing conditions without weeds, pests and diseases. It is determined by the product of the available light energy and by the genetically determined properties: efficiency of light capture (,i), the efficiency of conversion of the intercepted light into biomass (,c) and the proportion of biomass partitioned into grain (,). Plant breeding brings , and ,i close to their theoretical maxima, leaving ,c, primarily determined by photosynthesis, as the only remaining major prospect for improving Yp. Leaf photosynthetic rate, however, is poorly correlated with yield when different genotypes of a crop species are compared. This led to the viewpoint that improvement of leaf photosynthesis has little value for improving Yp. By contrast, the many recent experiments that compare the growth of a genotype in current and future projected elevated [CO2] environments show that increase in leaf photosynthesis is closely associated with similar increases in yield. Are there opportunities to achieve similar increases by genetic manipulation? Six potential routes of increasing ,c by improving photosynthetic efficiency were explored, ranging from altered canopy architecture to improved regeneration of the acceptor molecule for CO2. Collectively, these changes could improve ,c and, therefore, Yp by c. 50%. Because some changes could be achieved by transgenic technology, the time of the development of commercial cultivars could be considerably less than by conventional breeding and potentially, within 10,15 years. [source]

Gender and Biodiversity: A New Approach to Linking Environment and Development

Janet Henshall Momsen
The 1992 Convention on Biological Conservation and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (1996) reflect the growing importance of biodiversity for environmental conservation and as a way of maintaining the genetic variety needed for plant breeding and providing new sources of medicines. More recently, agrobiodiversity has been seen as vital for food security in developing countries. This article considers the need to understand decision-making for biodiversity at the grassroots. To achieve this, gender roles, as influenced by gender divisions of labour in food production and the gendered use of different environmental spaces, have to be considered. Women's roles in seed selection and seed saving and use of wild plants for food and medicines play a major role in biodiversity conservation, but these roles are not unchanging and are increasingly influenced by global trade networks and geographical context. [source]

Bayesian approaches in evolutionary quantitative genetics

Abstract The study of evolutionary quantitative genetics has been advanced by the use of methods developed in animal and plant breeding. These methods have proved to be very useful, but they have some shortcomings when used in the study of wild populations and evolutionary questions. Problems arise from the small size of data sets typical of evolutionary studies, and the additional complexity of the questions asked by evolutionary biologists. Here, we advocate the use of Bayesian methods to overcome these and related problems. Bayesian methods naturally allow errors in parameter estimates to propagate through a model and can also be written as a graphical model, giving them an inherent flexibility. As packages for fitting Bayesian animal models are developed, we expect the application of Bayesian methods to evolutionary quantitative genetics to grow, particularly as genomic information becomes more and more associated with environmental data. [source]

Contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, minerals and total glucosinolates in leafy brassica pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. chinensis) as affected by season and variety

Peter Hanson
Abstract BACKGROUND: Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. chinensis) is economically and nutritionally important in East and Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of season and variety on its phytonutrient content (carotenoids, minerals, ascorbic acid and total glucosinolates). RESULTS: Thirty-five varieties were evaluated in one dry season and one wet season field trial at AVRDC,The World Vegetable Center, Taiwan. Mean carotenoid content was about 36% greater in the dry season than in the wet season trial. In contrast, ascorbic acid and total glucosinolate contents were 48 and 72% higher respectively in the wet season than in the dry season trial. Dry matter, calcium and iron contents were also 69, 69 and 21% greater respectively in the wet season than in the dry season trial. Significant differences among entries were found for most phytonutrients; the ranges of variety means were fourfold for total carotenoids, fivefold for iron and total glucosinolates and twofold for calcium. CONCLUSION: Season strongly influences the phytonutrient content of pakchoi grown in the tropics. Significant differences among entries were found for all phytonutrients, and there is potential to increase levels of individual phytonutrients through plant breeding. However, breeding would need to target varieties for either the dry or the wet season. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Brassica oleracea pollen, a new source of occupational allergens

