Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Plane

  • ab plane
  • ac plane
  • basal plane
  • bedding plane
  • best plane
  • cleavage plane
  • complex plane
  • coordination plane
  • coronal plane
  • crystal plane
  • crystallographic mirror plane
  • crystallographic plane
  • edge plane
  • equatorial plane
  • fault plane
  • film plane
  • focal plane
  • fracture plane
  • frontal plane
  • fundamental plane
  • galactic plane
  • glide plane
  • ground plane
  • horizontal plane
  • hyperbolic plane
  • image plane
  • imaging plane
  • inclined plane
  • lattice plane
  • median plane
  • mirror plane
  • molecular plane
  • occlusal plane
  • one plane
  • orthogonal plane
  • parallel plane
  • perpendicular plane
  • projective plane
  • ring plane
  • sagittal plane
  • same plane
  • shear plane
  • slip plane
  • square plane
  • symmetry plane
  • transverse plane
  • two-dimensional plane
  • vertical plane
  • xy plane

  • Terms modified by Plane

  • plane angle
  • plane block
  • plane displacement
  • plane gan
  • plane gan film
  • plane inn
  • plane orientation
  • plane parallel
  • plane perpendicular
  • plane problem
  • plane sapphire
  • plane sapphire substrate
  • plane strain
  • plane strain condition
  • plane stress
  • plane stress condition
  • plane surface
  • plane wave

  • Selected Abstracts

    Influence of inherent anisotropy on mechanical behavior of granular materials based on DEM simulations

    Zafar Mahmood
    Abstract We study the influence of inherent anisotropy, i.e. bedding angle on stress,strain behavior and shear band formation in quasi-static granular media. Plane strain biaxial tests are carried out using two-dimensional distinct element method (DEM). Oval/elliptical-shaped particles are generated by overlapping the discrete circular elements. Particle assemblies with four different bedding angles are tested. Evolution of the microstructure inside and outside the shear band and effect of bedding angle on the microstructure are investigated. Influence of bedding angle on fabric and force anisotropy is studied. It is found that by using non-circular particles, generation of large voids and excess particle rotations inside the shear band are reproduced in a quite similar manner to those of the natural granular soils, which are difficult to produce with standard DEM simulations using circular particles. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The effect of gas-liquid counter-current operation on gas hold-up in bubble columns using electrical resistance tomography,

    Haibo Jin
    Abstract BACKGROUND: In order to improve the performance of a counter-current bubble column, radial variations of the gas hold-ups and mean hold-ups were investigated in a 0.160 m i.d. bubble column using electrical resistance tomography with two axial locations (Plane 1 and Plane 2). In all experiments the liquid phase was tap water and the gas phase air. The superficial gas velocity was varied from 0.02 to 0.25 m s,1, and the liquid velocity varied from 0 to 0.01 m s,1. The effect of liquid velocity on the distribution of mean hold-ups and radial gas hold-ups is discussed. RESULTS: The gas hold-up profile in a gas,liquid counter-current bubble column was determined by electrical resistance tomography. The liquid velocity slightly influences the mean hold-up and radial hold-up distribution under the selected operating conditions and the liquid flow improves the transition gas velocity from a homogeneous regime to a heterogeneous regime. Meanwhile, the radial gas hold-up profiles are steeper at the central region of the column with increasing gas velocity. Moreover, the gas hold-up in the centre of the column becomes steeper with increasing liquid velocity. CONCLUSIONS: The value of mean gas hold-ups slightly increases with increasing downward liquid velocity, and more than mean gas hold-ups in batch and co-current operation. According to the experimental results, an empirical correlation for the centreline gas hold-up is obtained based on the effects of gas velocity, liquid velocity, and ratio of axial height to column diameter. The values calculated in this way are in close agreement with experimental data, and compare with literature data on gas hold-ups at the centre of the column. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Crystal Morphology of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized by the Spin-Coating Method Using PEO,PPO,PEO Triblock Copolymer

