Plane Perpendicular (plane + perpendicular)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hydraulic pathways in the crystalline rock of the KTB

Gnter Zimmermann
Fracture systems and fluid pathways must be analysed in order to understand the dynamical processes in the upper crust. Various deterministic as well as stochastic fracture networks in the depth section of the Franconian Lineament (6900 to 7140 m), which appears as a brittle ductile shear zone and prominent seismic reflector, were modelled to simulate the hydraulic situation at the two boreholes of the Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). They led to estimations of the hydraulic permeability in crystalline rock. The geometrical parameters of the fractures, such as fracture locations and orientations, were determined from structural borehole measurements, which create an image of the borehole wall. The selection of potentially open fractures was decided according to the stress field. Only fractures with the dip direction (azimuth) of the fracture plane perpendicular to the maximum horizontal stress field were assumed to be open. The motivation for this assumption is the fact that the maximum horizontal stress is higher than the vertical stress from the formation, indicating that the state of stress is a strike-slip faulting. Therefore, the probability of open fractures due to this particular stress field at the KTB sites is enhanced. Length scales for fracture apertures and extensions were stochastically varied and calibrated by hydraulic experiments. The mean fracture aperture was estimated to be 25 ,m, assuming an exponential distribution, with corresponding permeability in the range of 10,16 m2. Similar results were also obtained for log-normal and normal distributions, with a variation of permeability of the order of a factor of 2. The influence of the fracture length on permeability of the stochastic networks was also studied. Decreasing the fracture length beyond a specific threshold of 10 m led to networks with vanishing connectivity and hence vanishing permeability. Therefore, we assume a mean fracture length exceeding the threshold of 10 m as a necessary assumption for a macroscopic hydraulically active fracture system at the KTB site. The calculated porosity due to the fracture network is of the order of 10,3 per cent, which at first sight contradicts the estimated matrix porosity of 1 to 2 per cent from borehole measurements and core measurements. It can be concluded from these results, however, that if the fluid transport is due to a macroscopic fracture system, only very low porosity is needed for hydraulic flow with permeabilities up to several 10,16 m2, and hence the contribution of matrix porosity to the hydraulic transport is of a subordinate nature. [source]

Dispersion in non-ideal packed beds

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 2 2010
U. M. Scheven
Abstract This work reanalyzes published time series dispersion traces (Han et al., AIChE J. 1985;31:277,288) from step input tracer passages recorded at different locations along the length of a packed bed filled with monodisperse solid spheres. The intrinsic dispersivity and sample dependent dispersion are separated by imposing a heuristic model where coarse grained axial advection velocities vary in a plane perpendicular to the flow but not along the direction of flow. The derived intrinsic dispersivity agrees with the predicted value (Scheven et al., Phys Rev Lett. 2007;99:054502-1,054502-4). It serves as a bench mark for different implementations of simulations coupling Stokes flow and diffusion in random geometries, and for experimental tests of injection and packing methods. Conceptually, a well defined and fittable effective dispersivity is introduced in an analytical framework describing dispersion data obtained in non-ideal packed beds, where elution profiles cannot be fitted to the solution of the one dimensional advection diffusion equation. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2010 [source]

Specificity of muscle action after anterior cruciate ligament injury

Glenn N. Williams
Abstract Neuromuscular control is believed to be a critical factor in dynamic knee stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate voluntary muscle control in anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACL-D) and uninjured people. Twenty athletes of similar age participated in this study. Subjects performed a target-matching protocol that required them to produce isometric moments about the knee with fine control in flexion, extension, varus, and valgus (i.e., loads were generated in the plane perpendicular to the long axis of the shank). Electromyographic data were collected from 10 muscles that span the knee. A specificity index was calculated for each muscle to describe how fine-tuned (specific) its muscle activity pattern was with respect to its principal direction of action in the load plane. Diminished specificity of muscle action was observed in 8 of 10 muscles in the ACL-D subjects' involved knees when compared with the activity patterns from their uninvolved knees and those from the uninjured subjects' knees. The vastus lateralis muscle was especially affected. Increased and more global co-contraction was also observed in the ACL-D limbs. The alterations in muscle firing patterns observed in this study are consistent with diminished neuromuscular control. 2003 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Structures of the magnetoionic media around the Fanaroff,Riley Class I radio galaxies 3C 31 and Hydra A

