Planar Cell Polarity (planar + cell_polarity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Planar Cell Polarity

  • planar cell polarity pathway

  • Selected Abstracts

    Multiple mechanisms mediate motor neuron migration in the zebrafish hindbrain

    Stephanie M. Bingham
    Abstract The transmembrane protein Van gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) is a component of the noncanonical Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling pathway, and is required for tangential migration of facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) from rhombomere 4 (r4) to r5-r7 in the vertebrate hindbrain. Since vangl2 is expressed throughout the zebrafish hindbrain, it might also regulate motor neuron migration in other rhombomeres. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether migration of motor neurons out of r2 following ectopic hoxb1b expression was affected in vangl2, (trilobite) mutants. Hoxb1b specifies r4 identity, and when ectopically expressed transforms r2 to an "r4-like" compartment. Using time-lapse imaging, we show that GFP-expressing motor neurons in the r2/r3 region of a hoxb1b -overexpressing wild-type embryo migrate along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Furthermore, these cells express prickle1b (pk1b), a Wnt/PCP gene that is specifically expressed in FBMNs and is essential for their migration. Importantly, GFP-expressing motor neurons in the r2/r3 region of hoxb1b -overexpressing trilobite mutants and pk1b morphants often migrate, even though FBMNs in r4 of the same embryos fail to migrate longitudinally (tangentially) into r6 and r7. These observations suggest that tangentially migrating motor neurons in the anterior hindbrain (r1-r3) can use mechanisms that are independent of vangl2 and pk1b functions. Interestingly, analysis of tri; val double mutants also suggests a role for vangl2 -independent factors in neuronal migration, since the valentino mutation partially suppresses the trilobite mutant migration defect. Together, the hoxb1b and val experiments suggest that multiple mechanisms regulate motor neuron migration along the AP axis of the zebrafish hindbrain. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2010 [source]

    Nucleoredoxin regulates the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway in Xenopus

    GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2008
    Yosuke Funato
    The Wnt signaling pathway is conserved across species, and is essential for early development. We previously identified nucleoredoxin (NRX) as a protein that interacts with dishevelled (Dvl) in vivo to negatively regulate the Wnt/,-catenin pathway. However, whether NRX affects another branch of the Wnt pathway, the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, remains unclear. Here we show that NRX regulates the Wnt/PCP pathway. In Xenopus laevis, over-expression or depletion of NRX by injection of NRX mRNA or antisense morpholino oligonucleotide, respectively, yields the bent-axis phenotype that is typically observed in embryos with abnormal PCP pathway activity. In co-injection experiments of Dvl and NRX mRNA, NRX suppresses the Dvl-induced bent-axis phenotype. Over-expression or depletion of NRX also suppresses the convergent extension movements that are believed to underlie normal gastrulation. We also found that NRX can inhibit Dvl-induced up-regulation of c-Jun phosphorylation. These results indicate that NRX plays crucial roles in the Wnt/PCP pathway through Dvl and regulates Xenopus gastrulation movements. [source]

    Planar cell polarity effector gene Fuzzy regulates cilia formation and Hedgehog signal transduction in mouse

    Westley Heydeck
    Abstract Precise planar cell polarity (PCP) is critical for the development of multiple organ systems in animals. A group of core-PCP proteins are recognized to play crucial roles in convergent extension and other PCP-related processes in mammals. However, the functions of another group of PCP-regulating proteins, the PCP-effector proteins, are yet to be fully studied. In this study, the generation and characterization of a mouse mutant for the PCP effector gene Fuzzy (Fuz) is reported. Fuz homozygous mutants are embryonically lethal, with multiple defects including neural tube defects, abnormal dorsal/ventral patterning of the spinal cord, and defective anterior/posterior patterning of the limb buds. Fuz mutants also exhibit abnormal Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and inefficient proteolytic processing of Gli3. Finally, a significant decrease in cilia was found in Fuz homozygous mutants. In conclusion, Fuz plays an important role in cilia formation, Hh signal transduction, and embryonic development in mammals. Developmental Dynamics 238:3035,3042, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Blocking Dishevelled signaling in the noncanonical Wnt pathway in sea urchins disrupts endoderm formation and spiculogenesis, but not secondary mesoderm formation