    Gyeong-Su Park
    Mesoporous thin films on Si substrates with thicknesses of about 460,610 nm have been synthesized by the spin-coating method using a Pluronic EO77PO29EO77 (F68), EO104PO39EO104 (F88), and EO133PO50EO133 (F108) triblock copolymer system. The triblock copolymers were preserved within the synthesized mesoporous thin films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of these films clearly demonstrates that long-range mesostructural ordering strongly depends on the molecular weight of the poly(ethylene oxide),poly(propylene oxide),poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO,PPO,PEO) triblock copolymer, with lower molecular weight producing higher degrees of order. Plane and cross-sectional high-resolution TEM studies coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also show that highly ordered F68 mesoporous silica thin film forms a cubic structure with a lattice spacing a= 6.70 nm. [source]

    Cosmology and cluster halo scaling relations

    Pablo A. Araya-Melo
    ABSTRACT We explore the effects of dark matter and dark energy on the dynamical scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We investigate the cluster Faber,Jackson (FJ), Kormendy and Fundamental Plane (FP) relations between the mass, radius and velocity dispersion of cluster-sized haloes in cosmological N -body simulations. The simulations span a wide range of cosmological parameters, representing open, flat and closed Universes. Independently of the cosmology, we find that the simulated clusters are close to a perfect virial state and do indeed define an FP. The fitted parameters of the FJ, Kormendy and FP relationships do not show any significant dependence on ,m and/or ,,. One outstanding effect is the influence of ,m on the thickness of the FP. Following the time evolution of our models, we find slight changes of FJ and Kormendy parameters in high-,m universe, along with a slight decrease of FP fitting parameters. We also see an initial increase of the FP thickness followed by a convergence to a nearly constant value. The epoch of convergence is later for higher values of ,m, while the thickness remains constant in the low- ,m , models. We also find a continuous increase of the FP thickness in the standard cold dark matter cosmology. There is no evidence that these differences are due to the different power spectrum slopes at cluster scales. From the point of view of the FP, there is little difference between clusters that quietly accreted their mass and those that underwent massive mergers. The principal effect of strong mergers is to significantly change the ratio of the half-mass radius rhalf to the harmonic mean radius rh. [source]

    A systematic survey for infrared star clusters with |b| < 20° using 2MASS

    D. Froebrich
    ABSTRACT We used star density maps obtained from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) to obtain a sample of star clusters in the entire Galactic Plane with |b| < 20°. A total of 1788 star cluster candidates are identified in this survey. Among those are 681 previously known open clusters and 86 globular clusters. A statistical analysis indicates that our sample of 1021 new cluster candidates has a contamination of about 50 per cent. Star cluster parameters are obtained by fitting a King profile to the star density. These parameters are used to statistically identify probable new globular cluster candidates in our sample. A detailed investigation of the projected distribution of star clusters in the Galaxy demonstrates that they show a clear tendency to cluster on spatial scales in the order of 12,25 pc, a typical size for molecular clouds. [source]

    The SAURON project , IV.