R. A. Laing
ABSTRACT We use high-quality Very Large Array (VLA) images of the Fanaroff,Riley Class I radio galaxy 3C 31 at six frequencies in the range 1365,8440 MHz to explore the spatial scale and origin of the rotation measure (RM) fluctuations on the line of sight to the radio source. We analyse the distribution of the degree of polarization to show that the large depolarization asymmetry between the north and south sides of the source seen in earlier work largely disappears as the resolution is increased. We show that the depolarization seen at low resolution results primarily from unresolved gradients in a Faraday screen in front of the synchrotron-emitting plasma. We establish that the residual degree of polarization in the short-wavelength limit should follow a Burn law and we fit such a law to our data to estimate the residual depolarization at high resolution. We discuss how to interpret the structure function of RM fluctuations in the presence of a finite observing beam and how to address the effects of incomplete sampling of RM distribution using a Monte Carlo approach. We infer that the observed RM variations over selected areas of 3C 31, and the small residual depolarization found at high resolution, are consistent with a power spectrum of magnetic fluctuations in front of 3C 31 whose power-law slope changes significantly on the scales sampled by our data. The power spectrum P(f) can only have the form expected for Kolmogorov turbulence [P(f) ,f,11/3] on scales ,5 kpc. On larger scales, we find . We briefly discuss the physical interpretation of these results. We also compare the global variations of RM across 3C 31 with the results of three-dimensional simulations of the magnetic-field fluctuations in the surrounding magnetoionic medium. We infer that the RM variation across 3C 31 is qualitatively as expected from relativistic-jet models of the brightness asymmetry wherein the apparently brighter jet is on the near side of the nucleus and is seen through less magnetoionic material than the fainter jet. We show that our data are inconsistent with observing 3C 31 through a spherically symmetric magnetoionic medium, but that they are consistent with a field distribution that favours the plane perpendicular to the jet axis , probably because the radio source has evacuated a large cavity in the surrounding medium. We also apply our analysis techniques to the case of Hydra A, where the shape and the size of the cavities produced by the source in the surrounding medium are known from X-ray data. We emphasize that it is essential to account for the potential exclusion of magnetoionic material from a large volume containing the radio source when using the RM variations to derive statistical properties of the fluctuations in the foreground magnetic field. [source]

A Simple Approximate Formula for the Aspect Ratio of Oblate Particles

Willi Pabst
Abstract A simple approximative formula is derived, which can be used to quantify the shape of oblate particles or an average shape of the corresponding particle system, when the results of sedimentation analysis (Stokes equivalent diameters) are known and results from either microscopic image analysis (assuming stable orientation, i.e., with the plane perpendicular to the direction of observation) or laser diffraction (assuming random orientation) are available for the same sample. In the latter case Cauchy's stereological theorem is applied to account for random orientation. Furthermore, it is shown that for sufficiently large aspect ratios, this formula is very close to the well-known Jennings-Parslow relation and can replace this more complicated expression in many practical cases, e.g., in the routine characterization of ceramic raw materials (kaolins and oxide or non-oxide platelet powders). [source]

Far-infrared optical spectrum of donor impurities in quantum dots in a magnetic field

M. Pacheco
Abstract We report calculations for far-infrared absorption in GaAs/Ga1,xAlxAs quantum dots doped with shallow-donor impurities in the presence of a magnetic field. The wave functions and the eigenvalues are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by using a variational approach in which the ground and excited magneto-impurity states are simultaneously obtained. The allowed intra-donor transitions have been investigated by using far-infrared radiation circularly polarized in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. We present results for the absorption coefficient as a function of the photon energy for several field strengths and arbitrary impurity positions. We have found that, as a consequence of the quantum dot confinement the infrared magneto-absorption strongly depends on the position of the impurity in the dot. [source]

X-ray and neutron structure of 1,8-(3,6,9-trioxaundecane-1,11-diyldioxy)-9,10-dihydro-10,10-dimethylanthracene-9-ol (P326); some pitfalls of automatic data collection