    Christine A. Byrum
    Abstract Dishevelled (Dsh) is a phosphoprotein key to beta-catenin dependent (canonical) and beta-catenin independent (noncanonical) Wnt signaling. Whereas canonical Wnt signaling has been intensively studied in sea urchin development, little is known about other Wnt pathways. To examine roles of these beta-catenin independent pathways in embryogenesis, we used Dsh-DEP, a deletion construct blocking planar cell polarity (PCP) and Wnt/Ca2+ signaling. Embryos overexpressing Dsh-DEP failed to gastrulate or undergo skeletogenesis, but produced pigment cells. Although early mesodermal gene expression was largely unperturbed, embryos exhibited reduced expression of genes regulating endoderm specification and differentiation. Overexpressing activated beta-catenin failed to rescue Dsh-DEP embryos, indicating that Dsh-DEP blocks endoderm formation downstream of initial canonical Wnt signaling. Because Dsh-DEP-like constructs block PCP signaling in other metazoans, and disrupting RhoA or Fz 5/8 in echinoids blocks subsets of the Dsh-DEP phenotypes, our data suggest that noncanonical Wnt signaling is crucial for sea urchin endoderm formation and skeletogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 238:1649,1665, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Temporal and spatial expression profiles of the Fat3 protein, a giant cadherin molecule, during mouse development

    Shigenori Nagae
    Abstract Cadherins constitute a superfamily of cell,cell interaction molecules that participate in morphogenetic processes of animal development. Fat cadherins are the largest members of this superfamily, with 34 extracellular cadherin repeats. Classic Fat, identified in Drosophila, is known to regulate cell proliferation and planar cell polarity. Although 4 subtypes of Fat cadherin, Fat1, Fat2, Fat3, and Fat4/Fat-J, have been identified in vertebrates, their protein localization remains largely unknown. Here we describe the mRNA and protein distributions of Fat3 during mouse development. We found that Fat3 expression was restricted to the nervous system. In the brain, Fat3 was expressed in a variety of regions and axon fascicles. However, its strongest expression was observed in the olfactory bulb and retina. Detailed analysis of Fat3 in the developing olfactory bulb revealed that Fat3 mRNA was mainly expressed by mitral cells and that its proteins were densely localized along the dendrites of these cells as well as in their axons to some extent. Fat3 transcripts in the retina were expressed by amacrine and ganglion cells, and its proteins were concentrated in the inner plexiform layer throughout development. Based on these observations, we suggest that Fat3 plays a role in the interactions between neurites derived from specific subsets of neurons during development. Developmental Dynamics 236:534,543, 2007. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Wnt Pathway Regulation in Chronic Renal Allograft Damage

    C. Von Toerne
    The Wnt signaling pathway, linked to development, has been proposed to be recapitulated during the progressive damage associated with chronic organ failure. Chronic allograft damage following kidney transplantation is characterized by progressive fibrosis and a smoldering inflammatory infiltrate. A modified, Fischer 344 (RT1lvl) to Lewis (RT1l) rat renal allograft model that reiterates many of the major pathophysiologic processes seen in patients with chronic allograft failure was used to study the progressive disease phenotype and specific gene product expression by immunohistochemistry and transcriptomic profiling. Central components of the Tgfb, canonical Wnt and Wnt-Ca2+ signaling pathways were significantly altered with the development of chronic damage. In the canonical Wnt pathway, Wnt3, Lef1 and Tcf1 showed differential regulation. Target genes Fn1, Cd44, Mmp7 and Nos2 were upregulated and associated with the progression of renal damage. Changes in the Wnt-Ca2+ pathway were evidenced by increased expression of Wnt6, Wnt7a, protein kinase C, Cam Kinase II and Nfat transcription factors and the target gene vimentin. No evidence for alterations in the Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway was detected. Overall results suggest cross talk between the Wnt and Tgfb signaling pathways during allograft inflammatory damage and present potential targets for therapeutic intervention. [source]

    Cystic kidney diseases and planar cell polarity signaling

    CLINICAL GENETICS, Issue 2 2009
    RL Bacallao
    Renal cystic diseases are a major clinical concern as they are the most common genetic cause of end-stage renal disease. While many of the genes causing cystic disease have been identified in recent years, knowing the molecular nature of the mutations has not clarified the mechanisms underlying cyst formation. Recent research in model organisms has suggested that cyst formation may be because of defective planar cell polarity (PCP) and/or ciliary defects. In this review, we first outline the clinical features of renal cystic diseases and then discuss current research linking our understanding of cystic kidney disease to PCP and cilia. [source]