    The mass-to-light ratio, lenticular galaxies, the Fundamental Plane of elliptical, the virial mass estimator
    ABSTRACT We investigate the well-known correlations between the dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and other global observables of elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies. We construct two-integral Jeans and three-integral Schwarzschild dynamical models for a sample of 25 E/S0 galaxies with SAURON integral-field stellar kinematics to about one effective (half-light) radius Re. They have well-calibrated I -band Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 and large-field ground-based photometry, accurate surface brightness fluctuation distances, and their observed kinematics is consistent with an axisymmetric intrinsic shape. All these factors result in an unprecedented accuracy in the M/L measurements. We find a tight correlation of the form (M/L) = (3.80 ± 0.14) × (,e/200 km s,1)0.84±0.07 between the M/L (in the I band) measured from the dynamical models and the luminosity-weighted second moment ,e of the LOSVD within Re. The observed rms scatter in M/L for our sample is 18 per cent, while the inferred intrinsic scatter is ,13 per cent. The (M/L),,e relation can be included in the remarkable series of tight correlations between ,e and other galaxy global observables. The comparison of the observed correlations with the predictions of the Fundamental Plane (FP), and with simple virial estimates, shows that the ,tilt' of the FP of early-type galaxies, describing the deviation of the FP from the virial relation, is almost exclusively due to a real M/L variation, while structural and orbital non-homology have a negligible effect. When the photometric parameters are determined in the ,classic' way, using growth curves, and the ,e is measured in a large aperture, the virial mass appears to be a reliable estimator of the mass in the central regions of galaxies, and can be safely used where more ,expensive' models are not feasible (e.g. in high-redshift studies). In this case the best-fitting virial relation has the form (M/L)vir= (5.0 ± 0.1) ×Re,2e/(LG), in reasonable agreement with simple theoretical predictions. We find no difference between the M/L of the galaxies in clusters and in the field. The comparison of the dynamical M/L with the (M/L)pop inferred from the analysis of the stellar population, indicates a median dark matter fraction in early-type galaxies of ,30 per cent of the total mass inside one Re, in broad agreement with previous studies, and it also shows that the stellar initial mass function varies little among different galaxies. Our results suggest a variation in M/L at constant (M/L)pop, which seems to be linked to the galaxy dynamics. We speculate that fast-rotating galaxies have lower dark matter fractions than the slow-rotating and generally more-massive ones. If correct, this would suggest a connection between the galaxy assembly history and the dark matter halo structure. The tightness of our correlation provides some evidence against cuspy nuclear dark matter profiles in galaxies. [source]

    Mergers between elliptical galaxies and the thickening of the Fundamental Plane

    A. C. González-García
    ABSTRACT We have carried out computer simulations to study the effect of merging on the Fundamental Plane (FP) relation. Initially, systems are spherical Jaffe models following a simple scaling relation (M/R2e= constant). They have been put on the FP by imposing different M/L values. Various orbital characteristics have been considered. Our results show that the merger remnants lie very close to the FP of the progenitors. Although non-homology is introduced by the merging process, mergers among homologous galaxies leave a pre-existing FP-relation intact. As a side result we find that variations in the point of view lead to non-negligible scatter about the FP. [source]

    The internal structure of the lens PG1115+080: breaking degeneracies in the value of the Hubble constant

    T. Treu
    ABSTRACT We combine lensing, stellar kinematic and mass-to-light ratio constraints to build a two-component (luminous plus dark) mass model of the early-type lens galaxy in PG1115+080. We find a total mass density profile steeper than r,2, effectively ,,r,,, with ,,= 2.35 ± 0.1 ± 0.05 (random + systematic). The stellar mass fraction is f*= 0.67+0.20,0.25± 0.03 inside the Einstein radius (RE, 1.2 effective radii). The dynamical mass model breaks the degeneracies in the mass profile of the lens galaxy and allows us to obtain a value of the Hubble constant that is no longer dominated by systematic errors: H0= 59+12,7± 3 km s,1 Mpc,1 (68 per cent confidence level; ,m= 0.3, ,,= 0.7). The offset of PG1115+080 from the Fundamental Plane might indicate deviations from homology of the mass profile of some early-type galaxies. [source]

    The Electrostatic Force Between a Partially Charged Dielectric Particle and a Conducting Plane