ALLERGY, Issue 4 2006
H. K. Hermanides
Background:, Vegetable pollen is a rare source of occupational allergens. Occupational allergy has only been described in the case of paprika pollen and tomato pollen. We describe a new source of occupational pollen allergy. Aim:, To study the incidence and the impact of broccoli and cauliflower pollen allergy in employees involved in classical plant breeding. Methods:, Fifty-four employees of five companies working with cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis) and broccoli (B. oleracea italica/cymosa) pollen were eligible for complete evaluation. Allergy to cauliflower and broccoli pollen was evaluated by questionnaire and determination of sensitization by radioallergosorbent test (RAST) and skin-prick tests (SPT). SPT and RAST were performed with a panel of commercial and homemade extracts from cauliflower and broccoli pollen. Results:, Work-related symptoms such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma and urticaria caused by B. oleracea pollen were reported by 44% of the participants (24/54), of whom all but one had positive SPT for cauliflower- and/or broccoli-pollen/flower extracts and 58% (14/24) had positive RAST results. Symptoms had developed within the first 2 years in 33% of the patients. Six patients had to stop or change work. Conclusions:,Brassica oleracea pollen is a new source of occupational allergen with strong allergenic potential leading to symptoms in almost half of the exposed employees. [source]

INVITED REVIEW: Quantitative trait locus mapping in natural populations: progress, caveats and future directions

Abstract Over the last 15 years quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has become a popular method for understanding the genetic basis of continuous variation in a variety of systems. For example, the technique is now an integral tool in medical genetics, livestock production, plant breeding and population genetics of model organisms. Ten years ago, it was suggested that the method could be used to understand continuous variation in natural populations. In this review I: (i) clarify what is meant by natural population in the QTL context, (ii) discuss whether evolutionary biologists have successfully mapped QTL in natural populations, (iii) highlight some of the questions that have been addressed by QTL mapping in natural populations, (iv) describe how QTL mapping can be conducted in unmanipulated natural populations, (v) highlight some of the limitations of QTL mapping and (vi) try to predict some future directions for QTL mapping in natural populations. [source]

Development of EST-SSRs in Cucumis sativus from sequence database

Abstract Simple sequence repeat markers derived from expressed sequence tags (EST-SSR) are potentially valuable tools for plant breeding and germplasm collection conservation, and increasingly, efforts have been made for developing this type of marker. We have identified 20 polymorphic SSR markers from cucumber ESTs deposited in public sequence database. The average allele number was 3.3 per locus, ranging from two to six alleles during screening 20 cucumber genotypes with the mean expected heterozygosity of 0.477. Amplification products were also detected by 13 pairs of primer in Cucumis melo. These informative EST-SSR markers can be used in cucumber genetic improvement projects. [source]

Development of microsatellite markers in polyploid persimmon (Diospyros kaki Lf) from an enriched genomic library

Abstract The oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Lf) is believed to have originated in China with subsequent introduction into Japan and Korea in ancient times. The species was then brought to Europe, Brazil and the USA from Japan in the 19th century. Recent studies highlighted the poor state of identification of cultivars in these countries due to incorrect labelling and presence of synonyms among local varieties. Thus, molecular marker characterization of germplasm resources is of great value for genetic resource preservation and plant breeding of persimmon. Therefore, to identify accessions for further plant breeding and germplasm management, 37 microsatellite loci were developed from a CT/AG-enriched persimmon genomic library. [source]

Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

Rob Dirks
Summary Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. [source]