Rex A. Palmer
The structure of the crown ether 1,8-(3,6,9-trioxaundecane-1,11-diyldioxy)-9,10-dihydro-10,10-dimethylanthracene-9-ol, C24H30O6H2O (1), code name P326, the parent compound for a series of derivatives, has been determined by both X-ray diffraction at room temperature and neutron diffraction at very low temperature. The unit cells are very similar at both temperatures and in both cases the crystals exhibit P21 symmetry with Z = 4 (two molecules, A and B, respectively, per asymmetric unit) and pseudosymmetry P21/c. The higher symmetry is broken mainly by the two independent water molecules in the unit cell, some reflections which would be absent in P21/c having strong intensities in both the X-ray and neutron data. In both molecules A and B hydrogen bonds involving the water molecule stabilize the macrocyclic ring structure, one involving the macrocyclic O(9) as a donor. Close contacts between the water and macrocyclic O atoms in each molecule also suggest the presence of two bifurcated hydrogen bonds, involving water HW2 to both O(16) and O(18), and water HW1 to both O(18) and O(20), respectively, with considerable variation in the geometry being present. Both molecules A and B exhibit very close pseudosymmetry across a plane perpendicular to the molecular plane and through atoms C(9) and O(18), and in addition are predominantly planar structures. The X-ray analysis failed to reveal one H atom per water molecule, each being subsequently included after location and refinement in the neutron analysis. [source]

Mechanisms and Kinetics of the Hydrothermal Oxidation of Bulk Titanium Silicon Carbide

Haibin Zhang
Hydrothermal oxidation of bulk Ti3SiC2 in continuous water flow was studied at 500,700C under a hydrostatic pressure of 35 MPa. The oxidation was weak at 500,600C and accelerated at 700C due to the formation of cracks in oxides. The kinetics obeyed a linear time-law. Due to the high solubility of silica in hydrothermal water, the resulting oxide layers only consisted of titanium oxides and carbon. Besides general oxidation, two special modes are very likely present in current experiments: (1) preferential hydrothermal oxidation of lattice planes perpendicular to the c -axis inducing cleavage of grains and (2) uneven hydrothermal oxidation related to the occurrence of TiC and SiC impurity inclusions. Nonetheless the resistance against hydrothermal oxidation is remarkably high up to 700C. [source]

Semiautomatic segmentation and stenosis quantification of 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiograms of the internal carotid artery

Cornelis M. van Bemmel
Abstract A technique is presented for the segmentation and quantification of stenosed internal carotid arteries (ICAs) in 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). Segmentation with sub-pixel accuracy of the ICA is achieved via level-set techniques in which the central axis serves as the initialization. The central axis is determined between two user-defined points, and minimal user interaction is required. For quantification, the cross-sectional area is measured in the stenosis and at a reference segment in planes perpendicular to the central axis. The technique was applied to 20 ICAs. The variation in measurements obtained by this method in comparison with manual observations was 8.7%, which is smaller than the interobserver variability among three experts (11.0%). Magn Reson Med 51:753,760, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Structural analysis of lithium lanthanum titanate with perovskite structure

Koji Ohara
Abstract Neutron and high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis of polycrystalline La4/3-xLi3xTi2O6 have been performed to clarify the extent of disorder of the distribution of La and Li ions and to understand the relation of these distributions to ionic conduction. The distributions of the La and Li ions in a 10 10 20 cubic box (i.e., 10 10 10 unit cell) super-structure, in which Ti and O atoms are fixed onto their regular sites, were obtained by the reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) structural modelling of both diffraction data sets. When the occupancy of La ions in the planes perpendicular to the c-axis is analysed, one can find a La-rich and La-poor layers alternating, which is consistent with the results of earlier Rietveld analysis (Stramare et al., Chem. Mater. 15, 3974 (2003) [1]). Of particular interest, the Li ions are found mainly on the interstitial sites between the O-3 triangle plane of the TiO6 octahedron and a La ion, which is different from the earlier work (Yashima et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 3491 (2005) [2]). ( 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Quasiperiodicity in decagonal phases forced by inclined net planes?

Walter Steurer
It is generally assumed that decagonal quasicrystals show periodically arranged atomic layers only on net planes perpendicular to the tenfold axis and quasiperiodically arranged ones parallel to it. However, there also do exist only slightly puckered atomic layers that are periodically arranged and inclined to the tenfold axis. They coincide with the net planes of the periodic average structures of the decagonal phase and are related to the strongest Bragg reflections. Since they link quasiperiodic and periodic directions, inclined net planes may play a crucial role for growth and stabilization of decagonal quasicrystals. In fact, it is shown how ideal quasiperiodic long-range order and inflation symmetry allow for the existence of inclined net planes with small corrugation and reinforce the relation with the periodic average structures. [source]