    Tatsushi Matsuyama
    Abstract Using the reexpansion technique, the interaction between a conducting plane and a partially charged dielectric particle is studied for an axisymmetric case including the effects of the higher order polarization. The partial charge on a particle surface is seen to redistribute, apparently due to the polarization which occurs even though the particle is an insulator. The redistribution depends on the dielectric constant and on the gap between the particle and the conducting plane. In some instances, the charge redistributes on to the back side of the particle against the conducting plane, and as a result, the electrostatic interaction decreases simply by an increase of the dielectric constant. This is seen to be especially obvious in the case of a small initially charged area or patch that is positioned against a conducting plane, and when the particle is located in a gap of a certain size. The electrostatic interaction decreases with an increase of the dielectric constant within a certain range, even when the particle is in contact with the conducting plane, e.g., in the case of a small initially charged area. Because this range of the dielectric constant is equivalent to that of a normal polymer, these effects could result in a large error in the estimation of the electrostatic interactions in the case of the normal approximation of the contact electrification of a particle. [source]

    Solar UV Geometric Conversion Factors: Horizontal Plane to Cylinder Model,

    Stanley J. Pope
    Most solar UV measurements are relative to the horizontal plane. However, problems arise when one uses those UV measurements to perform risk or benefit assessments because they do not yield the actual doses people get while they are outdoors. To better estimate the UV doses people actually get while outdoors, scientists need geometric conversion factors (GCF) that change horizontal plane irradiances to average irradiances on the human body. Here we describe a simple geometric method that changes unweighted, erythemally weighted and previtamin D3 -weighted UV irradiances on the horizontal plane to full cylinder and semicylinder irradiances. Scientists can use the full cylinder model to represent the complete human body, while they can use the semicylinder model to represent the face, shoulders, tops of hands and feet. We present daily, monthly and seasonally calculated averages of the GCF for these cylinder models every 5° from 20 to 70°N so that scientists can now get realistic UV doses for people who are outdoors doing a variety of different activities. The GCF show that people actually get less than half their annual erythemally weighted, and consequently half their previtamin D3 -weighted, UV doses relative to the horizontal plane. Thus, scientists can now perform realistic UV risk and benefit assessments. [source]

    EDITORIAL: Flying Without a Plane: Accomplishments of The Journal of Sexual Medicine on Its Third Birthday

    Irwin Goldstein MD Editor-in-Chief

    Metathesis Reaction of Hydrocarbyl Ligands across the Triruthenium Plane,

    ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, Issue 34 2010
    Atsushi Tahara
    C3wechselt die Seite: Die Thermolyse eines Trirutheniumkomplexes mit einem ,3 -Pentylidin- und einem ,3 -Pentin-Liganden zu beiden Seiten der von den Metallatomen gebildeten Ebene führt ausschließlich zu einem ,3 -Ethylidin-,3 -octin-Komplex. Bei dieser Reaktion wandert ein C3 -Fragment von einer Seite der Ru3 -Ebene auf die andere, was in einer Umverteilung von zwei C5 - in ein C2 - und ein C8 -Molekül resultiert. [source]

    The evolution of cluster early-type galaxies over the past 8 Gyr

    A. Fritz
    Abstract We present the Fundamental Plane (FP) of early-type galaxies in the clusters of galaxies RXJ1415.1+3612 at z = 1.013. This is the first detailed FP investigation of cluster early-type galaxies at redshift z = 1. The distant cluster galaxies follow a steeper FP relation compared to the local FP. The change in the slope of the FP can be interpreted as a massdependent evolution. To analyse in more detail the galaxy population in high redshift galaxy clusters at 0.8 < z < 1, we combine our sample with a previous detailed spectroscopic study of 38 early-type galaxies in two distant galaxy clusters, RXJ0152.7,1357 at z = 0.83 and RXJ1226.9+3332 at z = 0.89. For all clusters Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy with high signal-to-noise and intermediate-resolution has been acquired to measure the internal kinematics and stellar populations of the galaxies. From HST/ACS imaging, surface brightness profiles, morphologies and structural parameters were derived for the galaxy sample. The least massive galaxies (M = 2 x 1010 M,) in our sample have experienced their most recent major star formation burst at zform , 1.1. For massive galaxies (M > 2 x 1011 M,) the bulk of their stellar populations have been formed earlier zform , 1.6. Our results confirm previous findings by Jørgensen et al. This suggests that the less massive galaxies in the distant clusters have much younger stellar populations than their more massive counterparts. One explanation is that low-mass cluster galaxies have experienced more extended star formation histories with more frequent bursts of star formation with shorter duration compared to the formation history of high-mass cluster galaxies (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    The evolution of spheroidal galaxies in different environments