Approaches to achieve high-level heterologous protein production in plants

Stephen J. Streatfield
Summary Plants offer an alternative to microbial fermentation and animal cell cultures for the production of recombinant proteins. For protein pharmaceuticals, plant systems are inherently safer than native and even recombinant animal sources. In addition, post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, which cannot be achieved with bacterial fermentation, can be accomplished using plants. The main advantage foreseen for plant systems is reduced production costs. Plants should have a particular advantage for proteins produced in bulk, such as industrial enzymes, for which product pricing is low. In addition, edible plant tissues are well suited to the expression of vaccine antigens and pharmaceuticals for oral delivery. Three approaches have been followed to express recombinant proteins in plants: expression from the plant nuclear genome; expression from the plastid genome; and expression from plant tissues carrying recombinant plant viral sequences. The most important factor in moving plant-produced heterologous proteins from developmental research to commercial products is to ensure competitive production costs, and the best way to achieve this is to boost expression. Thus, considerable research effort has been made to increase the amount of recombinant protein produced in plants. This research includes molecular technologies to increase replication, to boost transcription, to direct transcription in tissues suited for protein accumulation, to stabilize transcripts, to optimize translation, to target proteins to subcellular locations optimal for their accumulation, and to engineer proteins to stabilize them. Other methods include plant breeding to increase transgene copy number and to utilize germplasm suited to protein accumulation. Large-scale commercialization of plant-produced recombinant proteins will require a combination of these technologies. [source]

Opinion piece: Genomics and crop plant science in Europe

Steve Hughes
Summary Recent report reviews and funding initiatives in the field of plant genomic research are considered in the context of their translation into practical and economic value via plant breeding. It is concluded that there is a deficit in investment and that a change in working styles towards knowledge sharing and connectivity is required. [source]

Molecular genetics of fructan metabolism in perennial ryegrass

Jaye Chalmers
Summary Fructans are the main storage carbohydrates of temperate grasses, sustaining regrowth immediately after defoliation, as well as contributing to the nutritive value of feed. Fructan metabolism is based on the substrate sucrose and involves fructosyltransferases (FTs) for biosynthesis and fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) for degradation. Sucrose is also utilized by invertases (INVs), which hydrolyse it into its constituent monosaccharides for use in metabolism. The isolation, molecular characterization, functional analysis, and phylogenetic relationships of genes encoding FTs, FEHs, and INVs from temperate grasses are reviewed, with an emphasis on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The roles these enzymes play in fructan accumulation and remobilization, and future biotechnological applications in molecular plant breeding are discussed. [source]

Automation of DNA marker analysis for molecular breeding in crops: practical experience of a plant breeding company

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 4 2007
C. Dayteg
Abstract In modern plant breeding, DNA marker analyses are of increasing importance and, as the methods become more widely adopted, the capacity for high-throughput analyses at low cost is crucial for its practical use. Automation of the analysis processes is a way to meet these requirements. In order to achieve this, while keeping adequate flexibility in the analysis processes, Svalöf Weibull AB (SW) has developed a fully automated polymerase chain reaction system. It has been evaluated on barley and canola lines and is capable of analysing up to 2200 samples per day at a cost of 0,24 , per analysis for marker-assisted selection and quality control of genetically modified organisms. A detailed description of this system is given, and improvements to the throughput and applications are discussed. [source]

Plant regeneration through callus initiation from mature embryo of Triticum

PLANT BREEDING, Issue 1 2007
R. M. Bi
Abstract The behaviour of diverse Triticum genotypes in the tissue culture response of mature embryo callus was compared, and factors affecting tissue culture response were studied in this paper. Significant differences were detected in callus induction, embryogenic callus differentiation, plantlet regeneration and culture efficiency when mature embryos of 31 plants of different Triticum species were compared. These were the main wheat cultivars of the Chinese northern winter-type wheat region and breeding lines (Triticum aestivum L.), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), cultivable emmer wheat (Triticumdicoccum Schuble) and the common wheat progenitors Triticum dicoccoides and Triticum aegilopides. The genotype dependency was particularly high in tissue culture of mature embryos of these Triticum genotypes. The efficiency of induction, differentiation and regeneration of mature embryos callus was high in genotypes selected out. Mature embryo-derived callus of HB341, TS021, SN2618, T. dicoccum, HB188, and T9817 showed better tissue culture response than the other genotypes. Plantlets can be regenerated from mature embryo-derived callus of 31 genotypes, saving on growth facility resources and time required for the collection of other explants, and providing a solid basis for the genetic transformation and molecular plant breeding of Triticum plants. [source]