    A. Fritz
    Abstract We analyse the kinematic and chemical evolution of 203 distant spheroidal (elliptical and S0) galaxies at 0.2 < z < 0.8 which are located in different environments (rich clusters, low-mass clusters and in the field). VLT/FORS and CAHA/MOSCA spectra with intermediate-resolution have been acquired to measure the internal kinematics and stellar populations of the galaxies. From HST/ACS and WFPC2 imaging, surface brightness profiles and structural parameters were derived for half of the galaxy sample. The scaling relations of the Faber-Jackson relation and Kormendy relation as well as the Fundamental Plane indicate a moderate evolution for the whole galaxy population in each density regime. In all environments, S0 galaxies show a faster evolution than elliptical galaxies. For the cluster galaxies a slight radial dependence of the evolution out to one virial radius is found. Dividing the samples with respect to their mass, a mass dependent evolution with a stronger evolution of lower-mass galaxies (M < 2 × 1011 M,) is detected. Evidence for recent star formation is provided by blue colours and weak [OII] emission or strong H, absorption features in the spectra. The results are consistent with a down-sizing formation scenario which is independent from the environment of the galaxies (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    The role of intersphincteric resection and the ,Anterior Perineal Plane for ultra-low Anterior Resection' for rectal cancer

    COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 7 2008
    H. S. Tilney
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Letter: Embryologic Fusion Planes: A Plea for More Precise Analysis

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Catalyst-Free Efficient Growth, Orientation and Biosensing Properties of Multilayer Graphene Nanoflake Films with Sharp Edge Planes,

    Nai Gui Shang
    Abstract We report a novel microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition strategy for the efficient synthesis of multilayer graphene nanoflake films (MGNFs) on Si substrates. The constituent graphene nanoflakes have a highly graphitized knife-edge structure with a 2,3,nm thick sharp edge and show a preferred vertical orientation with respect to the Si substrate as established by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The growth rate is approximately 1.6,µm min,1, which is 10 times faster than the previously reported best value. The MGNFs are shown to demonstrate fast electron-transfer (ET) kinetics for the Fe(CN)63,/4, redox system and excellent electrocatalytic activity for simultaneously determining dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Their biosensing DA performance in the presence of common interfering agents AA and UA is superior to other bare solid-state electrodes and is comparable only to that of edge plane pyrolytic graphite. Our work here, establishes that the abundance of graphitic edge planes/defects are essentially responsible for the fast ET kinetics, active electrocatalytic and biosensing properties. This novel edge-plane-based electrochemical platform with the high surface area and electrocatalytic activity offers great promise for creating a revolutionary new class of nanostructured electrodes for biosensing, biofuel cells and energy-conversion applications. [source]

    AFRICA: UN Relief Planes Need Cash

    Article first published online: 27 AUG 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Milk Teeth and Jet Planes: Kin Relations in Families of Sri Lanka's Transnational Domestic Servants

    CITY & SOCIETY, Issue 1 2008
    Abstract This essay examines the confluence of local and global dynamics, exploring how transnational migration affects and is affected by gender roles, kinship relations, intergenerational obligations, and ideologies of parenthood. Journeying to the Middle East repeated on two-year labor contracts, many of Sri Lanka's migrant housemaids leave behind their husbands and children. Women's long-term absences reorganize and disrupt widely accepted gendered attributions of parenting roles, with fathers and female relatives taking over household tasks. Migrants say that economic difficulties prompt migration, and assess commitment to kin in financial terms. The government also benefits from remittances. Nevertheless, stakeholders (villagers, politicians, and the national media) worry about the social costs born by children. Drawing on interviews with the adult children of migrant mothers in four extended families in the Sri Lankan coastal village of Naeaegama, I examine the long-term effects of transnational labor migration on local households. The case studies do not support media claims that children suffer abuse and neglect in their mothers' absence, but do in part support survey information on reduced education, shifting marriage patterns, and paternal alcohol consumption. [source]

    Interactive shadowing for 2D Anime

    Eiji Sugisaki
    Abstract In this paper, we propose an instant shadow generation technique for 2D animation, especially Japanese Anime. In traditional 2D Anime production, the entire animation including shadows is drawn by hand so that it takes long time to complete. Shadows play an important role in the creation of symbolic visual effects. However shadows are not always drawn due to time constraints and lack of animators especially when the production schedule is tight. To solve this problem, we develop an easy shadowing approach that enables animators to easily create a layer of shadow and its animation based on the character's shapes. Our approach is both instant and intuitive. The only inputs required are character or object shapes in input animation sequence with alpha value generally used in the Anime production pipeline. First, shadows are automatically rendered on a virtual plane by using a Shadow Map1 based on these inputs. Then the rendered shadows can be edited by simple operations and simplified by the Gaussian Filter. Several special effects such as blurring can be applied to the rendered shadow at the same time. Compared to existing approaches, ours is more efficient and effective to handle automatic shadowing in real-time. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Barycentric Coordinates on Surfaces

    Raif M. Rustamov
    This paper introduces a method for defining and efficiently computing barycentric coordinates with respect to polygons on general surfaces. Our construction is geared towards injective polygons (polygons that can be enclosed in a metric ball of an appropriate size) and is based on replacing the linear precision property of planar coordinates by a requirement in terms of center of mass, and generalizing this requirement to the surface setting. We show that the resulting surface barycentric coordinates can be computed using planar barycentric coordinates with respect to a polygon in the tangent plane. We prove theoretically that the surface coordinates properly generalize the planar coordinates and carry some of their useful properties such as unique reconstruction of a point given its coordinates, uniqueness for triangles, edge linearity, similarity invariance, and smoothness; in addition, these coordinates are insensitive to isometric deformations and can be used to reconstruct isometries. We show empirically that surface coordinates are shape-aware with consistent gross behavior across different surfaces, are well-behaved for different polygon types/locations on variety of surface forms, and that they are fast to compute. Finally, we demonstrate effectiveness of surface coordinates for interpolation, decal mapping, and correspondence refinement. [source]

    Exact and Robust (Self-)Intersections for Polygonal Meshes

    Marcel Campen
    Abstract We present a new technique to implement operators that modify the topology of polygonal meshes at intersections and self-intersections. Depending on the modification strategy, this effectively results in operators for Boolean combinations or for the construction of outer hulls that are suited for mesh repair tasks and accurate mesh-based front tracking of deformable materials that split and merge. By combining an adaptive octree with nested binary space partitions (BSP), we can guarantee exactness (= correctness) and robustness (= completeness) of the algorithm while still achieving higher performance and less memory consumption than previous approaches. The efficiency and scalability in terms of runtime and memory is obtained by an operation localization scheme. We restrict the essential computations to those cells in the adaptive octree where intersections actually occur. Within those critical cells, we convert the input geometry into a plane-based BSP-representation which allows us to perform all computations exactly even with fixed precision arithmetics. We carefully analyze the precision requirements of the involved geometric data and predicates in order to guarantee correctness and show how minimal input mesh quantization can be used to safely rely on computations with standard floating point numbers. We properly evaluate our method with respect to precision, robustness, and efficiency. [source]

    A Local/Global Approach to Mesh Parameterization

    Ligang Liu
    Abstract We present a novel approach to parameterize a mesh with disk topology to the plane in a shape-preserving manner. Our key contribution is a local/global algorithm, which combines a local mapping of each 3D triangle to the plane, using transformations taken from a restricted set, with a global "stitch" operation of all triangles, involving a sparse linear system. The local transformations can be taken from a variety of families, e.g. similarities or rotations, generating different types of parameterizations. In the first case, the parameterization tries to force each 2D triangle to be an as-similar-as-possible version of its 3D counterpart. This is shown to yield results identical to those of the LSCM algorithm. In the second case, the parameterization tries to force each 2D triangle to be an as-rigid-as-possible version of its 3D counterpart. This approach preserves shape as much as possible. It is simple, effective, and fast, due to pre-factoring of the linear system involved in the global phase. Experimental results show that our approach provides almost isometric parameterizations and obtains more shape-preserving results than other state-of-the-art approaches. We present also a more general "hybrid" parameterization model which provides a continuous spectrum of possibilities, controlled by a single parameter. The two cases described above lie at the two ends of the spectrum. We generalize our local/global algorithm to compute these parameterizations. The local phase may also be accelerated by parallelizing the independent computations per triangle. [source]

    Free-form sketching with variational implicit surfaces

    Olga Karpenko
    With the advent of sketch-based methods for shape construction, there's a new degree of power available in the rapid creation of approximate shapes. Sketch [Zeleznik, 1996] showed how a gesture-based modeler could be used to simplify conventional CSG-like shape creation. Teddy [Igarashi, 1999] extended this to more free-form models, getting much of its power from its "inflation" operation (which converted a simple closed curve in the plane into a 3D shape whose silhouette, from the current point of view, was that curve on the view plane) and from an elegant collection of gestures for attaching additional parts to a shape, cutting a shape, and deforming it. But despite the powerful collection of tools in Teddy, the underlying polygonal representation of shapes intrudes on the results in many places. In this paper, we discuss our preliminary efforts at using variational implicit surfaces [Turk, 2000] as a representation in a free-form modeler. We also discuss the implementation of several operations within this context, and a collection of user-interaction elements that work well together to make modeling interesting hierarchies simple. These include "stroke inflation" via implicit functions, blob-merging, automatic hierarchy construction, and local surface modification via silhouette oversketching. We demonstrate our results by creating several models. Categories and Subject Descriptors (according to ACM CCS): I.3.5 [Computer Graphics]: Modeling packages I.3.6 [Computer Graphics]: Interaction techniques [source]

    Drawing for Illustration and Annotation in 3D

    David Bourguignon
    We present a system for sketching in 3D, which strives to preserve the degree of expression, imagination, and simplicity of use achieved by 2D drawing. Our system directly uses user-drawn strokes to infer the sketches representing the same scene from different viewpoints, rather than attempting to reconstruct a 3D model. This is achieved by interpreting strokes as indications of a local surface silhouette or contour. Strokes thus deform and disappear progressively as we move away from the original viewpoint. They may be occluded by objects indicated by other strokes, or, in contrast, be drawn above such objects. The user draws on a plane which can be positioned explicitly or relative to other objects or strokes in the sketch. Our system is interactive, since we use fast algorithms and graphics hardware for rendering. We present applications to education, design, architecture and fashion, where 3D sketches can be used alone or as an annotation of an existing 3D model. [source]

    Cross-correlated and conventional dipolar carbon-13 relaxation in methylene groups in small, symmetric molecules

    Leila Ghalebani
    Abstract A theory for dipolar cross-correlated relaxation processes in AMX or AX2 spin system, with special reference to 13C-methylene groups, is reviewed briefly. Simple experiments and protocols for measuring the transfer rates between the carbon-13 Zeeman order and the three-spin order, and for their analogues in the transverse plane, are discussed using a concentrated solution of the disaccharide trehalose as a model system. Experimental data sets consisting of conventional carbon-13 relaxation parameters (T1, T2, and NOE), along with the cross-correlated relaxation rates, are also presented for some small, rigid, polycyclic molecules. These data are interpreted using spectral density functions appropriate to spherical or symmetric tops reorienting according to small-step rotational diffusion model. The analysis results in a consistent picture of the auto- and cross-correlated spin relaxation processes. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Concepts Magn Reson Part A 30A: 100,115, 2007. [source]

    Film: State of Cinema Address: 49th San Francisco International Film Festival, 29 April 2006

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 3 2006
    Letter to a boy from his mother Boy, my darling, You asked me the other day, just as you were dropping off, what people's dreams were like before the cinema was invented. You who talk blabberish and chase rabbits in your sleep, hurrumphing like a dog . . . you who never watch television . . . I've been thinking of your question ever since. I have to talk to some people in America about cinema. I'm going there now on the plane and I can't think of anything but your question... [source]

    Interaction between a dislocation and monovalent anion in various alkali halide crystals

    Y. KohzukiArticle first published online: 30 AUG 2010
    Abstract It was investigated from (L0/L)2 versus ,0 curve that the Friedel relation between the effective stress and the average length of dislocation segments, L, is appropriate for the interaction between a dislocation and the monovalent anion in various alkali halides single crystals (NaCl: Br - , NaBr: Cl - or I - , KCl: Br - or I - , and RbCl: Br - or I - ). Here, L0 represents the average spacing of monovalent anions on a slip plane and ,0 is the bending angle at which the dislocation breaks away from the anion at the temperature of 0 K. This is because the anions are the weak obstacles such as impede the dislocation at ,0 above about 150 degrees, where the Friedel relation agrees with the Fleischer one (L02 = L2(,,,0)/2). Furthermore, the values of (L /L0) were found to be within 4.05 to 5.87 for the crystals. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Interdiffusion phenomena in InGaAs/GaAs superlattice structures

    B. Sar, kavak
    Abstract We have studied structural properties of InGaAs/GaAs superlattice sample prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) using high resolution X-ray diffractometer (HRXRD). Increasing strain relaxation and defect generations are observed with the increasing Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) temperature up to 775 °C. The higher temperatures bring out relaxation mechanisms; interdiffusion and favored migration. The defect structure and the defects which are observed with the increasing annealing temperature were analyzed. Firstly, the in-plane and out-of-plane strains after the annealing of sample were found. Secondly, the structural defect properties such as the parallel X-ray strain, perpendicular X-ray strain, misfit, degree of relaxation, x composition, tilt angles and dislocation that are obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were carried out at every temperature. As a result, we observed that the asymmetric peaks especially in asymmetric (224) plane was affected more than symmetric and asymmetric planes with lower polar or inclination angles due to c-direction at low temperature. These structural properties exhibit different unfavorable behaviors for every reflection direction at the increasing temperatures. The reason is the relaxation which is caused by spatially inhomogeneous strain distribution with the increasing annealing temperature. In the InGaAs superlattice samples, this process enhances preferential migration of In atoms along the growth direction. Further increase in the annealing temperature leads to the deterioration of the abrupt interfaces in the superlattice and degradation in its structural properties. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Nanocrystalline transparent SnO2 -ZnO films fabricated at lower substrate temperature using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    K. Ravichandran
    Abstract Nanocrystalline and transparent conducting SnO2 - ZnO films were fabricated by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at relatively low substrate temperature (360±5 °C) compared with conventional spray method. The structural studies reveal that the SnO2 -ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (101) plane. The dislocation density is very low (1.48×1015lines/m2), indicating the good crystallinity of the films. The crystallite size of the films was found to be in the range of 26,34 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap are 85% and 3.6 eV respectively. The sheet resistance increases from 8.74 k,/, to 32.4 k,/, as the zinc concentration increases from 0 to 40 at.%. The films were found to have desirable figure of merit (1.63×10,2 (,/,),1), low temperature coefficient of resistance (,1.191/K) and good thermal stability. This simplified spray technique may be considered as a promising alternative to conventional spray for the massive production of economic SnO2 - ZnO films for solar cells, sensors and opto-electronic applications. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]